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Encyclopedia > Carnivora
Carnivora
Fossil range: Paleocene to Recent

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Laurasiatheria
Order: Carnivora
Bowdich, 1821
Families

The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: /ˈkɑː(ɹ)nɪˌvɔːɹə/ or /kɑː(ɹ)ˈnɪvəɹə/; from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh", + vorāre "to devour") includes over 260 species of placental mammals. Members of the order are called carnivorans, while the word "carnivore" can refer to a meat-eating animal of any type. Carnivorans are the most diverse in size of any mammalian order, ranging from the Least Weasel (Mustela nivalis), at as little as 25 grams and 11 cm (4.3 in), to the Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), which can weigh up to 1000 kg (2200 lb), to the Southern Elephant Seal, adult males of which average 2,270 kg (5,000 lb) and measure 4.2 m (13.9 ft) (and may grow considerably larger). The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3914x4886, 6382 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carnivora Gray Wolf Cephalic index Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness User:Zetawoof Wikipedia:Todays featured article/October... “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Orders[1] Bobolestes Eomaia Maelestes Montanalestes Murtoilestes Prokennalestes Placentalia Superorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Laurasiatheria is a proposed clade with the rank of cohort or super-order, of the Epitheria infraclass of the Placentalia (living) or Eutheria (Placentals and their extinct ancestors) subclass of Mammals, based on molecular and DNA research It is a sister group to Euarchontoglires. ... Thomas Edward Bowdich (1790 - 10 January 1824) was an English traveller and author. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Orders[1] Bobolestes Eomaia Maelestes Montanalestes Murtoilestes Prokennalestes Placentalia Superorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 The Least Weasel, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, and indeed in the entire order carnivora. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758 The Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the Northern Elephant Seal). ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ...


The first carnivoran was a carnivore, and nearly all carnivorans today primarily eat meat. Some, such as cats, pinnipeds, and weasels, are almost completely carnivorous. Others, such as bears, are more omnivorous. The Giant Panda is almost exclusively an herbivore, but it occasionally eats fish, eggs and insects. This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... “Feline” redirects here. ... subfamilies Otariidae Phocidae Odobenidae Pinnipeds are large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a family (sometimes a suborder or superfamily, depending on the classification scheme) of the order Carnivora. ... Alternate uses: Weasel (disambiguation) Species Mustela africana Mustela altaica Mustela erminea Mustela eversmannii Mustela felipei Mustela frenata Mustela kathiah Mustela lutreola Mustela lutreolina Mustela nigripes Mustela nivalis Mustela nudipes Mustela putorius Mustela sibirica Mustela strigidorsa Mustela vison Weasels are mammals in the genus Mustela of the Mustelidae family. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Pigs are omnivores. ... Panda Bear redirects here. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ...


Carnivorans have teeth and claws adapted for catching and eating other animals. Their eyes point forward. Many carnivorans hunt in packs and are social.


Carnivorans apparently evolved in North America out of members of the family Miacidae (miacids) c 42 million years ago. They soon split into catlike and doglike forms (feliformia and caniformia). Families Miacidae Viverravidae The miacids were primitive carnivores which lived during the Paleocene and Eocene Epoch. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ...

Contents

Distinguishing features

Carnivorans are primarily terrestrial and usually have strong sharp claws, with never less than four toes to each foot, and well-developed prominent canines and cheek teeth (premolars and molars) that generally have cutting edges. The last premolar of the upper jaw and first molar of the lower are termed the carnassials or sectorial teeth. These are blade-like teeth that occlude (close) with a scissor-like action for shearing and shredding meat. Carnassials are most highly developed in the Felidae and the least developed in the Ursidae. Carnivorans have six incisors and two conical canines in each jaw. The only two exceptions to this are the sea otter (Enhydra lutris), which has four incisors in the lower jaw, and the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), which has four incisors in the upper jaw. The number of molars and premolars is variable between carnivoran species, but all teeth are deeply rooted and are diphyodont. Incisors are retained by carnivorans and the third incisor is commonly large and sharp (canine-like). Carnivorans have either four or five digits on each foot, with the first digit on the forepaws, also known as the dew claw, being vestigial in most species and absent in some. Terrestrial literally means of the earth and is used in a variety of contexts: In biology and in the general sense, terrestrial means indicates ground-dwelling (compare aquatic). ... Cat claw A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Dusicyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ... Look up Cheek in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Cheeks are the fleshy area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear, the skin being suspended by the chin and the yaws. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... The premolar teeth or bicuspids are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. ... A molar is the fourth kind of tooth in mammals. ... Carnassials are large teeth found in carnivorous mammals, designed for shearing flesh and bone in a scissor-like way. ... In physics and mechanics, shear refers to a deformation that causes parallel surfaces to slide past one another (as opposed to compression and tension, which cause parallel surfaces to move towards or away from one another). ... Look up Shred in Wiktionary, the free dictionary To shred an item is literally to rip or tear it into strips. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Incisors are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... A cone is a basic geometrical shape: see cone (geometry). ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... Binomial name Melursus ursinus (Shaw, 1791) The Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) is a nocturnal bear, inhabiting the lowland forests of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. ... Diphyodont is the process of replacing teeth characteristic to mammals, having two successive sets of teeth. ... The dogs front dewclaw grows on the side of the foot, above the other four toes but below the rear heelpad. ... A vestigial organ is an organ whose original function has been lost during evolution. ...


The Canoidea superfamily – Canidae (dogs), Mephitidae (skunks and stink badgers) Mustelidae (weasels), Procyonidae (raccoons), Ursidae (bears), Otariidae (eared seals), Odobenidae (walrus), and Phocidae (earless seals) [the last three families formally classified in the suborder Pinnipedia] and the extinct family Amphicyonidae (bear-dogs) - are characterized by having a non-chambered or partially chambered auditory bullae, non-retractable claws, and well-developed baculum. Most species are rather simply colored, lacking the flashy spotted or rosetted coats of like many species of felids and viverrids have. This is because Canoidea tend to range in the temperate and subarctic biomes, although Mustelidae and Procyonidae have a few tropical species. Most are terrestrial, although a few species, like procyonids, are arboreal. All families except the Canidae and a few species of Mustelidae are plantigrade. Diet is varied and most tend to be omnivorous to some degree and thus the carnassial teeth are less specialized. Canoidea have more premolars and molars in an elongated skull. Families and clades Amphicyonidae (bear-dogs, extinct) Canidae (dogs and foxes) Mephitidae (skunks and stink badgers) Mustelidae (weasels, otters, badgers) Procyonidae (raccoons, coatimundis) Ursidae (bears) Ailuridae (Red Panda Pinnipedia (seals and walruses) Odobenidae (walrus) Otariidae (eared seals) Phocidae (earless seals) The Caniformia, or Canoidea (dog-like carnivores) are a suborder... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Genera Mephitis Spilogale Conepatus The skunks or Mephitidae are a family of medium-sized mammals, typically black-and-white-furred, belonging to the order Carnivora. ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Genera Procyon Nasua Cyonasua - extinct Chapalmalania - extinct Nasuella Bassariscus Bassaricyon Potos Procyonidae is a family of carnivores which includes the raccoons, coatis and others. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Walruses are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Gray Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... subfamilies Otariidae Phocidae Odobenidae Pinnipeds are large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a family (sometimes a suborder or superfamily, depending on the classification scheme) of the order Carnivora. ... Subfamilies Amphicyoninae Daphoeninae Thanmastocyoninae Amphicyonids are extinct Carnivora mammals from the family Amphicyonidae that were probably closely related to the Ursidae (bears). ... The baculum (also penis bone, penile bone or os penis) is a bone found in the penis of most mammals. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The Feloidea superfamily – Felidae (cats), Herpestidae (mongooses), Hyaenidae (hyenas), Viverridae (civets), and Eupleridae (Malagasy carnivores), as well as the extinct family Nimravidae (paleofelids) – often have spotted, rosetted or striped coats, and tend to be more brilliantly colored than their Canoidean counterparts. This is due to the fact that these species tend to range in tropical habitats, although a few species do inhabit temperate and subarctic habitats. Many are arboreal or semi-arboreal, and the majority are digitigrade. Diet tends to be more strictly carnivorous, especially in the Felidae family. They have fewer teeth and shorter skulls, with much more specialized carnassials meant for shearing meat. Felidae claws are retractile. The terminal phalange with the claw attached folds back in the fore-foot into a sheath by the outer side of the middle phalange of the digit, and is retained in this position when at rest by a strong elastic ligament. In the hind-foot the terminal joint or phalange is retracted on to the top, and not the side of the middle phalange. Deep flexor muscles straighten the terminal phalanges so that the claws protrude from their sheath, and the soft "velvety" paw becomes suddenly converted into a formidable weapon of offence. The habitual retraction of the claws preserves their points from wear. Families Eupleridae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Nandiniidae †Nimravidae †Stenoplesictidae Viverridae The Feliformia (cat-like also Feloidea, sometimes Aeluroidea) are a suborder of carnivores within the order Carnivora. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... Genera 17 genera, see text The mongoose is any member of the Herpestidae family of small, cat-like carnivores. ... Genera Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Proteles Hyenas (or Hyaenas) are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa and Asia, and members of the family Hyaenidae. ... Subfamilies Cryptoproctinae Euplerinae Hemigalinae Paradoxurinae Viverrinae The 35 species of civet, genet and linsang make up the family Viverridae. ... Subfamilies Euplerinae Galidiinae The family Eupleridae is a group of Malagasy carnivores. ... subfamilies Nimravinae Hoplophoninae Barbourofelinae The Nimravidae, also known as false sabre-tooths, are an extinct family of mammalian carnivores. ...


The Pinnipedia superfamily (walruses, seals, and sea lions) are medium to large (to 6.5 m) aquatic mammals. Pinnipeds are marine Carnivora and therefore need to have a relatively large body to retain heat. They need a low surface area to body mass ratio to minimize heat loss due to conduction because water conducts heat well. The body is usually insulated with a thick layer of fat called blubber and usually covered with hair. The digits are not separate, but connected by a thick web that forms flippers for swimming; thus the forelimbs and hindlimbs are transformed into paddles. This enables them to dive at extreme depths (600 meters for the Weddell seal) and they can remain underwater for long periods of time, sometimes over an hour or more, but most dives are usually short. The facial region of skull is relatively small, with pinnae very small or lacking and the vibrissae is well developed. The molariform teeth are mostly homodont and the canines are well developed. The tail is very short or absent, the ears are small or absent as well, and the external genitalia are hidden in slits or depressions in the body. subfamilies Otariidae Phocidae Odobenidae Pinnipeds are large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a family (sometimes a suborder or superfamily, depending on the classification scheme) of the order Carnivora. ... Remains of seventeenth century blubber cauldrons at the abandoned Dutch settlement of Smeerenburg in Svalbard, Norway This article is about the body tissue. ... Binomial name (Lesson, 1826) The Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii), a true seal, is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. ... The pinna (Latin for feather) is the visible part of the ear that resides outside of the head (this may also be referred to as the auricle or auricula). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The anatomical term heterodont (from Greek, meaning different teeth) refers to animals which possess more than a single tooth morphology. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis...


Skull structure

Members of Carnivora have a characteristic skull shape with relatively large brains encased in a heavy skull. The skull has a highly developed zygomatic arch just behind the maxilla (common to all mammals and their cynodont forebears), and they have ossified external auditory bullae. Feloidea have a two-chambered auditory bullae. In addition to allowing extra room for the passage of muscles to work the lower jaw, the zygomatic arch also allows for differentiation of separate muscle groups to be involved in biting and chewing. Masseters attach from the dentary (specifically, the masseteric fossa) to the zygomatic arch and onto the maxilla in front of the arch, providing crushing force. The temporalis attaches from the dentary (specifically, the coronoid process) to the side of the braincase, providing torque about the axis of jaw articulation. In comparing the skulls of carnivores and herbivores, it can be seen that the shearing force of the temporalis is somewhat more important to carnivores, which have more room on the braincase (this is not unrelated to carnivoran intelligence) and commonly develop a sagittal crest (running from posterior to anterior on the skull) providing yet additional room for temporalis attachment. Carnivoran jaws can only move on a vertical axis, in an up-and-down motion, and cannot move from side-to-side. The jaw joint in carnivores tends to lie within the plane of tooth occlusion; an arrangement that further emphasizes shearing (as in a pair of scissors). In herbivores, the crushing force of the masseters is relatively more important than is shearing. The jaw joint is generally well above the plane of tooth occlusion, allowing extra room for masseteric attachment on the dentary and causing the rotation of the lower jaw to be translated into straight-ahead crushing force between the teeth of the upper and lower jaws. The zygomatic bone (also known as the zygoma; Os Zygomaticum; Malar Bone) is a paired bone of the human skull. ... The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta, or dog teeth, were one of the most diverse groups of therapsids. ... Ossification is the process of bone formation, in which connective tissues, such as cartilage are turned to bone or bone-like tissue. ... The temporalis muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. ... (ramus mandibulæ; perpendicular portion) The ramus of the mandible is quadrilateral in shape, and has two surfaces, four borders, and two processes. ... Canine skull showing sagittal crest A sagittal crest is a ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull (at the sagittal suture) of many mammalian and reptilian skulls, among others. ...


Physiology

Carnivora have a simple stomach designed to digest primarily meat, as compared to the elaborate digestive systems of herbivorous animals which are necessary to break down tough, complex plant fibers. The caecum is either absent or short and simple, and the colon is not sacculated or much wider than the small intestine. Most species of Carnivora are, to some degree, omnivorous, except the Felidae, which are obligate carnivores. Most have highly-developed senses, especially vision and hearing, and often a highly acute sense of smell in many species, such as in the Canoidea. They are excellent runners: some long-distance runners, but more commonly sprinters. Even bears and raccoons, although seemingly slow and clumsy, are capable of remarkable bursts of speed. In anatomy of the digestive system, the cecum or caecum is a pouch connected to the large intestine between the ileum and the colon. ...


Diet specializations

Carnivorans include carnivores, omnivores, and even a few primarily herbivorous species, such as the giant panda. Important teeth for carnivorans are the large, slightly recurved canines, used to dispatch prey, and the carnassial complex, used to rend meat from bone and slice it into digestible pieces. Dogs have molar teeth behind the carnassials for crushing bones, but cats have only a greatly reduced, functionless molar behind the carnassial in the upper jaw. Cats will strip bones clean but will not crush them to get the marrow inside. Omnivores, such as bears and raccoons, have developed blunt, molar-like carnassials. Carnassials are a key adaptation for terrestrial vertebrate predation; all other placental orders are primarily herbivores, insectivores, or aquatic. This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Omnivores are organisms that consume both plants and animals. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... Panda Bear redirects here. ...


Reproductive system

Carnivora tend to produce a single litter annually, but some produce multiple litters a year, and larger carnivores like bears have gaps of 2-3 years between litters. The average gestation period lies between 50-115 days, although the ursids and mustelids have delayed implantation, thus extending the gestation period 6-9 months beyond the normal period. Litter sizes are usually small, ranging from 1-13 young, which are born with underdeveloped eyes and ears. In most species, the mother has exclusive or at least primary care of the offspring. Many species of carnivores are solitary, but a few are gregarious. Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Look up Solitary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Phylogeny

Carnivorans evolved out of members of the family Miacidae (miacids). The transition from Miacidae to Carnivora was a general trend in the middle and late Eocene with taxa from both North America and Eurasia involved. The divergence of carnivorans from other miacids, as well as the divergence of the the two clades within Carnivora, Caniformia and Feliformia, is now inferred to have happened in the middle Eocene (ca. 42 million years ago). Traditionally the Viverravidae (viverravids) had been thought to be the earliest carnivorans with fossil records first appearing in the Paleocene of North America about 60 million years ago, but recently described evidence from cranial morphology now places them outside the order Carnivora.[1] Traditionally, some paleontologists considered the viverravids to be ancestral to the aeluroid carnivorans (felids, hyaenids, herpestids and viverrids), but this is now doubted. Families Miacidae Viverravidae The miacids were primitive carnivores which lived during the Paleocene and Eocene Epoch. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... Families Miacidae Viverravidae The miacids were primitive carnivores which lived during the Paleocene and Eocene Epoch. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... Subfamilies and Genera Hyaeninae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Subfamilies Cryptoproctinae Euplerinae Hemigalinae Paradoxurinae Viverrinae The 35 species of civet, genet and linsang make up the family Viverridae. ...


The Miacidae is not a monophyletic group, but a paraphyletic array of stem taxa. Traditionally, the Miacidae and the Viverravidae had been classified in a third, extinct paraphyletic superfamily, the Miacoidea, from which the direct ancestors of both Carnivora and Creodonta were thought to have arisen. Today Carnivora is restricted to the crown group, and Carnivora and miacoids are grouped together in the clade Carnivoramorpha, and the miacoids are regarded as basal carnivoramorphs. Based on dental features and braincase sizes, it is now known that Carnivora must have evolved from a form even more primitive than Creodonta and thus these two orders may not even be sister groups.[2] The Carnivora, Creodonta, Pholidota, and a few other extinct orders are informally grouped together in the clade Ferae. Older classification schemes divided the order into two suborders: Fissipedia (which included the families of primarily land Carnivora) and Pinnipedia (which included the true seals, eared seals, and walrus). However, it is now recognized that the Fissipedia is a paraphyletic group and that the pinnipeds were not the sister group to the fissipeds but rather had arisen from among them. In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Families Miacidae Viverravidae Miacoidea is an extinct paraphyletic superfamily that has been traditionally divided into two families of carnivores: Miacidae (the miacids) and Viverravidae. ... Families Hyaenodontidae Oxyaenidae The creodonts are an extinct order of mammals that lived from the Paleocene to the Pliocene epoch. ... A crown group is a living monophyletic group or clade, consisting of the last common ancestor of all living examples, plus all of its descendants. ... Families Miacidae Viverravidae Miacoidea is an extinct paraphyletic superfamily that has been traditionally divided into two families of carnivores: Miacidae (the miacids) and Viverravidae. ... Superfamilies Miacoidea Viverravoidea Caniformia Feliformia Carnivoramorpha are a crown-clade order of mammals that include the Carnivora and closest relatives, but not Creodonta. ... Species Manis gigantea Manis temmincki Manis tricuspis Manis tetradactyla Manis crassicaudata Manis pentadactyla Manis javanica Pangolins are mammals with large scales on their skins which can be found in parts of Africa and Asia. ... A clade consisting of the orders Pholidota and Carnivora. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae Fissipedia is a former biological suborder, comprising the land-based members of the order Carnivora. ... subfamilies Otariidae Phocidae Odobenidae Pinnipeds are large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a family (sometimes a suborder or superfamily, depending on the classification scheme) of the order Carnivora. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Gray Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... Genera Arctocephalus Callorhinus Eumetopias Neophoca Otaria Phocarctos Zalophus The eared seals (or walking seals), family Otariidae, are the fur seals and the sea lions. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Walrus Subspecies Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ...


Carnivora are generally divided into the suborders Feliformia (cat-like) and Caniformia (dog-like), the latter of which includes the pinnipeds. The pinnipeds are part of a clade, known as the Arctoidea, which also includes the Ursidae (bears) and the superfamily Musteloidea. The Musteloidea in turn consists of the Mustelidae (mustelids: weasels), Procyonidae (procyonids: raccoons), Mephitidae (skunks) and Ailurus. The oldest caniforms are the Miacis species Miacis cognitus, the Amphicyonidae (Bear-dogs) such as Daphoenus, and Hesperocyon (of the family Canidae, subfamily Hesperocyoninae). Hesperocyonine canids first appeared in North America and the earliest species is currently dated at 39.74 Ma, but they were not represented in Europe until well into the Miocene, and not into Asia and Africa until the Pliocene. Miacis and Amphicyonidae were the first of the caniforms to split from the others and are sometimes considered to be sister groups to Ursidae, but the exact closeness of Amphicyonidae and Ursidae, as well as Arctoidae to Ursidae, is still uncertain. The Canidae (wolves, coyotes, jackals, foxes and dogs) are generally considered to be the sister group to Arctoidea.[2][3][4] The Ursidae first occur in North America in the Late Eocene (ca. 38 million years ago) as the very small and graceful Parictis that had a skull only 7 cm long. Like the canids, this family does not appear in Eurasia and Africa until the Miocene. The other caniform families Amphicyonidae, Mustelidae and Procyonidae occur in both the Old World and the New World by the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene.[2] Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or IPA: ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Genera Procyon Nasua Cyonasua - extinct Chapalmalania - extinct Nasuella Bassariscus Bassaricyon Potos Procyonidae is a family of carnivores which includes the raccoons, coatis and others. ... Genera Mephitis Spilogale Conepatus The skunks or Mephitidae are a family of medium-sized mammals, typically black-and-white-furred, belonging to the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens Latin fire colored cat) Chinese: 小熊貓; (pinyin: xiǎo xióng māo) or lesser panda, is a mostly vegetarian cat-sized (60 cm long) mammal. ... The Miacis is an extinct genus of species that are thought to have descended from the miacid mammals of the family Miacidae, superfamily Miacoidea, and is representative of the group of early miacid carnivores that were the ancestors of modern carnivores. ... Subfamilies Amphicyoninae Daphoeninae Thanmastocyoninae Amphicyonids are extinct Carnivora mammals from the family Amphicyonidae that were probably closely related to the Ursidae (bears). ... Species (species Daphoenus is an extinct genus of carnivorous mammal. ... Species Hesperocyon is an extinct genus of canine. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Dusicyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Wolves may refer to: Gray Wolf Other uses of Wolf: see Wolf (disambiguation) Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. Category: ... Binomial name Canis latrans Say, 1823 A coyote (Canis latrans) is a member of the Canidae (the dog family) and a relative of the domestic dog. ... This article is about the animal. ... A red fox The foxes comprise 23 species of omnivorous canids, found worldwide. ... This article is about the domestic dog. ... Parictis is the earliest genus of Ursidae known. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ...


The ancestor of all Feliformia evolved from the Caniformia-Feliformia split but the exact position of the Felidae, especially some extinct Felidae, in relation to the other families is somewhat disputed. Nandinia, the African Palm Civet, seems to be the most primitive of all the feliforms and the very first to split from the others. The Asiatic linsangs of the genus Prionodon (traditionally placed in the Viverridae) might form a family of their own as well, as some recent studies indicate that Prionodon is actually the closest living relative to the cats. The Nimravidae are sometimes seen as the most basal of all feliforms and the first to split from the others, but there is a possibility that Nimravidae might not even be Carnivora.[4] Its position as a Carnivora is currently unstable. Other studies indicate that Barbourofelids forms a separate family, which is closely related to the true felids instead of being related to the Nimravids. Recognizable Nimravid fossils date from the late Eocene (37 mya), from the Chadronian White River Carnivora Formation at Flagstaff Rim, Wyoming. Nimravid diversity appears to have peaked about 28 mya. The hypercarnivorous (strictly meat-eating) nimravid feliforms were extinct in North America after 26 mya and felids did not arrive in North America until the early middle Miocene (16 mya). “Feline” redirects here. ... Binomial name Nandinia binotata Gray, 1830 The African Palm Civet (Nandinia binotata), also known as the Two-spotted Palm Civet, is a small mammal, with short legs, small ears, a body resembling a cat, and a long lithe tail as long as its body. ... Species Poiana richardsoni Prionodon linsang Prionodon pardicolor The linsangs are three Southeast Asian species of the mammalian family Viverridae, which also includes the civets, genets and fossas. ... subfamilies Nimravinae Hoplophoninae Barbourofelinae The Nimravidae, also known as false sabre-tooths, are an extinct family of mammalian carnivores. ... Previously placed as subfamily of Nimravidae, barbourofelinae has been recently assigned to its own distinct family Barbourofelidae, which is now thought to be taxonomically more closely related to Felidae than to Nimravidae. ... A hypercarnivore, as opposed to a hypocarnivore, is an animal that exclusively eats meat and nothing else. ...


It has been suggested that canids evolved hypercarnivorous morphologies because feliforms were absent during this period (the "cat-gap," 26-16 mya), however recent data does not support this hypothesis. Hypercarnivore feliforms (felids and nimravids) occupied an area that canids did not and where felids, nimravids, and hypercarnivorous creodonts are found. Hypercarnivorous canids were present before the disappearance of the nimravids, and all went extinct before the appearance of felids. Following the extinction of nimravids, only three taxa originated, two of which were relatively small in body size. Disparity increased during the "cat-gap" even with the extinction of the hypercarnivorous extremes. This was due to the extinction of morphological intermediates, and because carnivorans began to occupy hypocarnivorous (non-meat-specialist) morphospace for the first time in North America. Procyonids did not arrive in North America until the early Miocene, and "modern" ursids (e.g., Ursinae), did not arrive until the late Miocene. Extinct lineages of Ursidae were present in North America from the late Eocene through the Miocene and Amphicyonid (Bear-dogs) were present during this period as well but occupied a morphospace generally shared with canids and not in close proximity to ursids. A large question remains as to why there was a progressive decline in hypercarnivorous carnivoramorphans during the late Oligocene/early Miocene. During this period all hypercarnivorous forms disappeared from the fossil record, including hypercarnivorous feliforms, canids, and mustelids. One possible explanation is climate change. Earth was gradually cooling after the late Paleocene, and over a period spanning the Eocene/Oligocene boundary there was a dramatic climatic cooling event occurred.[5] For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ...


A recent study finally resolves the exact position of Ailurus: the Red Panda is neither a procyonid nor an ursid, but forms a monotypic family with the other musteloids as its closest living relatives. The same study also shows that the mustelids are not a primitive family, as was once thought. Their small body size is a secondary trait — the primitive body form of the arctoids was large, not small.[3] Recent molecular studies also suggest that the endemic Carnivora of Madagascar, including three genera usually classed with the civets and four genera of mongooses classed with the Herpestidae, are all descended from a single ancestor. They form a single sister taxon to the Herpestidae. The hyenas are also closely related to this clade. Subfamilies Cryptoproctinae Euplerinae Hemigalinae Paradoxurinae Viverrinae The 35 species of civet, genet and linsang make up the family Viverridae. ... For other uses, see Mongoose (disambiguation). ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Subfamilies and Genera Hyaenidae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ...


Classification

Least weasel, the smallest carnivoran
Southern elephant seal, the largest carnivoran
Brown bear, the largest land carnivoran, next to the Polar Bear
Cat and dog, domesticated carnivorans

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 The Least Weasel, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, and indeed in the entire order carnivora. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixelsFull resolution (3436 × 2338 pixel, file size: 757 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) fr: éléphant de mer du sud (mâle) en: southern elephant-seal (male) scan de photo :B.navez - Kerguelen - 1999 File history Legend: (cur) = this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixelsFull resolution (3436 × 2338 pixel, file size: 757 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) fr: éléphant de mer du sud (mâle) en: southern elephant-seal (male) scan de photo :B.navez - Kerguelen - 1999 File history Legend: (cur) = this... Binomial name Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758 The Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the Northern Elephant Seal). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (467 × 700 pixel, file size: 319 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ursus arctos Source: http://images. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (467 × 700 pixel, file size: 319 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ursus arctos Source: http://images. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... This article is about the animal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... subfamilies Nimravinae Hoplophoninae Barbourofelinae The Nimravidae, also known as false sabre-tooths, are an extinct family of mammalian carnivores. ... Binomial name Nandinia binotata Gray, 1830 The African Palm Civet (Nandinia binotata), also known as the Two-spotted Palm Civet, is a small mammal, with short legs, small ears, a body resembling a cat, and a long lithe tail as long as its body. ... Binomial name Nandinia binotata Gray, 1830 The African Palm Civet (Nandinia binotata), also known as the Two-spotted Palm Civet, is a small mammal, with short legs, small ears, a body resembling a cat, and a long lithe tail as long as its body. ... Families Eupleridae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Nandiniidae †Nimravidae †Stenoplesictidae Viverridae The Feliformia (cat-like also Feloidea, sometimes Aeluroidea) are a suborder of carnivores within the order Carnivora. ... Species Prionodon linsang Prionodon pardicolor The Asiatic linsangs are two species traditionally classified in the mammalian family Prionodontidae, recently elevated from the family Viverridae. ... Species Prionodon linsang Prionodon pardicolor The Asiatic linsangs are two species traditionally classified in the mammalian family Prionodontidae, recently elevated from the family Viverridae. ... Previously placed as subfamily of Nimravidae, barbourofelinae has been recently assigned to its own distinct family Barbourofelidae, which is now thought to be taxonomically more closely related to Felidae than to Nimravidae. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... Subfamilies Paradoxurinae Hemigalinae Prionodontinae Viverrinae The family Viverridae is made up of 35 species, including all of the genets, the Binturong, most of the civets (pronounced /ˈsɪvɪt/), and the four linsangs. ... Subfamilies Cryptoproctinae Euplerinae Hemigalinae Paradoxurinae Viverrinae The 35 species of civet, genet and linsang make up the family Viverridae. ... Genera Chrotogale Cynogale Diplogale Hemigalus Arctogalidia Macrogalidia Paguma Paradoxurus Civettictis Viverra Viverricula Civets are mammals, most of which are species in the family Viverridae. ... Genera Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Proteles Hyenas (or Hyaenas) are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa and Asia, and members of the family Hyaenidae. ... Subfamilies and Genera Hyaenidae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ... Binomial name Proteles cristatus Sparrman 1783 Aardwolf range The Aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) is a small insectivorous hyena, native to Eastern and Southern Africa. ... Subfamilies Euplerinae Galidiinae The family Eupleridae is a group of Malagasy carnivores. ... Genera 17 genera, see text The mongoose is any member of the Herpestidae family of small, cat-like carnivores. ... For other uses, see Mongoose (disambiguation). ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Subfamilies Amphicyoninae Daphoeninae Thanmastocyoninae Amphicyonids are extinct Carnivora mammals from the from the family Amphicyonidae that were probably closely related to the Ursidae (bears). ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Genus Genus †Agriotherium Genus †Dinocyon Genus †Hemicyon Genus †Phoberocyon Genus †Plithocyon Genus †Zaragocyon Hemicyonidae the so-called dog-bear, literally Half Dog (Greek:`Hmikuwn/hemi-kuôn), is an extinct family of bear-like Carnivora. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens Latin fire colored cat) Chinese: 小熊貓; (pinyin: xiǎo xióng māo) or lesser panda, is a mostly vegetarian cat-sized (60 cm long) mammal. ... For the Canadian Superhero, see Decoder Ring Theatre Binomial name F. Cuvier, 1825 Red Panda range subspecies The Red Panda, Ailurus fulgens (shining cat, from a Latinized form of the Greek αίλουρος, ailouros, cat, and the participial form of the Latin fulgere, to shine) [1] is a mostly herbivorous mammal, slightly... Genera Mephitis Spilogale Conepatus The skunks or Mephitidae are a family of medium-sized mammals, typically black-and-white-furred, belonging to the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Skunk (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... For other uses, see Weasel (disambiguation). ... Species Martes americana Martes flavigula Martes foina Martes gwatkinsii Martes martes Martes melampus Martes pennanti Martes zibellina For the Wiltshire village see Marten, Wiltshire. ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... This article is about the carnivorous mammal. ... Genera Procyon Nasua Cyonasua - extinct Chapalmalania - extinct Nasuella Bassariscus Bassaricyon Potos Procyonidae is a family of carnivores which includes the raccoons, coatis and others. ... Type species Procyon lotor Linnaeus, 1758 Species Procyon cancrivorus Procyon insularis Procyon lotor Procyon is a genus of nocturnal mammals, comprising three species commonly known as raccoons, in the family Procyonidae. ... subfamilies Otariidae Phocidae Odobenidae Pinnipeds are large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a family (sometimes a suborder or superfamily, depending on the classification scheme) of the order Carnivora. ... Species (type) Enaliarctos is an extinct genus of pinniped. ... Binomial name Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Walruses are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Walrus Subspecies Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Sea Lion (disambiguation). ... Genera Arctocephalus Callorhinus Eumetopias Neophoca Otaria Phocarctos Zalophus The eared seals (or walking seals), family Otariidae, are the fur seals and the sea lions. ... Genera Callorhinus Arctocephalus Fur seals, or Arctocephalinae make up one of the two distinct groups of marine mammals called seals. Fur seals are usually smaller than sea lions and have a coat of dense fur intermixed with guard hairs. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Gray Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Gray Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ...

Phylogenetic Tree

   Carnivora   
Feliformia

Nimravidae Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... subfamilies Nimravinae Hoplophoninae Barbourofelinae The Nimravidae, also known as false sabre-tooths, are an extinct family of mammalian carnivores. ...



Stenoplesictidae†



Nandiniidae Binomial name Nandinia binotata Gray, 1830 The African Palm Civet (Nandinia binotata), also known as the Two-spotted Palm Civet, is a small mammal, with short legs, small ears, a body resembling a cat, and a long lithe tail as long as its body. ...





Prionodontidae Species Prionodon linsang Prionodon pardicolor The Asiatic linsangs are two species classified in the mammalian subfamily Prionodontinae, in the family Viverridae. ...




Barbourofelidae Previously placed as subfamily of Nimravidae, barbourofelinae has been recently assigned to its own distinct family Barbourofelidae, which is now thought to be taxonomically more closely related to Felidae than to Nimravidae. ...



Felidae “Feline” redirects here. ...






Viverridae Subfamilies Cryptoproctinae Euplerinae Hemigalinae Paradoxurinae Viverrinae The 35 species of civet, genet and linsang make up the family Viverridae. ...




Hyaenidae Genera Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Proteles Hyenas (or Hyaenas) are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa and Asia, and members of the family Hyaenidae. ...




Herpestidae Genera 17 genera, see text The mongoose is any member of the Herpestidae family of small, cat-like carnivores. ...



Eupleridae Subfamilies Euplerinae Galidiinae The family Eupleridae is a group of Malagasy carnivores. ...







   Caniformia   

Amphicyonidae Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Subfamilies Amphicyoninae Daphoeninae Thanmastocyoninae Amphicyonids are extinct Carnivora mammals from the family Amphicyonidae that were probably closely related to the Ursidae (bears). ...



Canidae Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ...


   Arctoidea   
   

Hemicyonidae† Genus Genus †Agriotherium Genus †Dinocyon Genus †Hemicyon Genus †Phoberocyon Genus †Plithocyon Genus †Zaragocyon Hemicyonidae the so-called dog-bear, literally Half Dog (Greek:`Hmikuwn/hemi-kuôn), is an extinct family of bear-like Carnivora. ...



Ursidae For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ...




Pinnipedia

Enaliarctidae† subfamilies Otariidae Phocidae Odobenidae Pinnipeds are large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a family (sometimes a suborder or superfamily, depending on the classification scheme) of the order Carnivora. ...



   

Phocidae Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Gray Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ...



   

Otariidae



Odobenidae Binomial name Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Walruses are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ...





   Musteloidea   
   

Ailuridae Binomial name Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens Latin fire colored cat) Chinese: 小熊貓; (pinyin: xiǎo xióng māo) or lesser panda, is a mostly vegetarian cat-sized (60 cm long) mammal. ...



   

Mephitidae Genera Mephitis Spilogale Conepatus The skunks or Mephitidae are a family of medium-sized mammals, typically black-and-white-furred, belonging to the order Carnivora. ...



   

Procyonidae Genera Procyon Nasua Cyonasua - extinct Chapalmalania - extinct Nasuella Bassariscus Bassaricyon Potos Procyonidae is a family of carnivores which includes the raccoons, coatis and others. ...



Mustelidae Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ...









See also

  • Cat-fox, a possible new carnivore discovered on Borneo
  • List of Carnivora

The cat-fox is a carnivore species recently discovered in Indonesia, on the island of Borneo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ... The class Mammalia (the Mammals) is divided into two subclasses based on reproductive techniques: egg laying mammals (the Monotremes); and mammals which give live birth. ...

References

  1. ^ Polly, David, Gina D. Wesley-Hunt, Ronald E. Heinrich, Graham Davis and Peter Houde (2006). "Earliest Known Carnivoran Auditory Bulla and Support for a Recent Origin of Crown-Clade Carnivora (Eutheria, Mammalia)". Palaeontology 49 (5): 1019-1027. 
  2. ^ a b c Kemp, T.S. (2005). The Origin and Evolution of Mammals. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198507607. 
  3. ^ a b Wesley-Hunt, Gina D. and John J. Flynn (2005). "Phylogeny of the Carnivores". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 3: 1-28. 
  4. ^ a b Wesley-Hunt, Gina D. and Lars Werdelin (2005). "Basicranial morphology and phylogenetic position of the upper Eocene carnivoramorphan Quercygale". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50 (4): 837–846. 
  5. ^ Wesley-Hunt, Gina D. (2005). "The Morphological Diversification of Carnivores in North America". Palaeontology Winter. 

External links

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Wikibooks Dichotomous Key has more about this subject:
Carnivora
 The subject of this article has been identified by the Missing Encyclopedic Articles project as being a high priority for expansion.

 
 

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