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Encyclopedia > Carlo Goldoni
Carlo Goldoni
Carlo Goldoni

Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatre's greatest authors. His works, along with those of the modernist Luigi Pirandello, include some of Italy's most famous and best-loved plays. Audiences have admired the plays of Goldoni, one of Italy's most internationally recognized writers, for their ingenious mix of wit and honesty. Significantly, he offered contemporary theatre-goers images of themselves, often dramatizing the life, values, and conflicts of the emerging middle classes. Though he wrote in French and Italian, his plays make rich use of Venetian dialect, regional vernacular, and colloquialisms. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Template:Unsourced A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is someone who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ...

Contents

Biography

Memoirs

There is an abundance of autobiographical information on Goldoni, most of which comes from the introductions to his plays and from his Memoirs. However, these memoirs are known to contain many errors of fact, especially about his earlier years.


In these memoirs, he paints himself as a born comedian, careless, light-hearted and with a happy temperament, proof against all strokes of fate, yet thoroughly respectable and honorable. Such characters were common enough in Italy.


Early life and studies

Goldoni was born in Venice in 1707, the son of Margherita and Giulio Goldoni. In his memoirs, Goldoni describes his father as a physician, and claims that he was introduced to theatre by his grandfather Carlo Alessandro. In reality, it seems that Giulio was only an apothecary, and he was born four years after his grandfather's death. In any case, Goldoni was deeply interested in theatre since his earliest years, and all attempts to direct his activity into other channels were of no avail: his toys were puppets and his books, plays. Venice, (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Link title Interior of an apothecarys shop. ...


His father placed him under the care of the philosopher Caldini at Rimini but the youth soon ran away with a company of strolling players and came to Venice. In 1723 his father matriculated him into the stern Collegio Ghislieri in Pavia, which imposed the tonsure and monastic habits on its students. However, he relates in his Memoirs that a considerable part of his time was spent in reading Greek and Latin comedies. He had already begun writing at this time; and, in his third year, he composed a libellous poem (Il colosso) in which he ridiculed the daughters of certain Pavian families. As a result of that incident (and/or of a visit paid with some schoolmates to a local brothel) he was expelled from the school and had to leave the city (1725). He studied law at Udine, and eventually took his degree at Modena. He was employed as law clerk at Chioggia and Feltre, after which he returned to his native city and began practicing. Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. ... Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Udine (Friulian Udin, Slovene Videm) is a city in the north-east of Italy, capital of the historical region of Friuli, in the middle of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche), less than 40 km far from the Slovenian border. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Chioggia is a coastal town and comune of the province of Venice in the Veneto region of northern Italy, 45°13N 12°17E, situated on a small island at the southern entrance to the Lagoon of Venice about 25 km south of Venice (50 km by road); causeways connect it... Feltre (pop. ...


Educated as a lawyer, and holding lucrative positions as secretary and councillor, he seemed, indeed, at one time to have settled down to the practice of law, but an unexpected summons to Venice, after an absence of several years, he changed his career, and thenceforth he devoted himself to writing plays and managing theatres. His father died in 1731. In 1732, to avoid an unwanted marriage, he left the town for Milan and then for Verona, where the theatre manager Giuseppe Imer helped him on his way to becoming a comical poet as well as introducing him to his future wife, Nicoletta Conio. Goldoni returned with her to Venice, where he stayed until 1743. Milan (Italian: Milano; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Verona (population est. ...


Theatrical career

He entered the Italian theatre scene with a tragedy, Amalasunta, produced at Milan. The play was a critical and financial failure. Submitting it to Count Prata, director of the opera, he was told that his piece "was composed with due regard to the rules of Aristotle and Horace, but not according to those laid down for the Italian drama." "In France," continued the count, "you can try to please the public, but here in Italy it is the actors and actresses whom you must consult, as well as the composer of the music and the stage decorators. Everything must be done according to a certain form which I will explain to you." Goldoni thanked his critic, went back to his inn and ordered a fire, into which he threw the manuscript of his Amalasunta. His next play, Belisario, written in 1734, was more successful, though of its success he afterward professed himself ashamed. Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ...


He wrote other tragedies for a time, but he was not long in discovering that his bent was for comedy. He had come to realize that the Italian stage needed reforming, and adopting Molière as his model, he went to work in earnest, and in 1738 produced his first real comedy, L'uomo di mondo ("The Man of the World"). During his many wanderings and adventures in Italy, he was constantly at work, and when, at Livorno, he became acquainted with the manager Medebac, he determined to pursue the profession of playwriting in order to make a living. He was employed by Medebac to write plays for his theater in Venice. He worked for other managers, and produced during his stay in that city some of his most characteristic works. He also wrote Momolo Cortesan in 1738. By 1743, he had perfected his hybrid style of playwriting (combining the model of Moliere, with the strengths of Commedia Dell'Arte and his own wit and sincerity). This style was typified in La Donna di garbo, the first Italian comedy of its kind. Molière, engraved on the frontispiece to his Works. ... Livorno, sometimes in English Leghorn, (population 170,000) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. ...


Move to France and death

In 1757, he engaged in a bitter dispute with playwright Carlo Gozzi, which left him utterly disgusted with the tastes of his countrymen; so much that in 1761 he moved to Paris, where he received a position at court and was put in charge of the Theatre Italien. He spent the rest of his life in France, composing most of his plays in French and writing his memoirs in that language. Even though his works became extremely popular in Italy, he could never be induced to revisit his native land. Carlo, Count Gozzi (13 December 1720 – April 4, 1806), was an Italian dramatist. ...


Among the plays which he wrote in French, the most successful was Le Bourru bienfaisant, produced on the occasion of the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette in 1771. He enjoyed considerable popularity in France, and when he retired to Versailles the King gave him a pension. However, he lost this pension once the French Revolution broke out. The Convention voted to restore his pension the day after his death. It was restored to his widow, at the pleading of the poet André Chénier. "She is old," he urged, "she is seventy-six, and her husband has left her no heritage save his illustrious name, his virtues and his poverty." Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Versailles (pronounced , in French), formerly the de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799/1804) was a vital period in the history of French, and Europe as a whole. ... André Chénier André Marie Chénier (October 30, 1762 – July 25, 1794) was a French poet, associated with the events of the French Revolution. ...


Goldoni's impact on Italian theatre

Goldoni relates in considerable length in his Memoirs the state of Italian comedy when he began writing. At that time, Italian comedy revolved around the conventionality of the Commedia dell'Arte, or improvised comedy. Goldoni took to himself the task of superseding the comedy of masks and the comedy of intrigue by representations of actual life and manners. He rightly maintained that Italian life and manners were susceptible of artistic treatment such as had not been given them before. Karel Dujardins set his closely-observed scene of a travelling troupes makeshift stage against idealized ruins in the Roman Campagna: dated 1657 (Louvre Museum) Commedia dellarte (Italian: play of professional artists also interpreted as comedy of humors), also known as Extemporal Comedy, was a popular form of improvisational...


In this project, Goldoni was entirely successful. His works are a lasting monument to the changes which he brought about: a dramatic revolution that had been attempted but not achieved before, by men whose talents were unequal to the task. Goldoni's importance was rather in giving good examples than precepts. Goldoni says that he took for his models the plays of Molière, and whenever a piece of his own succeeded he whispered to himself, "Good, but not yet Molière." The great Frenchman was the object of his idolatry. However, Goldoni's plays are gentler and more optimistic in tone than Molière's.


It was this very success that was the object of harsh critiques by Carlo Gozzi, who accused Goldoni of having deprived the Italian theatre of the charms of poetry and imagination. The great success of Gozzi's fairy dramas so irritated Goldoni that led to his self-exile to France.


It is somewhat remarkable that Goldoni should have been the only one of his many talented countrymen to win a European reputation as a comic writer. In tragedy other names have appeared since the death of Vittorio Alfieri, but Goldoni still stands alone. This may be partly explained by the absence in comedy of a literary style which at the same time was national. Goldoni gave to his country a classical form, which, though it has since been cultivated, has never been cultivated by a master. Vittorio Alfieri painted by Davids pupil François-Xavier Fabre, in Florence 1793 Count Vittorio Alfieri (January 17, 1749-October 8, 1803), Italian dramatist, was born at Asti in Piedmont. ...


Themes

In Goldoni's plays, written while he was still in Italy, there is a complete lack of religious and ecclesiastical subjects. This is surprising considering his staunch Catholic upbringing. He gives no thoughts to death or repentance in his memoirs, or in his comedies. Indeed, after his move to France, his plays take a clear anti-clerical tone, and often satirize the hypocrisy of monks and of the Church. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islam, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhism, Sikh, Hindu, Jain Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals which generally involve a faith in a spiritual nature as well as a study of inherited ancestral traditions... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve Apostles. ...


Goldoni was inspired by his love of human kind, and the admiration he had for his fellowman. His wrote, and was obsessed with, the relationships humans had with one another, their cities and homes, the Humanist movement, and the study of philosophy. The moral and civil values that Goldoni holds to be of utmost importance in his plays are those of rationality, civility, humanism, the importance of the rising middle-class, a progressive stance to state affairs, honor and honesty. Goldoni had a typically middle-class dislike for arrogance, intolerance and the abuse of power. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Socrates (central bare-chested figure) about to drink hemlock as mandated by the court. ...


Goldoni's main characters are no abstract examples of human virtue, nor monstrous examples of human vice. They occupy the middle ground of human temperament. Goldoni maintains an acute sensibility for the differences in social classes between his characters as well as environmental and generational changes. Goldoni pokes fun at the arrogant nobility and the pauper who lacks dignity.


Venetian and Tuscan

As in other theatrical works of the time and place, the characters in Goldoni's Italian comedies spoke originally either the literary Tuscan language (which became modern Italian) or the Venetian dialect, depending on their station in life. However, in some printed editions of his plays he often turned the Venetian texts into Tuscan, too. A business sign in Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over two million people, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ...


Works

Tragedies

  • Amalasunta, burned by Goldoni after its premiere (1733)

Tragicomedies

  • Belisario (17??)
  • Rosmonda, "Rosamund" (17??)
  • La Griselda (17??)
  • Don Giovanni Tenorio o sia Il dissoluto, "The Dissolute" (17??)
  • Rinaldo di Mont'Albano (17??)
  • Enrico (17??)
  • Giustino (17??)
  • La sposa persiana, "The Persian Wife", in verse (1753)
  • Ircana in Julfa, "Ircana in Jaffa" (17??)
  • Ircana in Ispaan, "Ircana in Isfahan" (17??)
  • La peruviana, "The Peruvian Woman" (17??)
  • La bella selvaggia, "The Savage Beauty" (17??)
  • La dalmatina, "The Dalmatian Woman" (17??)
  • Gli amori di Alessandro Magno, "The Loves of Alexander the Great" (17??)
  • Artemisia, "Artemisia" (17??)
  • Enea nel Lazio, "Aeneas in Latium" (17??)
  • Zoroastro, "Zoroaster" (17??)
  • La bella giorgiana, "The Georgian Beauty" (17??)

For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Jaffa port Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters, Yapu), is an ancient port city located in Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Map of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia highlighted Dalmatia (Croatian: Dalmacija, French: Dalmatie, German: Dalmatien, Italian: Dalmazia, Serbian Cyrillic: Далмација, Turkish: Dalmaçya, Hungarian: Dalmácia) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Artemisia was the name of two queens of Halicarnassus in the 5th century BC and 4th century BC. The first Artemisia was the daughter of Lygdamis and was set up as the tyrant of Halicarnassus by the Persians, who were at the time the overlords of Ionia, after the death... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Zoroaster; portrayed here in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ...

Comedies

  • L'uomo di mondo, "The Society Man" (17??)
  • Il prodigo, "The Prodigal Man" (17??)
  • Il Momolo cortesan, partly written, partly improvised (1738), "Momolo the Court Man"
  • Il mercante fallito o sia La bancarotta, "The Bankrupted Merchant" or "The Bankruptcy" (1741)
  • La donna di garbo (1743), "The Style Woman"
  • Il servitore di due padroni, "The Servant of Two Masters", now often retitled Arlecchino servitore di due padroni (1745) "Harlequin Servant of two Masters"
  • Il frappatore (17??)"The deceiver"
  • I due gemelli veneziani, "The Two Venetian Twins" (1745) [1]
  • L'uomo prudente, "The Prudent Man" (17??)
  • La vedova scaltra, "The Shrewd Widow" (1748)
  • La putta onorata, "The Honorable Maid" (1749)
  • La buona moglie, "The Good Wife" (1749)
  • Il cavaliere e la dama, "The Gentleman and the Lady" (17??)
  • L'avvocato veneziano, "The Venetian Lawyer" (17??)
  • Il padre di famiglia, "The Family Father" (17??)
  • La Famiglia dell'antiquario, "The Antiquarian's Family" (1750)
  • L'erede fortunata, "The Lucky Heir Woman" (1750)
  • Il teatro comico (1750-1751)"The Comical Theatre"
  • Le femmine puntigliose (1750-1751)" The Obstinate Females"
  • La bottega del caffè, "The Coffee Shop" (1750-1751)
  • Il bugiardo, "The Liar" (1750-1751)
  • L'adulatore, "The Flatterer" (17??)
  • Il poeta fanatico, "The Fanatical Poet" (17??)
  • La Pamela, "Pamela" (17??)
  • Il cavaliere di buon gusto, "The Good Taste Gentleman" (17??)
  • Il giuocatore, "The Gambler" (17??)
  • Il vero amico, "The True Friend" (17??)
  • La finta ammalata, "The Fake Patient Woman" (1750-1751)
  • La dama prudente, "The Prudent Lady" (17??)
  • L'incognita, "The Unknown Woman" (17??)
  • L'avventuriere onorato, "The Honorable Scoundrel" (1750-1751)
  • I pettegolezzi delle donne, "Women's Gossip" (1750-1751)
  • Il Moliére, "Molière" (17??)
  • La castalda (17??)"The Administrator Woman"
  • L'amante militare, "The Military Lover" (17??)
  • Il tutore, "The Guardian" (17??)
  • La moglie saggia, "The Wise Wife" (1752)
  • Il feudatario (17??)"The Fiefdom Lord"
  • Le donne gelose, "The Jaelous Women" (1752)
  • La serva amorosa, "The Loving Maid" (1752)
  • I puntigli domestici, "The Domestic Squabbles" (17??)
  • La figlia obbediente, "The Obedient Daughter" (17??)
  • I mercatanti, "The Merchants" (17??)
  • La locandiera, "The Innkeeper Woman" (1753)
  • Le donne curiose, "The Curious Women" (1753)
  • Il contrattempo o sia Il chiacchierone imprudente, "The Unwelcome Event" or "The Imprudent Talker Man" (17??)
  • La donna vendicativa, "The Vengeful Woman" (17??)
  • Opening sketch for the Teatro Comico di San Luca, October 7, 1753
  • Il geloso avaro, "The Jealous Stingy Man" (17??)
  • La donna di testa debole, "The Feeble Minded Woman" (17??)
  • La cameriera brillante, "The Brilliant Maid" (17??)
  • Il filosofo inglese, "The English Philosopher" (17??)
  • Il vecchio bizzarro, "The Bizarre Old Man" (17??)
  • Il festino, "The Banquet" (17??)
  • L'impostore, "The Imposter" (17??)
  • Opening sketch for the Teatro Comico di San Luca, fall season, 1754
  • La madre amorosa, "The Loving Mother" (17??)
  • Terenzio, "Terentio" (17??)
  • Torquato Tasso, "Torquato Tasso" (17??)
  • Il cavaliere giocondo, "The Merry Gentleman" (17??)
  • Le massere (1755)"The Farmer Women"
  • I malcontenti, "The Unsatisfied Men" (17??)
  • Opening sketch for the Teatro Comico di San Luca, fall season, 1755
  • La buona famiglia, "The Good Family" (17??)
  • Le donne de casa soa", "The Women from His Own Home" (17??)
  • Le bourru bienfaisant (1771)"The Tender-Hearted Grumpy Man" (17??)
  • L'avare fastueux (1776)"The Ostentatious Grumpy Man"

Il bugiardo (The Liar) is a comedy by Carlo Goldoni. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Autumn colours at Westonbirt Arboretum, Gloucestershire, England. ... Torquato Tasso (March 11, 1544 – April 25, 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered; 1575), in which he describes the imaginary combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. ...

Melodrama

  • La contessina, "The Young Countess", music by Maccari (1743)
  • L'Arcadia in Brenta, "The Arcadia in Brenta" music by Galuppi (1749)
  • Il filosofo di campagna, "The Country Philosopher", music by Galuppi(1754)
  • Il mercato di Malmantile, "The Malmantile Market", music by Fischietti (1757)
  • La buona fugliuola, "The Good Daughter", music by Piccinni (1760)

Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. ... The Brenta is an Italian river that runs from the Trento province to the Adriatic Sea in the Veneto region. ...

Cantatas and serenades

  • La ninfa saggia, "The Wise Nymph" (17??)
  • Gli amanti felici, "The Happy Lovers" (17??)
  • Le quattro stagioni, "The Four Seasons" (17??)
  • Il coro delle muse, "The Choir of the Muses" (17??)
  • La pace consolata, "Peace Comforted" (17??)
  • L'amor della patria, "Love for the Country" (17??)
  • L'oracolo del Vaticano, "The Vatican's Oracle" (17??)

Oratorios

  • Magdalena conversio, "The Conversion of Magdalene" (17??)

Magdalene can refer to Mary Magdalene or to Magdalene College, Cambridge This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Religious plays

  • L'unione del reale profeta Davide, "The Marriage of Royal Prophet David" (17??)

David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ...

Performances

Metempsychosis is a doctrine among some followers of Eastern teachings which expresses the theory of transmigration, that the human spirit may incarnate from one body to another, either human, animal, or inanimate, which is very different from the doctrine of reincarnation, which holds that man is an evolving being progressing... Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: Πυθαγόρας; circa 582 BC – circa 507 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) mathematician and philosopher, founder of the mathematical, mystic, religious, and scientific society called Pythagoreans. ... Transmigration can has several meanings: Transmigration of the soul is a common term for reincarnation. ...

Poetry

  • Il colosso, a satire against Pavia girls which led to Goldoni being expelled from Collegio Ghislieri (1725)
  • Il quaresimale in epilogo (1725-1726)

Intermezzos

  • Il buon padre, "The Good Father" (1729)
  • La cantatrice, "The Singer" (1729)
  • Gli sdegni amorosi, ossia il Gondolier veneziano, "The Lover's Scorn, or the Venetian Gondoliere" (1732)

Books

  • Nuovo teatro comico, "New Comic Theather", plays. Pitteri, Venice (1757)
  • Mémoires, "Memoirs". Paris (1787)
  • Goldoni's collected works. Zalta, Venice (1788–1795)

Translations

  • La storia di Miss Jenny, "The Story of Miss Jenny" of Riccoboni, into French

Archifanfaro translated by W.H. Auden with an introduction by Michael Andre in Unmuzzled OX Christopher Isherwood and W.H. Auden, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Wystan Hugh Auden (February 21, 1907–September 29, 1973) was an English poet. ... Michael Andre (born August 31, 1946) is a Canadian poet, critic and editor living in New York City. ... Unmuzzled OX, started by poet Michael Andre, edited in New York City and Kingston, Ontario, was a late-twentieth-century quarterly of poetry, art and politics. ...


References

  • The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization ed. Alfred Bates. New York: Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 63-68.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Carlo Goldoni - Wikipedia (1006 words)
Goldoni erhielt seine erste wissenschaftliche Bildung an jesuitischen und dominikanischen Kollegien in Perugia und Rimini, widmete sich dann in Venedig und Pavia dem Studium der Rechte und der Philosophie.
Goldoni hat gegen 200 Stücke geschrieben und sich in allen dramatischen Gattungen versucht.
Goldoni war der erste, der den Terminus dramma giocoso konsistent als Gattungsbezeichnung verwendete, und sein Verständnis dieses Begriffs als Mischung verschiedener Rollentypen, von serio bis buffo, wurde stilbildend für andere Librettisten, zum Beispiel Giovanni Bertati und Lorenzo Da Ponte.
Carlo Goldoni - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (156 words)
Carlo Goldoni (February 25, 1707 - February 6, 1793) was an Italian playwright.
In some of his plays he retained the masked characters of the commedia dell'arte which dominated the Italian stage at that time, but in many others, including those regarded as his best, he broke from that tradition, and wrote contemporary comedies of manners with realistic characters.
Goldoni collaborated with Baldassare Galuppi on a number of operas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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