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Encyclopedia > Carmagnola

Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola (1390 - May 5, 1432), Italian soldier of fortune, was born at Carmagnola near Turin, and began his military career when twelve years old under Facino Cane, a condottiere then in the service of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke of Milan. Events Births December 27 - Anne Mortimer John Dunstable, English composer (d. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... A Soldier of Fortune is another term for a professional mercenary. ... Location Region Piedmont Province Turin Area   – Total   – Water 130 km² (50 mi²) ##.# km² (#.# mi²) #.##% Population   – Total (2002)   – Density 857,433 6,596/km² Time zone CET: UTC+1 Latitude Longitude   45°04′ N 7°40′ E1. ... Condottieri were mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states from the late Middle Ages until the mid-fifteenth century. ... Giangaleazzo Visconti (1351-1406) was the first Duke of Milan and he ruled the city for much of the early Renaissance. ...


On the death of the latter his duchy was divided among his captains, but his son and heir, Filippo Maria, determined to reconquer it by force of arms. Facino Cane being dead, Visconti applied to Carrnagnola, then in his thirtieth year, and gave him command of the army. That general's success was astonishingly rapid, and soon the whole duchy was brought once more under Visconti's sway. But Filippo Maria, although he rewarded Carmagnola generously, feared that he might become a danger to himself, and instead of giving him further military commands made him governor of Genoa. Filippo Maria Visconti Filippo Maria Visconti, (1392–1447), who became nominal ruler of Pavia in 1402, succeeded his assassinated brother Gian Maria Visconti as Duke of Milan. ... Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ...


Carmagnola felt greatly aggrieved, and failing to obtain a personal interview with the duke, threw up his commission and offered his services to the Venetians (1425). He was well received in Venice, for the republic was beginning to fear the ambitions of the Visconti, and the new doge, Francesco Foscari, was anxious to join the Florentines and go to war with Milan. Carmagnola himself represented the dukes forces as much less numerous than they were supposed to be, and said that the moment was an opportune one to attack him. These arguments, combined with the doge's warlike temper, prevailed; Carmagnela was made captain-general of St Mark in 1426, and war was declared. Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... The chief office in the historical city states of Venice and Genoa was the Doge (from the Latin dux--leader). ... Francesco Foscari was doge of Venice at the height of the Italian Renaissance. ...


But while the republic was desirous of rapid and conclusive operations, it was to the interest of Carmagnola, as indeed to all other soldiers of fortune, to make the operations last as long as possible, to avoid decisive operations, and to liberate all prisoners quickly. Consequently the campaign dragged on interminably, some battles were won and others lost, truces and peace treaties were made only to be broken, and no definite result was achieved.


Carmagnola's most important success was the battle of Maclodio (1427), but he did not follow it up. The republic, impatient of his dilatoriness, raised his emoluments and promised him immense fiefs including the lordship of Milan, so as to increase his ardour, but in vain. At the same time Carmagnola was perpetually receiving messengers from Visconti, who offered him great rewards if he would abandon the Venetians. The general trifled with his past as with his present employers, believing in his foolish vanity that he held the fate of both in his hand. But the Venetians were dangerous masters to trifle with, and when they at last lost all patience, the Council of Ten determined to bring him to justice.


Summoned to Venice to discuss future operations on March 29, 1432, he came without suspicion. On his arrival at the ducal palace he was seized, imprisoned and brought to trial for treason against the republic. Although the doge befriended him he was condemned to death and beheaded on the 5th of May. A man of third-rate ability, his great mistake was that he failed to see that he could not do with a solvent and strong government what he could with bankrupt tyrants without military resources, and that the astute Visconti meant to ruin him for his abandonment. March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... // Beheading—Facsimile of a Miniature on Wood in the Cosmographie Universelle of Munster: in folio, Basle, 1552. ...


Bibliography

The best account of Carmagnola is Horatio Brown's essay in his Studies in Venetian History (London, 1907); see also A Battistella, Il Conde di Carmagnola (Genoa, 1889),; E Ricotti, Storia delie Compagnie di Ventura (Turin, 1845). Alessandro Manzoni made this episode the subject of a poetical drama, Il Conte di Carmagnola (1826). Alessandro Manzoni Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Manzoni (March 7, 1785–May 22, 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist. ...


Carmagnola is a character in Rafael Sabatini's Bellarion, though he is portrayed as swaggering and self-important, and becomes a minor antagonist. Rafael Sabatini (April 29, 1875 - February 13, 1950) was an author of novels of romance and adventure. ...


This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclop√¶dia Britannica, which is in the public domain. The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911), contend supporters, in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
IL CONTE DI CARMAGNOLA (374 words)
Il Conte di Carmagnola è una tragedia scritta da Alessandro Manzoni nel 1816 e pubblicata nel 1820.
Nel campo veneziano il Carmagnola apprende che i nemici si stanno schierando a Maclodio (coro).
Nell'ultimo atto il Carmagnola, deluso dalla giustizia umana, si affida a quella divina.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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