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Encyclopedia > Carolingian Empire
Map of Carolingian Empire
Map of Carolingian Empire

The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5697x4050, 8025 KB) Source: Scaned by me from Ridpaths Universal History, Copyright 1895, Section XII, Page 512. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5697x4050, 8025 KB) Source: Scaned by me from Ridpaths Universal History, Copyright 1895, Section XII, Page 512. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... The Carolingians were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdom from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ...


When used, the term emphasizes on the coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor in 800 by Pope Leo III, although this did not actually constitute a new empire because both Charles as well as his ancestors had been rulers of the Frankish realm earlier. In fact, his grandfather Charles Martel had essentially founded the empire during his lifetime. Because of this, most historians prefer to use the term "Frankish Kingdoms" or "Frankish Realm" to refer to the area covering parts of today's Germany and France from the 5th to the 9th century. The "Carolingian Empire" ended with the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles III the Fat in 888, although some Carolingians managed to gain the Imperial crown in later times. A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ... The Merovingians Chlodio is considered as the first king who started the conquest of Gaul by taking Camaracum (today Cambrai) and expanding the border down to the Somme. ... For the 13th century titular King of Hungary, see Charles Martel dAnjou. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Romantic portrait of Charles. ...

Contents

Buildup and defense of the Frankish Realm

Though Charles Martel chose not to take the title King, as his son Pepin III would, or Emperor, as his grandson Charlemagne would be titled, he was absolute ruler of virtually all of today's western Europe north of the Pyrenees. Only the remaining Saxon realms, which he partly conquered, Lombardy, and the Marca Hispanica north of the Pyrenees were significant additions to the Frankish realms after his death. Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ...


Martel was also the founder of all the feudal systems that marked the Carolingian Empire, and Europe in general during the Middle Ages, though his son and grandson would gain credit for his innovations. What is more, Martel cemented his place in history with his ferocious defense of Christian Europe against a formidable Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in 732. The Iberian Saracens had incorporated Berber lighthorse cavalry with the heavy Arab cavalry to create an army considered by some to be undefeatable. At that point, at least, it was undefeated and was a favorite against a Christian Europe which lacked the powerful tool of the stirrup. In this victory there, Charles earned the surname "Martel" (the hammer) for his merciless battering of a heretofore undefeated foe. Edward Gibbon, the great historian of Rome and its aftermath, called Charles Martel "the paramount prince of his age." For a man who technically never took a royal title, that stands as the ultimate compliment to his accomplishments. Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abd-al-Raḥmān al-Ghāfiqī† Strength Unknown, possibly 20,000 to 30,000 [1] Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[2] mention a figure of 80,000. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ...


Pepin III accepted the nomination as king by Pope Zachary in about 751. Charlemagne's rule began in 768 at Pepin's death. He proceeded to take control over the kingdom of his brother, which was also inherited from Pepin, and was crowned Roman Emperor in the year 800. Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... Pope Zachary (in Greek : Zacharias), pope (741-752), from a Greek family of Calabria, appears to have been on intimate terms with Gregory III, whom he succeeded (November 741). ...


The Empire during the reign of Charlemagne (800 - 814)

The Carolingian Empire at the death of Charlemagne covered most of Western Europe like the Roman Empire had. Unlike the Romans, who had rarely ventured beyond the Rhine after the disaster at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (9 AD), Charlemagne crushed all Germanic resistance and extended his realm completely to the Elbe, and influenced events almost to the Russian Steppes. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength Unknown, but probably 10,000 - 20,000 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000...


The Empire of the Carolingians had been divided among various members of the Carolingian dynasty. From the inception of the Empire, these included: King Charles receiving Neustria, King Louis the Pious receiving Aquitaine, and King Pepin receiving Italy. Pepin died with an illegitimate son Bernard in 810, and Charles died without heirs in 811. Although Bernard succeeded Pepin as King of Italy, Louis was made co-Emperor in 813 and the entire Empire passed to him with Charlemagne's death in 814. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Neustria & Austrasia The territory of Neustria originated in A.D. 511, made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, approximating most of the north of present-day France, with Paris and Soissons as its main cities. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Location Administration Capital Bordeaux Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Départements Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,309 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Pippin of Italy (April, 773 – July 8, 810) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781-810) under the authority of his father. ... Bernard (d. ...


The Empire until the Treaty of Verdun (814 - 843)

Louis the Pious often had to struggle to maintain control of the Empire. King Bernard of Italy died in 818 in imprisonment after rebelling a year earlier, and Italy was brought back into Imperial control. Louis' show of penance for Bernard's death in 822 greatly reduced his prestige as Emperor to the nobility. Meanwhile in 817, Louis had established three new Carolingian Kingships for his sons of his first marriage: Lothar was made King of Italy and co-Emperor, Pepin was made King of Aquitaine, and Louis the German made King of Bavaria. His attempts in 823 to bring his fourth son (from his second marriage), Charles the Bald into the will was marked by the resistance of his eldest sons, and the last years of his reign was plagued by civil war. Lothair I Lothair I (German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 2 March 855), king of Italy (818 – 855) and Holy Roman Emperor (840 – 855), was the eldest son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman, duke of Hesbaye. ... Pepin I (797-November 13 or December 13, 838) was King of Aquitaine. ... Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian or German Ludwig der Deutsche) (804 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Charles the Bald - Detail from a painting in the First Bible of Charles the Bald, painted ca. ...


Lothar was stripped of his co-Emperorship in 829 and was banished to Italy, but the following year his sons attacked Louis' empire and dethroned him in favour of Lothar. The following year Louis attacked his sons' Kingdoms, stripped Lothar of his Imperial title and granted the Kingdom of Italy to Charles. Pepin and Louis the German revolted in 832, followed by Lothar in 833, and together they imprisoned Louis the Pious and Charles. In 835, peace was made between the family and Louis was restored to the Imperial throne. When Pepin died in 838, Louis crowned Charles king of Aquitaine whilst the nobility elected Pepin's son Pepin II, a conflict which was not resolved until 860 with Pepin's death. When Louis the Pious finally died in 840, Lothar claimed the entire empire irrespective of the partitions. Pepin II, called the Younger (823-after 864, Senlis), was King of Aquitaine from 838 as the successor upon the death of his father, Pepin I. Pepin II was eldest son of Pepin I and Ingeltrude (also called Engelberga, Hringard, or Ringart), daughter of the count of Madrie, Theodobert. ...


The dispute sparked another war, this time with Charles and Louis the German allied against Lothar. After losing the Battle of Fontenay to his younger brothers, Lothar fled to his capital at Aachen and raised a new army. The new forces were inferior to that of the younger brothers, and following a meeting of the brothers in 842 on an island in the Saone River, the empire was partitioned in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun. Fontenay can refer to: Abbaye de Fontenay, see Marmagne Fontenai and Fontenay is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Fontenay, in the Eure département Fontenay, in the Indre département Fontenay, in the Manche département Fontenay, in the Saône-et-Loire... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... The Saône is a river of eastern France. ... Divisions of the Treaty of Verdun. ...


The Empire until the first lapse of the Holy Roman Empire (843 - 877)

Carolingian Empire after the Treaty of Verdun partition of 843. Source: Freeman's Historical Atlas 3rd Ed. 1903.
Carolingian Empire after the Treaty of Verdun partition of 843.
Source: Freeman's Historical Atlas 3rd Ed. 1903.
Main article: Treaty of Verdun

Lothar received the Imperial title, the Kingship of Italy, and the territory between the Rhine and Rhone Rivers, collectively called the Central Frankish Realm. Louis was guaranteed the Kingship of all lands to the east of the Rhine and to the north and east of Italy, which was called the Eastern Frankish Realm which was the precursor to modern Germany. Charles received all lands west of the Rhone, which was called the Western Frankish Realm. Download high resolution version (1013x800, 284 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1013x800, 284 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Divisions of the Treaty of Verdun. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Divisions of the Treaty of Verdun. ... The River Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The Rhônes course. ... The Central Franks were the lands of Lothar after the Treaty of Verdun. ... The Eastern Franks were the lands of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun. ... The Western Franks generally speaking were the lands under the control of Charles the Bald after the Treaty of Verdun. ...


Lothar retired Italy to his eldest son Louis II in 844, making him co-Emperor in 850. Lothar died in 855, dividing his kingdom into three parts: the territory already held by Louis remained his, the territory of the former Kingdom of Burgundy was granted to his third son Charles of Burgundy, and the remaining territory for which there was no traditional name was granted to his second son Lothar II, whose realm was named Lotharingia, or Lorraine. Louis II, (825 – 875), Holy Roman Emperor (sole ruler 855 – 875), eldest son of the emperor Lothair I, became the designated king of Italy in 839, and taking up his residence in that country was crowned king at Rome by Pope Sergius II on June 15, 844. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... Lothair (825 - August 8, 869), was the second son of the emperor Lothair I. On his fathers death in 855, he received for his kingdom a district lying west of the Rhine, between the North Sea and the Jura mountains, which was called Regnum Lotharii and early in the... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ...

Carolingian Empire after the Treaty of Meerssen.
Carolingian Empire after the Treaty of Meerssen.

Louis II, dissatisfied with having received no additional territory upon his father's death, allied with his uncle Louis the German against his brother Lothar and his uncle Charles the Bald in 858. Lothar was reconciled with his brother and uncle shortly after. Charles was so unpopular that he couldn't raise an army to fight the invasion and instead fled to Burgundy. He was only saved when the bishops refused to crown Louis the German King. In 860, Charles the Bald invaded Charles of Burgundy's Kingdom but was repulsed. Lothar II ceded lands to Louis II in 862 for support of a divorce from his wife, which caused repeated conflicts with the Pope and his uncles. Charles of Burgundy died in 863, and his Kingdom was inherited by Louis II. The Division of the Carolingian Empire: Verdun 843 and Mersen, 870 (Col) Source: Adapted from Muirs Historical Atlas: (1911) Public domain image, taken from digitized copy at Internet Medieval Sourcebook[1] This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... The Division of the Carolingian Empire: Verdun 843 and Mersen, 870 (Col) Source: Adapted from Muirs Historical Atlas: (1911) Public domain image, taken from digitized copy at Internet Medieval Sourcebook[1] This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... The Treaty of Mersen (870 AD) was an agreement of the division of the Carolingian Empire by the sons of Louis I, Charles II of the West Franks (France) and Louis the German of East Franks (Germany), signed at the town of Meerssen, which is now in the Netherlands. ... Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian or German Ludwig der Deutsche) (804 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire...


Lothar II died in 869 with no legitimate heirs, and his Kingdom was divided between Charles the Bald and Louis the German in 870 by the Treaty of Meerssen. Meanwhile, Louis the German was involved with disputes with his three sons. Louis II died in 875, and named Carloman, the eldest son of Louis the German, his heir. Charles the Bald, supported by the Pope, was crowned both King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. The following year, Louis the German died. Charles tried to annex his realm too, but was defeated decisively at Andernach, and the Kingdom of the eastern Franks was divided between Louis the Younger, Carloman of Bavaria and Charles the Fat. The Treaty of Mersen (870 AD) was an agreement of the division of the Carolingian Empire by the sons of Louis I, Charles II of the West Franks (France) and Louis the German of East Franks (Germany), signed at the town of Meerssen, which is now in the Netherlands. ... Carloman (830-880) was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia (Germany), and Emma, daughter of the count Welf. ... // Andernach (pronounced: [ˈandərˌnax], the syllable -ach as in Gaelic) is a town in the district of Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany of currently about 30,000 inhabitants which are named der/die Andernacher (male singular and plural forms are identical), and the lady/-ies are die Andernacherin... For the King of France known as Louis the Younger, see Louis VII of France. ... Carloman (830-880) was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia (Germany), and Emma, daughter of the count Welf. ... Romantic portrait of Charles. ...


The Empire until the death of Charles the Fat (877 - 888)

Charles the Bald died in 877 crossing the Pass of Mont Cenis, and was succeeded by his son, Louis the Stammerer as King of the Western Franks, but the title of Holy Roman Emperor lapsed. Louis the Stammerer was physically weak and died two years later, his realm being divided between his eldest two sons: Louis III gaining Neustria and Francia, and Carloman gaining Aquitaine and Burgundy. The Kingdom of Italy was finally granted to King Carloman of Bavaria, but a stroke forced him to abdicate Italy to his brother Charles the Fat and Bavaria to Louis of Saxony. Also in 879, Boso, Count of Arles founded the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy in Provence. Mount Cenis (French: Mont Cenis) is a massif and pass (6893 feet) in Savoy (France) which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps. ... Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 – April 10, 879), also known as Louis II and Louis le Begue, was the son of Charles II and Ermentrude of Orléans. ... Louis III (c. ... Neustria & Austrasia The territory of Neustria originated in A.D. 511, made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, approximating most of the north of present-day France, with Paris and Soissons as its main cities. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Carloman (died December 12, 884), king of Western Francia, was the eldest son of King Louis the Stammerer, and became king, together with his brother Louis III, on his fathers death in 879. ... Location Administration Capital Bordeaux Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Départements Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,309 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... Boso was a Frankish nobleman, related to the Carolingian dynasty, who rose to become King of Provence (879 – 887). ... Lower Burgundy was a historical kingdom in Provence, in southeastern France. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a former Roman province and is now a region of southeastern France, located on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to the Italian border. ...


In 881, Charles the Fat was crowned the Holy Roman Emperor while Louis II of Saxony and Louis III of Francia died the following year. Saxony and Bavaria were united with Charles the Fat's Kingdom, and Francia and Neustria were granted to Carloman of Aquitaine who also conquered Lower Burgundy. Carloman died in a hunting accident in 884 after a tumultuous and ineffective reign, and his lands were inherited by Charles the Fat, effectively recreating the Empire of Charlemagne.


Charles, suffering what is believed to be epilepsy, could not secure the kingdom against Viking raiders, and after buying their withdrawal from Paris in 886 was perceived by the court as being cowardly and incompetent. The following year his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia, the illegitimate son of King Carloman of Bavaria, raised the standard of rebellion. Instead of fighting the insurrection, Charles fled to Neidingen and died the following year. The Empire of the Carolingians was divided: Arnulf maintained Carinthia, Bavaria, Lorraine and modern Germany; Count Odo of Paris was elected King of Western Francia (France), Ranulf II became King of Aquitaine, Italy went to Count Berengar of Friuli, Upper Burgundy to Rudolph I, and Lower Burgundy to Louis the Blind, the son of Boso of Arles, King of Lower Burgundy. The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Arnulf of Carinthia (German Arnulf von Kärnten, Slovenian Arnulf KoroÅ¡ki) (850 – December 8, 899) was one of the last ruling members of the Carolingian house in the Eastern part of the Frankish Kingdom, which had been split in the Treaty of Verdun in 843. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state coat The Duchy of Carinthia (German language: Kärnten, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ... Odo (or Eudes) (c. ... Location Administration Capital Bordeaux Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Départements Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,309 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Berengar of Friuli (? - 16 April 924) was a Margrave of Friuli, King of Italy (from 888 on) and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 915 on. ... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... Rudolph I, born 859, died October 25, 912, King of (Upper or Transjurane) Burgundy from his election in 888 until his death. ... Louis the Blind (c. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Holy Roman Empire - MSN Encarta (2365 words)
Introduction; Background; The Carolingian Empire (800-912); The Ottonian Empire (936-1024); The Salian Emperors and the Investiture Controversy (1024-1125); The Hohenstaufens and the Peak of the Empire (1137-1254); Decline of the Empire and Ascendancy of the Habsburgs (1273-1806); The End of the Empire; Legacy of the Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to revive the Western Roman Empire, whose legal and political structure had deteriorated during the 5th and 6th centuries and had been replaced by independent kingdoms ruled by Germanic nobles.
By the terms of the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire was split among Louis’s three sons.
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While the Roman Empire was based on the Mediterranean Sea, Charlemagne's was an empire of the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea.
Carolingian kings also called frequent meetings of the chief men of the empire, including bishops and abbots (heads of monasteries), to discuss laws, military matters, and religious issues.
Carolingian kings wanted every monastery to have both an internal school for future monks and an external school for the children in the neighborhood.
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