The site of Marstrand was chosen because of its location and its access to an ice free port. Initially a square stone tower was constructed, but by 1680 it was reconstructed and replaced by a round shaped tower. Successive additions to the fortress were carried out, by the inmates sentenced to hard labour, until 1860 when it was reported finished. The fortress was decomissioned as a permanent defense installation in 1882, but remained in military use until the early 1990s.
The fortress was attacked and sieged twice falling into enemy hands. In 1677 it was conquered by Gyldenl÷we, the Danish military commander in Norway and in 1719 by the Norwegian Admiral Tordenskjold. At both occasions the fortress was returned to Swedish control through negotiations and treaties.
Carlsten has been a Regents Professor since 1992, a prestigious distinction awarded to only three current MSU faculty members, and he was the director of the Optical Technology Center at MSU from 1992-1997.
Carlsten came to MSU from a post as an associate group leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Carlsten says he stays at MSU because he enjoys his research, the students, fly fishing and the mountains.
She testified that in the workplace Carlsten discussed Scientology's religious practices, including an "auditing" process utilizing a device known as "an e-meter" to register a person's inner "engrams," terms the stenographer asked Morgan to spell as jurors looked on with curiosity.
Morgan testified she became aware Carlsten was a Scientologist "from some of the things in the office," including a poster of "the Bridge to Total Freedom," Scientology's reference to its study process.
Carlsten's attorney, Lanni, argued that Scientology was being used by Morgan as a smoke screen.
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