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Encyclopedia > Carnation Revolution
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The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC (Processo Revolucionário Em Curso), characterized by social turmoil and power dispute between left and right wing political forces. Although government forces killed four people before surrendering, the revolution was unusual in that the revolutionaries did not use direct violence to achieve their goals. The population, holding red carnations (cravos in Portuguese), convinced the regime soldiers not to resist. The soldiers readily swapped their bullets for flowers. It was the end of the Estado Novo, the longest authoritarian regime in Western Europe (but not the last to end; Francisco Franco ruled Spain until his death in 1975). The revolution is often simply referred to, as its celebratory holiday, o dia vinte e cinco de Abril (the 25th of April). Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Portugal is a European nation whose origins go back to the Early Middle Ages. ... This article describes the prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula from the appearance of the first human populations until the arrival of the Phoenicians and the first recorded contacts with other European cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Conquista redirects here. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal Series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383-1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Anthem: O Hino da Carta (from 1834) The Kingdom of Portugal in 1561 Capital Lisbon¹ Language(s) Portuguese Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy King  - 1139-1185 Afonso I  - 1908-1910 Manuel II History  - Established 26 July, 1139  - Peninsular War 1808-1814  - Brazilian suzerainty 1815  - Brazilian independence October 12, 1822  - Revolution... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... The 1383–1385 crisis is a period of civil war and anarchy in Portuguese history that began with the death of king Fernando I of Portugal – who left no male heirs – and ended with the accession to the throne of king João I in 1385, in the wake of... For additional context, see History of Portugal and Portuguese Empire. ... Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... // Main article: Portuguese Empire An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Iberian Union is modern day term that refers to the historical political unit that governed all of the Iberian peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580-1640. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista Castilian and Leonese rule First County of Portugal County of Coimbra Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista Castilian and Leonese rule First County of Portugal County of Coimbra Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... ĢÕãÒòùäÊŞ Ä‚ ßõî ŔûñÑèđ òΝ ýëŗ pæŇţž This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista Castilian and Leonese rule First County of Portugal County of Coimbra Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Ajuda Library, created in the 15th century as Royal Library. Mother of the Portuguese and Brazilian National Libraries. ... This is a historical timeline of Portugal. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Binomial name Dianthus caryophyllus L. The Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is a flowering plant native to the Near East and has been cultivated for the last 2,000 years. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20th (or possibly 19th) November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...

Contents

Context

In the beginning of the 1970s, the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo ("New State") continued to weigh heavily on the country, after a half-century of rule under President of the Council of Ministers António de Oliveira Salazar. After the military coup of May 28, 1926, Portugal implemented an authoritarian regime of social-Catholic and Integralist inspiration. In 1933, the regime was recast and renamed Estado Novo ("New State"), and Oliveira Salazar was named as President of the Council of Ministers until 1968, when he suffered a stroke following a domestic accident. He was replaced by Marcelo Caetano in September who served as President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) until he was deposed on April 25, 1974. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, In the Western world, the focus shifted from the social activism of the sixties to social activities for ones own pleasure, save for environmentalism, which continued in a very visible way. ... There have been two regimes known as Estado Novo (meaning New State): Estado Novo (Brazil) Estado Novo (Portugal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... António de Oliveira Baboon Salazar, pron. ... Manuel Gomes da Costa The 28th May 1926 coup détat, sometimes called 28th May Revolution or, during the period of Estado Novo, National Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução Nacional), was a military action that put an end to the unstable Portuguese First Republic and initiated the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Marcelo Caetano Marcelo José das Neves Alves Caetano also spelled Marcello Caetano (pron. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...



Under the Estado Novo, Portugal's undemocratic government was tolerated by it's NATO partners due to it's anti-communist nature, this attitude changed dramatically during the mid-sixties pressured by public opinion and left wing movements rising in Europe. There were formal elections but they were rarely contested - with the opposition using the limited political freedoms allowed during the brief election period to openly protest against the regime, before withdrawing their candidates before the election so as not to provide the regime with any legitimacy. In 1958, General Humberto Delgado - a former member of the regime - stood against the regime's presidential candidate, Americo Tomaz, and refused to allow his name to be withdrawn from the competition. Tomaz won the election, but only amidst claims of widespread electoral fraud that denied Delgado of his 'legitimate' victory. Immediately after this election, Salazar's government abandoned the practice of popularly electing the president, with that task being given thereafter to the regime-loyal National Assembly. During Caetano's time in office, his attempts at minor political reform were obstructed by the important Salazarist elements within the regime (known as the Bunker). The Estado Novo's political police — the PIDE (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado), later to become DGS (Direcção Geral de Segurança), and originally the PVDE (Polícia de Vigilância e Defesa do Estado) — persecuted opponents of the regime, who were often tortured, imprisoned or killed. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado or PIDE (literally, International and State Defense Police), was the main tool of repression used by the Portuguese Fascist regime, the Estado Novo. ...


The International context was not favourable to the Portuguese regime. The Cold War was near its peak, and both Capitalist and Communist-bloc nations were supporting the guerrillas in the Portuguese colonies, attempting to bring these under, respectively, American and Soviet influence (see Portuguese Colonial War). The intransigence of the regime and the desire of many colonial residents to remain under Portuguese rule led to a delayed decolonisation process, in the case of Angola and Mozambique, nearly 20 years. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Portugal Angola (1961-74): MPLA, UNITA, FNLA Guinea-Bissau (1963-74): PAIGC FRELIMO (1964-74): Strength 169,000 70,000 in Angola 42,000 in Guinea-Bissau 57,000 in Mozambique 20,000 6,500 in Angola 7,000 in Guinea-Bissau 6,500 in Mozambique Casualties 8,290...


Unlike other European colonial powers, Portugal had long-standing and close ties to its African colonies. In the view of many Portuguese, a colonial empire was necessary to continued national power and influence. In contrast to Britain and France, Portuguese colonial settlers had extensively inter-married and assimilated within the colony over a period of 400 years. Despite objections in world forums such as the United Nations, Portugal had long maintained that its African colonies were an integral part of Portugal, and felt obliged to militarily defend them against Communist-inspired armed groups, particularly after India's unilateral and forcible annexation of Portuguese enclaves Goa, Daman and Diu, in 1961. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Goa   (Konkani: गोंय goṃya; Marathi: गोवा govā; Portuguese: Goa) is Indias smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population (after Sikkim, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh). ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ...


Independence movements in the African colonies — Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Cape Verde — all eventually manifested some form of armed guerilla resistance. Except in Portuguese Guinea, these armed guerilla forces were easily contained by Portuguese counterinsurgency forces and home defense militia, despite various arms embargoes against Portugal. Nevertheless, the various conflicts forced the Salazar and subsequent Caetano regimes to spend more of the country's budget on colonial administration and military expenditures, and Portugal soon found itself increasingly isolated from the rest of the world. After Caetano succeeded to the presidency, colonial war became a major cause of dissent and a focus for anti-government forces in Portuguese society. Many students and anti-war activists were forced to leave the country so they could escape imprisonment and torture by government forces.


Economically, the regime maintained a policy of corporatism that resulted in the placement of a big part of the Portuguese economy in the hands of a few industrial groups. However, the economy was growing strongly, especially after the late 1950s, and Portugal co-founded EFTA, the OECD and NATO. The administration of its African colonies was costing the Portuguese state an increasing percentage of its annual budget, and this contributed to the impoverishment of the Portuguese economy, as money was diverted from infrastructural investments in the home country. Until the 1960s the country remained relatively poor, which stimulated emigration after WWII to fast-growing, labour scarce west European countries. To many outsiders, the Portuguese government was ageing, seemingly unresponsive to a world that was undergoing great cultural and intellectual change. ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on May 3, 1960 as an alternative for European states that were not allowed or did not wish to join the European Community (now the European Union). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Events

In February 1974, Caetano determined to remove General António Spínola in the face of increasing dissent by Spinola over the promotion of military officers and the direction of Portuguese colonial policy. At this point, several left-wing military officers who opposed the war formed a conspiracy - the Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA, "Armed Forces Movement"), to overthrow the government by military coup. The MFA was headed by Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho and joined by Salgueiro Maia. The movement was significantly aided by other officers in the Portuguese army who supported Spinola and democratic civil and military reform. Some observers have speculated that Francisco da Costa Gomes actually led the revolution. // Main Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA, Movement of Armed Forces) forces: 1st Engineer Regiment: RE 1 (Regimento de Engenharia Nº 1), Lisbon Military Administration School: EPAM (Escola Prática de Administração Militar), Lisbon 5th Hunter Battalion: BC 5 (Batalhão de Caçadores Nº 5), Lisbon 1st Light... António Sebastião Ribeiro de Spínola (pron. ... The Movement of the Armed Forces (Movimento das Forças Armadas - MFA) was an organisation of lower-ranked officers in the military which was responsible for the Carnation Revolution of 25 April 1974, coup which ended the fascist New State in Portugal. ... Otelo Nuno Romão Saraiva de Carvalho (31 August 1936 - ) is a Portuguese former military officer who was the chief strategist of the 25 April Revolution. ... Salgueiro Maia (*July 1, 1944 in Castelo de Vide, Portugal; †April 4, 1992 in Santarém) was captain of the Portuguese army. ... Francisco da Costa Gomes (pron. ...

Portuguese Government poster from the mid-70's
Portuguese Government poster from the mid-70's

There were two secret signals in the revolution: first the airing of the song E depois do adeus by Paulo de Carvalho, Portugal's entry in the Eurovision Song Contest, which alerted the rebel captains and soldiers to begin the coup. Next, on April 25, 1974 at 12:15 am, the national radio broadcast Grândola, Vila Morena, a song by Zeca Afonso, a progressive folk singer forbidden on Portuguese radio at the time. This was the signal that the MFA gave to take over strategic points of power in the country and "announced" that the revolution had started and nothing would stop it except "the possibility of a regime's repression". Image File history File links Povo_mfa. ... Image File history File links Povo_mfa. ... E Depois do Adeus (In English And After Goodbye) was Portugals entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1974. ... The modern logo was introduced for the 2004 Contest to create a consistent visual identity. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Grândola Vila Morena is a Portuguese song by Zeca Afonso, that tells of the fraternity among the people of Grândola, a town in the Alentejo. ... José Afonso José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, also known as Zeca Afonso (pron. ...


Six hours later, the Caetano regime relented. Despite repeated appeals from the "captains of April" (of the MFA) on the radio inciting the population to stay at home, thousands of Portuguese descended on the streets, mixing themselves with the military insurgents. One of the central points of those gathering was the Lisbon flower market, then richly stocked with carnations, which were in season. Some military insurgents would put these flowers in their gun-barrels, an image which was shown on television around the world. This would be the origin of the name of this "Carnation revolution".


Caetano found refuge in the main Lisbon military police station at the Largo do Carmo. This building was surrounded by the MFA, which pressured him to cede power to General Spínola. Both Caetano (the prime minister) and Américo Thomaz (the President) fled to Brazil. Caetano spent the rest of his life in Brazil, while Thomaz returned to Portugal a few years later. Marcelo Caetano also spelled Marcello Caetano (August 17, 1906- October 26, 1980) was a Portuguese politician. ... António Sebastião Ribeiro de Spínola (pron. ... Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás (pron. ...


The revolution was closely watched from neighbouring Spain, where the government and opposition were planning for the succession of Francisco Franco, who died a year later, in 1975. Succession is the act or process of pooing or of following in order or sequence. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20th (or possibly 19th) November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...


Consequences

Portuguese soldier with a carnation in the barrel of his gun during the Carnation Revolution.
This child makes his victory sign beside the soldiers

The revolution in Portugal initiated the process which political scientist Samuel P. Huntington called the "third wave of democratisation;" a process of democratisation which then spread to Greece, Spain and Latin America. Soon after the 25th, all of the hundreds of political prisoners were released from prison. Exiled opposition political leaders, like Álvaro Cunhal and Mário Soares returned to the country in the following days and were received in apotheosis. One week later, May 1st was legally celebrated in the streets for the first time in many years. In Lisbon, about 1,000,000 people from all the country joined this occasion and listened to the speeches of Cunhal and Soares. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 669 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Carnation Revolution. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 669 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Carnation Revolution. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Cunhal in his youth Álvaro Cunhal in 1998 Álvaros Funeral in Lisbon Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal, (10 November 1913 - 13 June 2005), Portuguese politician, was secretary-general of the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) from 1961 to 1992. ... Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares (pron. ... Look up Apotheosis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ...


Portugal went through a turbulent period, commonly called the Continuing Revolutionary Process (Portuguese: Processo Revolucionário em Curso, or PREC) that lasted until November 25, 1975, marked by constant friction between liberal democratic forces and communist ones. After a year, the first free election was carried out on April 25, 1975 in order to write a new Constitution that would replace the Constitution of 1933 that ruled the country for the reign of the Estado Novo. In 1976, another election was carried out and the first Constitutional government, led by Mário Soares, entered office. Meanwhile, the colonial war ended and the African colonies gained independence. The colony of East Timor also proclaimed its independence, but was invaded by Indonesia in 1975. November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... An election of a Constituent Assembly was carried out in Portugal on April 25 of 1975, exactly one year after the Carnation Revolution and was the first free election in fifty years, the first in the new democratic regime created after the revolution which made the turnout the highest ever. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Portuguese legislative election of 1976 took place on April 25, exactly one year after the previous election, and two years after the Carnation Revolution. ... The Indonesian invasion of East Timor began on December 7 1975. ...


The decolonisation process, whose guidelines were approved with the Alvor Agreement, was generally marked by the handover of power, without free elections, to liberation movements (some supported by the Soviet Union) and by the general disregard for the interests and property of the Portuguese-born or Portuguese-origin population.


Freedom Day

Freedom Day on April 25 is a national holiday in Portugal, with official and some popular commemorations, though some right-wing sectors of the population still regard the developments after the coup d'état as pernicious for the country. On the other hand, some of the military leaders lament that the leftist inspiration of the uprising has since been abandoned. Holidays in Portugal: Categories: | | ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ...


External references

George Wright can refer to different people: George Wright, a Canadian politician. ... Maurice Brinton was the pen name under which Chris Pallis (1923-2005) wrote and translated for the British libertarian socialist group Solidarity from 1960 until the early 1980s. ...

See also


FILMS // Main Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA, Movement of Armed Forces) forces: 1st Engineer Regiment: RE 1 (Regimento de Engenharia Nº 1), Lisbon Military Administration School: EPAM (Escola Prática de Administração Militar), Lisbon 5th Hunter Battalion: BC 5 (Batalhão de Caçadores Nº 5), Lisbon 1st Light... Estado Novo (Portuguese for New State) was the name of the authoritarian government installed in Brazil by President Getúlio Dornelles Vargas in 1937. ... Combatants Portugal Angola (1961-74): MPLA, UNITA, FNLA Guinea-Bissau (1963-74): PAIGC FRELIMO (1964-74): Strength 169,000 70,000 in Angola 42,000 in Guinea-Bissau 57,000 in Mozambique 20,000 6,500 in Angola 7,000 in Guinea-Bissau 6,500 in Mozambique Casualties 8,290...

  • The Carnation Revolution (Cravos de Abril, 1976) – historical documentary, b/w and color 16 mm, 40 min, by Ricardo Costa, portraying the revolutionary events from the 24th April 1974 up the 1st of May, illustrated by the French cartoonist Siné. Find information in french.
  • Scenes from the Class Struggle in Portugal - U.S./Portugal 1977, 16mm, b/w and color, 85 min, by Robert Krammer and Philip Spinelli.
  • Capitães de Abril (April Captains, 1997 fiction feature film), by Maria de Medeiros.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carnation Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1536 words)
The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, left-leaning, military-led revolution started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after a two-year process of a Left-wing semi-military administration.
The revolution was closely watched from neighbouring Spain, where democrats and totalitarians were planning for the succession of Francisco Franco, who died a year later, in 1975.
The carnation is the symbol of this revolution, since soldiers put these flowers in their guns, in what came to symbolise the absence of violence in changing the regime in Portugal — a regime that had been one of the longest single right-wing party regimes of the 20th century.
Carnation Revolution - definition of Carnation Revolution in Encyclopedia (1139 words)
The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was a bloodless left-leaning revolution started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy at the end of a two-year process of a communist dominated military administration.
The carnation is the symbol of this revolution, since soldiers put these flowers in their guns, in what came to symbolise the absence of violence for changing the regime in Portugal—a regime that had been one of the longest rightist dictatorships of the 20th century, though easily overshadowed by some of the leftist ones.
The revolution was closely watched from neighbouring Spain, where democrats and totalitarians were planning for the succession of Francisco Franco, who would later die in 1975.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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