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Encyclopedia > Carmine

Carmine

Carminic acid

Carmine (IPA: [ˈkɑrmaɪn -mɪn -min]), also called Crimson Lake, Cochineal, Natural Red 4, C.I. 75470 or E120, is a pigment of a bright red color obtained from the carminic acid produced by some scale insects, such as the cochineal and the Polish cochineal, and is used as a general term for a particularly deep red color. Carmine is used in the manufacture of artificial flowers, paints, rouge, cosmetics, food additives, and crimson ink. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (934x446, 12 KB) Chemical structure of carminic acid created with ChemDraw. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (934x446, 12 KB) Chemical structure of carminic acid created with ChemDraw. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of roughly 625–750 nm. ... Crimson - A deep red color tinged with blue; also, red color in general; deep red color. ... Families Aclerdidae Asterolecaniidae Beesoniidae Carayonemidae Cerococcidae Coccidae Conchaspididae Dactylopiidae Diaspididae Electrococcidae Eriococcidae Grimaldiellidae Halimococcidae Inkaidae Jersicoccidae Kermesidae Kerriidae Kukaspididae Labiococcidae Lecanodiaspididae Margarodidae Micrococcidae Ortheziidae Phenacoleachiidae Phoenicococcidae Pseudococcidae Putoidae Stictococcidae The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, notable for their habit of secreting a waxy covering that covers... Binomial name Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... Binomial name Porphyrophora polonica Linnaeus, 1758 Area where the Polish cochineal was found in commercial quantities[2] Synonyms Coccus polonicus Linnaeus, 1758 Coccus radicum Beckmann, 1790 Coccionella polonica Hahnemann, 1793 Porphyrophora frischii Brandt, 1835 Porphyrophora fritchii Signoret, 1869 Margarodes polonicus Cockerell, 1902 Polish cochineal (Porphyrophora polonica L.), also known as... Carmine is the general term for a particularly deep red color. ... Artificial Flowers and imitations of natural flowers are sometimes made for scientific purposes (as the collection of glass flowers at Harvard University, which illustrates the flora of the United States), but more often as articles of decoration and ornament. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Rouge means red in French and it can refer to: A fine powder of iron(III) oxide, used for polishing or cosmetics. ... For other uses, see Cosmetic. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... Crimson is a strong, bright deep red color combined with some blue, resulting in a tiny degree of purple. ...

Contents

Production

Carmine may be prepared from cochineal, by boiling dried insects in water to extract the carminic acid and then treating the clear solution with alum, cream of tartar, stannous chloride, or potassium hydrogen oxalate; the coloring and animal matters present in the liquid are thus precipitated. Other methods are in use; sometimes egg white, fish glue, or gelatine are added before the precipitation. Binomial name Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... A crystal of alum Alum, Allom [aluminium potassium sulphate], in chemistry, is a term given to the crystallized double sulfates of the typical formula M+2SO4·M3+2(SO4)3·24H2O, where M+ is the sign of an alkali metal (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, or caesium), and M3+ denotes one... Potassium bitartrate also potassium hydrogen tartrate has formula KC4H5O6. ... Tin(II) chloride (stannous chloride) is a white crystalline solid with the formula SnCl2. ... The oxalate (also ethanedioate) ion is (COO)22− and is oxalic acid without the two hydrogen ions. ... Albumen redirects here. ... An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue. ... Gelatin (also gelatine) is a translucent brittle solid, colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless and odorless, that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue. ...


The quality of carmine is affected by the temperature and the degree of illumination during its preparation, sunlight being requisite for the production of a brilliant hue. It differs also according to the amount of alumina present in it. It is sometimes adulterated with cinnabar, starch and other materials; from these the carmine can be separated by dissolving it in ammonia. Good carmine should crumble readily between the fingers when dry. Fig. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ... Adulterants are chemical impurities or substances that by law do not belong in a food, pesticide, or other substance. ... Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ...


Carmine lake is a pigment obtained by adding freshly precipitated alumina to decoction of cochineal.


Carmine can be used as a staining agent in microbiology, as a Best's carmine to stain glycogen, mucicarmine to stain acidic mucopolysaccharides, and carmalum to stain cell nuclei. In these applications, it is applied together with a mordant, usually an Al(III) salt. Staining is a biochemical technique of adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. ... Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long unbranched polysaccharides, made up of repeating disaccharides that may be sulphated (e. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Look up Mordant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ...


Allergic reactions to carmine

Carmine is used as a food dye in many different products such as juice, ice cream, yogurt, and candies, eyeshadow, lipstick, etc. Although principally a red dye, it is found in many foods that are shades of red, pink, and purple. As a food dye it has been known to cause severe allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock in some people[1]. Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... Orange juice Juice is a liquid naturally contained in vegetable or fruit tissue. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... A wide range of candies on display on a market in Barcelona, Spain. ... Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction to a trigger substance, called an allergen. ...


Food products containing carmine-based food dye may prove to be a concern for people who are allergic to carmine, or people who choose not consume any or certain animals, such as vegetarians, vegans, and followers of religions with dietary law (e.g. kashrut in Judaism and halaal in Islam). Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming the flesh of any animal (including sea animals) with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs[1]. Some vegetarians choose to also refrain from wearing clothing that has involved the death of animals, such as leather, silk... The logo of the worlds first Vegan Society, registered in 1944. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Halaal (حلال, halāl, halal) is an Islamic Arabic term meaning permissible. In English it is most frequently used to refer to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Local regulations for use of Carmine in foodstuffs

In the United States

In the United States, Carmine is approved as dye for foodstuffs.


Carmine is not required by the FDA to be explicitly named in all ingredient lists, and may sometimes be represented under "natural coloring" or "added coloring." As of the end of January 2006, the FDA is evaluating a proposal[1] that would require food products containing carmine to list it by name on the ingredient label. It was also announced[citation needed] that the FDA will separately review the ingredient labels of prescription drugs which contain colorings derived from carmine. A request from the Center for Science in the Public Interest[citation needed] to require ingredient labels to explicitly state that carmine may cause severe allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock and that is derived from insects was declined by the FDA. Food industries were aggressively opposed to the idea of writing "insect based" on the label and they finally agreed to simply putting "carmine."[citation needed] 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction to a trigger substance, called an allergen. ...


Although concerns over hazards from allergic reactions have been asserted, the United States Food and Drug Administration agency (FDA) has not banned the use of carmine and states it found no evidence of a "significant hazard" to the general population.[2] FDA logo The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics in the United States. ...


In the European Union

In the European Union the use of carmine in foodstuffs is regulated under the commission's directives governing food additives in general ([3], [4]) and food dyes in particular ([5]) and listed under the names Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmines and Natural Red 4 as additive E 120 in the list of EU-approved food additives ([6]). The directive governing food dyes approves the use of carmine for certain groups of foodstuffs only (a list of approved uses is included in Annexes I and III of EU-Directive 94/36 [7]) and specifies a maximum amount which is permitted or restricts it to the quantum satis. The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... For the mathematical constant see: E (mathematical constant). ... Quantum Satis (abbreviation qs or QS) is a Latin term meaning The amount which is needed. ...


The EU-Directive 2000/13/EC [8] on food labeling mandates that carmines (like all food additives) must be included in the list of ingredients of a food product with its additive category and listed name or additive number, that is either as Food colour carmines or as Food colour E 120 in the local language(s) of the market(s) the product is sold in.


Although concerns of hazards from allergic reactions were raised, the use of carmine in foodstuffs is not banned in the EU. However, the use of carmine in foodstuffs has been discouraged by european food safety authorities, and although it is predominately used as colouring in alcoholic beverages, it can still be found in foods such as supermarket Indian currys. A re-evaluation process of the approval status of several food colours (including carmine) was started by the Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food of the European Food Safety Authority in early 2006 and is scheduled to be completed by 2008 ([9] Accessed on 2 January 2007, [10]) The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), an agency of the European Union, began operating in 2002. ...


References

  • Amy Butler Greenfield – A Perfect Red: Empire, Espionage, and the Quest for the Color of Desire, Harper Collins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-052275-5
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Crimson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (756 words)
Crimson, or crimson Lake, or carmine is sometimes the names given to the dye made from the dried bodies of the female cochineals although it is more common to call the pigment "cochineal" after the insect from which it is made.
Carmine is an aluminium and calcium salt of carminic acid and carmine lake is an aluminium or aluminum-tin lake of cochineal extract, whereas Crimson lake is prepared by striking down an infusion of cochineal with a 5 percent solution of alum and cream of tartar.
Purple lake is prepared like carmine lake with the addition of lime to produce the deep purple tone.
Rev. Al Carmines, Off-Off-Broadway Theater Pioneer, Dies: Theater News on TheaterMania.com (564 words)
Al Carmines, a producer-composer-singer-actor who was one of the pioneers of the avant-garde Off-Off-Broadway theater movement in the 1960s, died on Tuesday, August 9 at St. Vincent's Hospital in Greenwich Village at age 69.
Carmines exhibited talent at an early age and won a scholarship that he could have applied to any music school, but he decided instead to go into the ministry and enrolled at Swarthmore, where he majored in English and philosophy.
Carmine and Nichols agreed with the proviso that the company would offer no religious plays and would not be subject to any form of censorship.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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