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Encyclopedia > Carolingian renaissance
Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance.
Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance.

The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late 8th and 9th century, with the peak of the activities occurring during to the reigns of the Carolingian rulers Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. During this period there was an increase of literature, the arts, architecture, jurisprudence, liturgical and scriptural studies. The period also saw the development of Medieval Latin and Carolingian minuscule, providing a common language and writing style that allowed for communication across most of Europe. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1397x1829, 185 KB)Page of text (folio 160v) from a Carolingian Gospel Book (British Library, MS Add. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1397x1829, 185 KB)Page of text (folio 160v) from a Carolingian Gospel Book (British Library, MS Add. ... Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Carolingians (also known as the Carlovingians) were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdoms from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ... Louis the Pious doing penance at Attigny in 822. ... Literature is literally acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has generally come to identify a collection of texts, which in Western culture are mainly prose, both fiction and non-fiction... Winged Victory of Samothrace exihibited in the Louvre. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Table of architecture, Cyclopaedia, 1728 The following article focuses on built environment, the architecture of spaces designed for human habitation. ... Jurisprudence is the scientific study of law through a philosophical lens. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Medieval Latin refers to the Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church. ... Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ...


The use of the term renaissance to describe this period is disputed due to the majority changes brought about by this period being confined almost entirely to the clergy, and due to the period lacking the wide ranging social movements of the later Italian Renaissance.[1] Instead of being a rebirth of new cultural movements, the period was typified more as an attempt to recreate the previous culture of the Roman Empire.[2] Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe from the end of the 14th century to about 1600. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Contents


Scholarly efforts

See also: Carolingian minuscule, Medieval Latin

The lack of literate persons in 8th century western Europe caused problems for the Carolingian rulers by severely limiting the number of people capable of serving as court scribes. Of even greater concern to the very pious rulers was the fact that not all parish priests possessed the skill to read the Vulgate Bible. An additional problem was that the vulgar Latin of the later Western Roman Empire had begun to diverge into the regional dialects, the precursors to today's Romance languages, that were becoming mutually unintelligible and preventing scholars from one part of Europe being able to communicate with persons from another part of Europe. Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ... Medieval Latin refers to the Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century translation of the Bible into Latin made by St. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political engraving at Pompeii, was the language of the ordinary people of the Roman Empire, distinct from the Classical Latin of literature. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286 AD. It would exist intermittently in several periods between the 3rd Century and the 5th Century, after Diocletians Tetrarchy and the reunifications associated with Constantine the... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages or New Latin languages, are a subset of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Latin dialects spoken by the common people in what is known as Latin Europe (Italian/Portuguese/Spanish Europa latina, Catalan Europa llatina, French Europe latine, Romanian Europa...

Alcuin (pictured center) was one of the leading scholars of the Carolingian Renaissance.
Enlarge
Alcuin (pictured center) was one of the leading scholars of the Carolingian Renaissance.

To address these problems, Charlemagne ordered the creation of schools and he also attracted many of the leading scholars of his day to his court. Among the learned men drawn to the court were Theodulf from Spain, the Frankish scholar Angilbert, and the Lombards Peter of Pisa and Paulinus of Aquileia. Chief among the scholars drawn to Charlemagne was Alcuin of York, a Northumbrian monk who served as head of the Palace School at Aachen.[1] The later courts of Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald had similar groups of scholars. ImageMetadata File history File links Raban-Maur_Alcuin_Otgar. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Raban-Maur_Alcuin_Otgar. ... Rabanus Maurus (left), supported by Alcuin (middle), presents his work to Otgar of Mainz Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus or Ealhwine (c. ... Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans, France, (born about A.D. 760 - died at Angers, France, December 18, 821), a Visigoth either from a still-Christian portion of Spain (which had been conquered by Muslims after 710) or the South of France (which was a former possession of the Visigoths), came... Angilbert, (died February 18, 814), was a Frank who served Charlemagne as a diplomat, abbot, and semi_son_in_law. ... Flaccus Albinus Alcuin (about 735 - May 19, 804) was a monk from York, England. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles, Danes and Norwegians which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the much smaller earldom... Aachen Cathedral Printen Figurine at Aachen Cathedral Top Floor of Aachen Cathedral Tree-lined boulevard in Aachen Typical Aachen street with early 20th century Gründerzeit houses Aachen (French Aix-la-Chapelle, Dutch Aken, Latin Aquisgranum, Ripuarian Oche) is a spa city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border...


One of the primary efforts was the creation of a standardized curriculum for use at the recently created schools. Alcuin lead this effort and was responsible for the writing of textbooks, creation of word lists, and establishing the trivium and quadrivium as the basis for education.[3] In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects taught first, before the quadrivium. ... The quadrivium comprised the four subjects taught in medieval universities after the trivium. ...


Other contributions from this period was the development of Carolingian minuscule, a "book-hand" first used at the monasteries of Corbie and Tours that introduced the use of lower case letters. A standardized version of Latin was also developed that allowed for the coining of new words while retaining the grammatical rules of Classical Latin. This Medieval Latin became the common language of scholarship and allowed administrators and travelers to make themselves understood across Europe.[4] Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ... Corbie is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... Location within France Tours Cathedral: 15th century Flamboyante Gothic west front with Renaissance pinnacles, 1547 Tours Cathedral. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Medieval Latin refers to the Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church. ...


Carolingian art

Aachen Gospels (c. 820), an example of Carolingian illumination.
Aachen Gospels (c. 820), an example of Carolingian illumination.
Main article: Carolingian art

Carolingian art is the roughly-100-year period from about 800-900. Although brief, it was an influential period—northern Europe embraced classical Mediterranean Roman art forms for the first time, setting the stage for the rise of Romanesque art and eventually Gothic art in the West. Illuminated manuscripts, metalwork, small-scale sculpture, mosaics and frescos survive from the period. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1571, 294 KB) Description: Title: de: Die vier Evangelisten en: Aachen Gospels Technique: de: Miniatur azf Pergament Dimensions: de: 21,7 × 30 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich und Deutschland Current location (city): de: Aachen Current location (gallery): de: Dom, Schatzkammer... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1571, 294 KB) Description: Title: de: Die vier Evangelisten en: Aachen Gospels Technique: de: Miniatur azf Pergament Dimensions: de: 21,7 × 30 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich und Deutschland Current location (city): de: Aachen Current location (gallery): de: Dom, Schatzkammer... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... Lorsch Gospels 778-820. ... Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional, man-made object selected for special recognition as art. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ...


Economic and legal reforms

Charlemagne was faced with a variety of currencies at the start of reign. To correct problems theses various currencies cause, he standardized on a system based on a pound of silver(Livre tournois). Deniers were minted with a value of 240 deniers to a pound of silver. A second value, the solidus, was also created as an accounting device with a value of twelve deniers or one twentieth of a pound of silver. The solidus was not minted but was instead used to record values such as a "solidus of grain" which was equal to the amount of grain that twelve deniers could purchase.[5] General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... A denier is a type of French coin created by Charlemagne. ...


References

  • Norman F. Cantor (1993). The Civilization of the Middle Ages: a completely revised and expanded edition of Medieval history, the life and death of a civilization, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-017033-6.
  • Mortimer Chambers; Raymond Grew, David Herlihy, Theodore K. Rabb, Isser Woloch (1983). The Western Experience: To 1715, 3rd edition, New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-33085-4.
  • Martin Scott (1964). Medieval Europe, New York: Dorset Press. ISBN 0-88029-115-X.

Collins was a Scottish printing company founded by a Presbyterian schoolmaster, William Collins, in Glasgow in 1819, in partnership with Charles Chalmers, the younger brother of Thomas Chalmers, minister of Tron Church, Glasgow. ... Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ...

Footnotes

  1. a b Scott pg 30
  2. Cantor pg 190
  3. Cantor pg 189
  4. Chambers pg 204-205
  5. Scott pg 40

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