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Encyclopedia > Carl Sagan
Carl Sagan

Born November 9, 1934(1934-11-09)
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Died December 20, 1996 (aged 62)
Seattle, Washington, U.S.
Residence Ithaca, New York, U.S.[citation needed]
Nationality American
Fields Astronomy and planetary science
Institutions Cornell University
Harvard University
Alma mater University of Chicago
Known for Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
Voyager Golden Record
Pioneer plaque
Contact
Notable awards Oersted Medal (1990)
NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal (twice)
Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction (1978)
NAS Public Welfare Medal (1994)

Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrochemist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. He pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Seattle redirects here. ... The City of Ithaca (named for the Greek island of Ithaca) sits on the southern shore of Cayuga Lake, in Central New York State. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Harvard redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. ... Cosmos: A Personal Voyage was the name of a thirteen part television series produced by Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan which was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980. ... The Voyager Golden Record. ... The illustration on the Pioneer plaque The Pioneer plaques are a pair of aluminum plaques which were placed on board the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft, featuring a pictorial message from humanity, in case either Pioneer 10 or 11 are intercepted by extraterrestrial beings. ... Contact is a 1997 science fiction film adapted from the novel by Carl Sagan. ... The Oersted Medal recognizes notable contributions to the teaching of physics. ... The NASA Distinguished Service Medal is the second highest award which may be bestowed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, ranking immediately below the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. ... The Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction has been awarded since 1962 for a distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... The Public Welfare Medal is awarded annually by the National Academy of Sciences. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... Astrochemistry is the study of the chemicals found in outer space, usually in molecular gas clouds, and their formation, interaction and destruction. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... The DNA structure might not be the only nucleic acid in the universe capable of supporting life[1] Astrobiology (from Greek: ἀστρο, astro, constellation; βίος, bios, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary study of life in space, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology. ... This article is about the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. ...


He is world-famous for writing popular science books and for co-writing and presenting the award-winning 1980 television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, which has been seen by more than 600 million people in over 60 countries, making it the most widely watched PBS program in history.[1] A book to accompany the program was also published. He also wrote the novel Contact, the basis for the 1997 Robert Zemeckis film of the same name starring Jodie Foster. During his lifetime, Sagan published more than 600 scientific papers and popular articles and was author, co-author, or editor of more than 20 books. In his works, he frequently advocated skeptical inquiry, secular humanism, and the scientific method. This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... Cosmos: A Personal Voyage was the name of a thirteen part television series produced by Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan which was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980. ... PBS redirects here. ... The cover For the TV series, see Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. ... Contact is a science fiction novel written by Carl Sagan and published in 1985. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ... Contact is a 1997 science fiction film adapted from the novel by Carl Sagan. ... Alicia Christian Jodie Foster (born November 19, 1962) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, director and producer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... -1...

Contents

Education and scientific career

Carl Sagan was born in Brooklyn, New York[2] to a Jewish family. His father, Sam Sagan, was a garment worker; his mother, Rachel Molly Gruber, was a housewife. Carl was named in honor of Rachel's biological mother, Chaiya Clara, "the mother she never knew", in Sagan's words. Sagan graduated from Rahway High School in New Jersey in 1951.[3] He attended the University of Chicago, where he received a A.B. with general and special honors (1954), a S.B. (1955) and a S.M. (1956) in physics, before earning a Ph.D. degree (1960) in astronomy and astrophysics.[4] During his time as an undergraduate, Sagan spent some time working in the laboratory of the geneticist H. J. Muller. From 1960 to 1962 he was a Miller Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1962 to 1968, he worked at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... This article is about the state. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... (See also List of types of clothing) Introduction Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... B.S. redirects here. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... A geneticist is a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms. ... Hermann Joseph H. J. Muller (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was a Nobel Prize-winning American geneticist and educator, best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (X-ray mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). ...


Sagan lectured annually at Harvard University until 1968, when he moved to Cornell University. He became a full Professor at Cornell in 1971 and directed the Laboratory for Planetary Studies there. From 1972 to 1981 he was Associate Director of the Center for Radio Physics and Space Research at Cornell. Harvard redirects here. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ...


Sagan was a leader in the U.S. space program since its inception. From the 1950s onward, he worked as an adviser to NASA. One of his many duties during his tenure at the space agency included briefing the Apollo astronauts before their flights to the Moon. Sagan contributed to most of the robotic spacecraft missions that explored the solar system, arranging experiments on many of the expeditions. He conceived the idea of adding an unalterable and universal message on spacecraft destined to leave the solar system that could be understood by any extraterrestrial intelligence that might find it. Sagan assembled the first physical message that was sent into space: a gold-anodized plaque, attached to the space probe Pioneer 10, launched in 1972. Pioneer 11, also carrying the plaque, was launched the following year. He continued to refine his designs throughout his lifetime; the most elaborate message he helped to develop and assemble was the Voyager Golden Record that was sent out with the Voyager space probes in 1977. Human spaceflight is space exploration with a human crew, and possibly passengers (in contrast to unmanned space missions, which are remotely-controlled or robotic space probes). ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earths moon. ... An artists interpretation of the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Extraterrestrial life refers to forms of life that may exist and originate outside of the planet Earth. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... These inexpensive carabiners have an anodised aluminium surface, and come in many colors. ... The illustration on the Pioneer plaque The Pioneer plaques are a pair of aluminum plaques which were placed on board the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft, featuring a pictorial message from humanity, in case either Pioneer 10 or 11 are intercepted by extraterrestrial beings. ... Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, and was the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. ... Position of Pioneer 10 and 11 Pioneer 11 was the second mission to investigate Jupiter and the outer solar system and the first to explore the planet Saturn and its main rings. ... The Voyager Golden Record. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ...


At Cornell, Sagan taught a course on critical thinking until his death in 1996 from a rare bone marrow disease. The course had only a limited number of seats. Although hundreds of students applied each year, only about 20 were chosen to attend each semester. The course was discontinued immediately after Sagan's death, but was later resumed by Professor Yervant Terzian in 2000. are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ...


Scientific achievements

Carl Sagan was central to the discovery of the high surface temperatures of the planet Venus. In the early 1960s, no one knew for certain the basic conditions of Venus' surface and Sagan listed the possibilities in a report later depicted for popularization in a Time-Life book, Planets; his own view was that the planet was dry and very hot, as opposed to the balmy paradise others had imagined. He had investigated radio emissions from Venus and concluded that there was a surface temperature of 500 °C (932 °F). As a visiting scientist to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, he contributed to the first Mariner missions to Venus, working on the design and management of the project. Mariner 2 confirmed his views on the conditions of Venus in 1962. The historical temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans throughout history, and in particular since 1850. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... Time-Life is a book, music, and video marketer, that since 2003 has been combined with catalog reseller Lillian Vernon as a subsidiary of Direct Holdings Worldwide, and is no longer owned by its former parent Time Warner. ... For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... Launch of Mariner 1 (NASA) The Mariner program was a program conducted by the American space agency NASA that launched a series of robotic interplanetary probes designed to investigate Mars, Venus and Mercury. ... -1...


Sagan was among the first to hypothesize that Saturn's moon Titan and Jupiter's moon Europa may possess oceans, a subsurface ocean, as in the case of Europa, or lakes, thus making the hypothesized water ocean on Europa potentially habitable for life.[5] Europa's subsurface ocean was later indirectly confirmed by the spacecraft Galileo. Sagan also helped solve the mystery of the reddish haze seen on Titan, revealing that it is composed of complex organic molecules constantly raining down to the moon's surface. This article is about the planet. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and gases containing carbon. ...


He furthered insights regarding the atmospheres of Venus and Jupiter as well as seasonal changes on Mars. Sagan established that the atmosphere of Venus is extremely hot and dense with crushing pressures. He also perceived global warming as a growing, man-made danger and likened it to the natural development of Venus into a hot, life-hostile planet through greenhouse gases. Sagan and his Cornell colleague Edwin Ernest Salpeter speculated about life in Jupiter's clouds, given the planet's dense atmospheric composition rich in organic molecules. He studied the observed color variations on Mars’ surface, concluding that they were not seasonal or vegetation changes as most believed, but shifts in surface dust caused by windstorms. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Edwin Ernest Salpeter (born December 3, 1924) is an Austrian-Australian-American astronomer. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... “Sandstorm” redirects here. ...


Sagan is best known, however, for his research on the possibilities of extraterrestrial life, including experimental demonstration of the production of amino acids from basic chemicals by radiation.[6] Astrobiology (in Greek astron = star, bios = life and logos = word/science), also known as exobiology (Greek: exo = out) or xenobiology (Greek: xenos = foreign) is the term for a speculative field within biology which considers the possible variety of extraterrestrial life. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ...


He is also the 1994 recipient of the Public Welfare Medal, the highest award of the National Academy of Sciences for "distinguished contributions in the application of science to the public welfare."[7] The Public Welfare Medal is awarded annually by the National Academy of Sciences. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


Scientific advocacy

Planetary Society members at the organization's founding. Carl Sagan is seated second from the right.

Sagan was a proponent of the search for extraterrestrial life. He urged the scientific community to listen with radio telescopes for signals from intelligent extraterrestrial lifeforms. So persuasive was he that by 1982, he was able to get a petition advocating SETI published in the journal Science, signed by 70 scientists, including seven Nobel Prize winners. This was a tremendous turnaround in the respectability of this controversial field. Sagan also helped Dr. Frank Drake write the Arecibo message, a radio message beamed into space from the Arecibo radio telescope on November 16, 1974, aimed at informing extraterrestrials about Earth. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1437x1521, 373 KB)Planetary society founders. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1437x1521, 373 KB)Planetary society founders. ... The 64 meter radio telescope at Parkes Observatory A radio telescope is a form of directional radio antenna used in radio astronomy and in tracking and collecting data from satellites and space probes. ... This article is about the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Professor Frank Drake Frank Drake (born May 28, 1930, Chicago, Illinois) is an American astronomer and astrophysicist. ... This is the message with color added to highlight its separate parts. ... The Arecibo Observatory is located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico on the north coast of the island. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Sagan was chief technology officer of the professional planetary research journal Icarus for twelve years. He co-founded the Planetary Society, the largest space-interest group in the world, with over 1,000,000 members in more than 149 countries, and was a member of the SETI Institute Board of Trustees. Sagan served as Chairman of the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society, as President of the Planetology Section of the American Geophysical Union, and as Chairman of the Astronomy Section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. ICARUS is the official journal of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The SETI Institute is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to scientific research, education and public outreach to explore, understand, and explain the nature and origin of the Universe. ... The American Astronomical Society (AAS) is a US society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC. The main aim of the AAS is provide a political voice for its members and organise their lobbying. ... The American Geophysical Union (or AGU) is a nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting (as of 2006) of over 49,000 members from over 140 countries. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ...


At the height of the Cold War, Sagan became involved in public awareness efforts for the effects of nuclear war when a mathematical climate model suggested that a substantial nuclear exchange could upset the delicate balance of life on Earth. He was the last of five authors — the "S" of the "TTAPS" report as the research paper came to be known. He eventually co-authored the scientific paper hypothesising a global nuclear winter following nuclear war.[8] He also co-authored the book A Path Where No Man Thought: Nuclear Winter and the End of the Arms Race, a comprehensive examination of the phenomenon of nuclear winter. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... Nuclear winter is a hypothetical global climate condition that is predicted to be a possible outcome of a large-scale nuclear war. ... Nuclear winter is a hypothetical global climate condition that is predicted to be a possible outcome of a large-scale nuclear war. ...


Sagan erroneously warned in January of 1991 that so much smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires "might get so high as to disrupt agriculture in much of South Asia...." He acknowledged the error in The Demon-Haunted World: "as events transpired, it was pitch black at noon and temperatures dropped 4-6 C over the Persian Gulf, but not much smoke reached stratospheric altitudes and Asia was spared."[9] Kuwaiti oil wells on fire. ...


In his later years Sagan advocated the creation of an organized search for near Earth objects that would impact the Earth. ( Head, Tom (2006). Conversations With Carl Sagan. University Press of Mississippi, 86-87. ISBN 1578067367.  ) When others suggested creating large nuclear bombs that could be used to alter the orbit of an NEO that was predicted to hit the Earth, Sagan proposed the Deflection Dilemma: If we create the ability to deflect an asteroid away from the Earth, then we also create the ability to deflect an asteroid towards the Earth - providing an evil power with a true doomsday bomb. ("David Morrison - Taking a Hit: Asteroid Impacts & Evolution". [Valley Astronomy Lectures]. 2007-10-03. ) (Sagan, Carl & Ostro, “Long-Range Consequences of Interplanetary Collisions”, Issues in Science and Technology Vol X (Number 4) ) Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Social concerns

Sagan believed that the Drake equation suggested that a large number of extraterrestrial civilizations would form, but that the lack of evidence of such civilizations pointed out by the Fermi paradox suggests technological civilizations tend to destroy themselves rather quickly. This stimulated his interest in identifying and publicizing ways that humanity could destroy itself, with the hope of avoiding such a cataclysm and eventually becoming a spacefaring species. Sagan's deep concern regarding the potential destruction of human civilization in a nuclear holocaust was conveyed in a memorable cinematic sequence in the final episode of Cosmos, called "Who Speaks for Earth?". Following his marriage to his third wife (novelist Ann Druyan) in June 1981, Sagan became more politically active — particularly in regard to the escalation of the nuclear arms race under President Ronald Reagan. The Drake equation (also sometimes called The Green Bank equation, The Green Bank Formula or often erroneously labeled The Sagan equation) is a famous result in the speculative fields of exobiology and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). ... A graphical representation of the Arecibo message - Humanitys first attempt to use radio waves to communicate its existence to alien civilizations The Fermi paradox is the apparent contradiction between high estimates of the probability of the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and the lack of evidence for or contact with... Technology (Gr. ... For other uses, see Cataclysm (disambiguation). ... Spacefaring is a term used to describe societies or nations capable of building and launching vehicles into space[1][2]. Some use a more strict criteria, defining spacefaring nations as those that can build, launch and return manned space vehicles. ... The end of civilization or the end of the world are phrases used in reference to human extinction scenarios, doomsday events, and related hazards which occur on a global scale. ... Nuclear Holocaust is the concept of the eradication of the human race through the means of Nuclear warfare. ... Cosmos: A Personal Voyage was the name of a thirteen part television series produced by Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan which was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980. ... Ann Druyan (b. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


In March 1983, hoping to blunt the momentum of the nuclear freeze movement, Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative — a multi-billion dollar project to develop a comprehensive defense against attack by nuclear missiles, which was quickly dubbed the "Star Wars" program. Sagan spoke out against the project, arguing that it was technically impossible to develop a system with the level of perfection required, and far more expensive to build than for an enemy to defeat through decoys and other means — and that its construction would seriously destabilize the nuclear balance between the United States and the Soviet Union, making further progress toward nuclear disarmament impossible. The nuclear freeze was a proposed agreement between the worlds nuclear powers, primarily the United States and the then-Soviet Union, to freeze all production of new nuclear arms and to leave levels of nuclear armanent where they currently were. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Missile defence is an air defence system, weapon program, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception and destruction of attacking missiles. ... A nuclear missile is a type of: missile nuclear weapon It could also refer to a missile with some form of nuclear propulsion, such as the Project Pluto cruise missile. ... For other uses, see Decoy (disambiguation). ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006 Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of nuclear weapons, particularly those of the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ...


When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev declared a unilateral moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons, which would begin on August 6, 1985 — the 40th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima — the Reagan administration dismissed the dramatic move as nothing more than propaganda, and refused to follow suit. In response, American anti-nuclear and peace activists staged a series of protest actions at the Nevada Test Site, beginning on Easter Sunday of 1986 and continuing through 1987. Hundreds of people, including such notable figures as Daniel Ellsberg and Martin Sheen, engaged in acts of civil disobedience and were arrested. Carl Sagan, who had been arrested for participating in an anti-war protest during the Vietnam War, was himself arrested on two separate occasions as he climbed over a chain-link fence at the Test Site. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... The anti-nuclear movement holds that nuclear power is inherently dangerous and thus ought to be replaced with safe and affordable renewable energy. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Daniel and Patricia Marx Ellsberg - 2006 Jacob Appelbaum Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national uproar in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, the U.S. militarys account of activities during the Vietnam War... Martin Sheen (born August 3, 1940) is an Emmy- and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A chain link fence is a type of woven fence usually made from galvanized steel wire. ...


Popularization of science

Sagan's capability to convey his ideas allowed many people to better understand the cosmos — simultaneously emphasizing the value and worthiness of the human race, and the relative insignificance of the earth in comparison to the universe. He delivered the 1977/1978 Christmas Lectures for Young People at the Royal Institution. He hosted and, with Ann Druyan, co-wrote and co-produced the highly popular thirteen-part PBS television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage modeled on Jacob Bronowski's The Ascent of Man. For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Michael Faraday delivering a Christmas Lecture in 1856. ... The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Cosmos: A Personal Voyage was the name of a thirteen part television series produced by Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan which was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980. ... Jacob Bronowski (January 18, 1908, Łódź, Congress Poland, Russian Empire - August 22, 1974, East Hampton, New York, USA) was an English-Polish mathematician, best known as the presenter of the BBC television documentary series, The Ascent of Man. ... The Ascent of Man (1973) was a groundbreaking BBC documentary series, produced in association with Time-Life Films, written and presented by Jacob Bronowski. ...

Sagan with a model of the Viking Lander probes which would land on Mars. Sagan examined possible landing sites for Viking along with Mike Carr and Hal Masursky.

Cosmos covered a wide range of scientific subjects including the origin of life and a perspective of our place in the universe. The series was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980, winning an Emmy and a Peabody Award. According to the NASA Office of Space Science, it has been since broadcast in more than 60 countries and seen by over 500 million people.[10] Image File history File links Sagan_Viking. ... Image File history File links Sagan_Viking. ... NASAs Viking program consisted of two unmanned space missions to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... For the definition, see Life. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... PBS redirects here. ... An Emmy Award. ... The George Foster Peabody Awards, more commonly referred to as the Peabody Awards, are annual international awards given for excellence in radio and television broadcasting. ...


Sagan also wrote books to popularize science, such as Cosmos, which reflected and expanded upon some of the themes of A Personal Voyage, and became the best-selling science book ever published in English;[11] The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence, which won a Pulitzer Prize; and Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science. Sagan also wrote the best-selling science fiction novel Contact, but did not live to see the book's 1997 motion picture adaptation, which starred Jodie Foster and won the 1998 Hugo Award. The cover For the TV series, see Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. ... The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence is a Pulitzer prize[1] winning 1977 book by Carl Sagan. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Contact is a science fiction novel written by Carl Sagan and published in 1985. ... Contact is a 1997 science fiction film adapted from the novel by Carl Sagan. ... Alicia Christian Jodie Foster (born November 19, 1962) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, director and producer. ... The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ...


From Cosmos and his frequent appearances on The Tonight Show, Sagan became associated with the catch phrase "billions and billions." Sagan never actually used the phrase in Cosmos series,[12] however his frequent use of term billions, and distinctive delivery with emphasis on the “b”, made him a favorite target of performers and comedy routines of Johnny Carson, Gary Kroeger, Mike Myers, Bronson Pinchot, Harry Shearer and others. Sagan took this in good humor, and his final book was entitled Billions and Billions and opened with a tongue-in-cheek discussion of this catch phrase. The indefinite and fictitious number Sagan has arisen in popular culture to indicate a count greater than 4 billion. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A catch phrase is a phrase or expression that is popularized, usually through repeated use, by a real person or fictional character. ... For other persons named John Carson, see John Carson (disambiguation). ... Gary Kroeger (born April 13, 1957) is an American actor best known for his work on Saturday Night Live from 1982 to 1985. ... For other persons of the same name, see Michael Myers. ... Bronson Alcott Pinchot (born May 20, 1959) is an American actor. ... Harry Julius Shearer (born December 23, 1943) is an American comedic actor and writer. ... Imaginary words ending in the sound -illion, such as zillion[1] and bazillion[2], are often used as fictitious names for an unspecified, large number, by analogy to names of large numbers such as billion and trillion. ... A Sagan is a humorous unit of measurement equal to at least 4 billion. ...


He wrote a sequel to Cosmos, Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space, which was selected as a notable book of 1995 by The New York Times. He appeared on PBS' Charlie Rose program in January 1995.[13] Sagan also wrote an introduction for the bestselling book by Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time. The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... This article is about the American journalist. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... A Brief History of Time is a popular science book written by Professor Stephen Hawking and first published in 1988. ...


Sagan caused mixed reactions among other professional scientists. On the one hand, there was general support for his popularization of science, his efforts to increase scientific understanding among the general public, and his positions in favor of scientific skepticism and against pseudoscience; most notably his debunking of the book Worlds in Collision by Immanuel Velikovsky. On the other hand, there was some unease that the public would misunderstand some of the personal positions and interests that Sagan took as being part of the scientific consensus. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... A Debunker is an individual who strongly believes that certain claims are false, exaggerated, unscientific or pretentious and therefore discredits and exposes them. ... Worlds in Collision book cover. ... Immanuel Velikovsky photographed by Fima Noveck, ca. ...


Late in his life, Sagan's books developed his skeptical, naturalistic view of the world. In The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark, he presented tools for testing arguments and detecting fallacious or fraudulent ones, essentially advocating wide use of critical thinking and the scientific method. The compilation, Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium, published in 1997 after Sagan's death, contains essays written by Sagan, such as his views on abortion, and his widow Ann Druyan's account of his death as a skeptic, agnostic, and freethinker.[citation needed] This article is about methodological naturalism. ... The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark is a book by Carl Sagan. ... -1... This article is about the psychological term. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ...


In 2006, Ann Druyan edited Sagan's 1985 Glasgow Gifford Lectures in Natural Theology into a new book, The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God, in which he elaborates on his views of divinity in the natural world. The Gifford Lectures were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (d. ... This article is about the physical universe. ...


Personal life and beliefs

In 1966, Sagan was asked to contribute an interview about the possibility of extraterrestrials to a proposed introduction to the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. Sagan responded by saying that he wanted editorial control and a percentage of the film's takings, which was rejected.[14]


In 1994, Apple Computer began developing the Power Macintosh 7100. They chose the internal code name "Carl Sagan", the in-joke being that the mid-range PowerMac 7100 would make Apple "billions and billions."[2] Though the project name was strictly internal and never used in public marketing, when Sagan learned of this internal usage he sued Apple Computer to force the use of a different project name. Other models released conjointly had code names such as "Cold fusion" and "Piltdown Man", and he was displeased at being associated with what he considered pseudoscience. (He was at the time writing a book debunking pseudoscience.) Though Sagan lost the suit, Apple engineers complied with his demands anyway, renaming the project "BHA" (for Butt-Head Astronomer). Sagan promptly sued Apple for libel over the new name, claiming that it subjected him to contempt and ridicule, but he lost this lawsuit as well. Still, the 7100 saw another name change: it was finally referred to internally as "LAW" (Lawyers Are Wimps).[15][16] Apple Inc. ... The Power Macintosh 7100 was a high-end Macintosh personal computer designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer from March 1994 to January 1996. ... This article is about the nuclear reaction. ... The portrait painted by John Cooke in 1915. ... From the 1980s to the present Apple Computer has been plaintiff or defendant in notable civil actions in the United States and other countries. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ...


Sagan wrote frequently about religion and the relationship between religion and science, expressing his skepticism about many conventional conceptualizations of God. Sagan once stated, for instance, that "The idea that God is an oversized white male with a flowing beard, who sits in the sky and tallies the fall of every sparrow is ludicrous. But if by 'God,' one means the set of physical laws that govern the universe, then clearly there is such a God. This God is emotionally unsatisfying... it does not make much sense to pray to the law of gravity."[17] Sagan is also widely regarded as a freethinker or skeptic; one of his most famous quotations as seen in Cosmos, was "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence." (This was actually based on a nearly identical earlier quote by fellow CSICOP founder Marcello Truzzi, "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof."[18] The quote is also known, under different wording, as the principle of Laplace — attributed to Pierre-Simon Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827), a French mathematician and astronomer: "The weight of evidence for an extraordinary claim must be proportioned to its strangeness." This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A physical law or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, or CSICOP, is a U.S. organization founded to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and disseminate factual information about the results of such inquiries to the scientific... Marcello Truzzi (September 6, 1935-February 2, 2003) was a professor of sociology at Eastern Michigan University and director for the Center for Scientific Anomalies Research. ... Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (March 23, 1749 - March 5, 1827) was a French mathematician and astronomer whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematical astronomy. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ...


Sagan married three times: to biologist Lynn Margulis, mother of Dorion Sagan and Jeremy Sagan, in 1957; to artist Linda Salzman, mother of Nick Sagan, in 1968; and to author Ann Druyan, mother of Alexandra Rachel (Sasha) and Samuel Democritus (Sam), in 1981. His marriage to Druyan continued until his death in 1996. Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... Son of Carl Sagan and Lynn Margulis. ... Jeremy Sagan is the founder of Sagan Technology and author of Metro, an audio, MIDI and video sequencer for Apple Macintosh computers. ... Linda Salzman Sagan (b. ... Nick Sagan (b. ... Ann Druyan (b. ...


Isaac Asimov described Sagan as one of only two people he ever met who was smarter than Asimov himself. The other was computer scientist and expert on artificial intelligence, Marvin Minsky. Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... AI redirects here. ... Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ...


Sagan was an addict of marijuana. Under the pseudonym "Mr. X", he wrote an essay concerning cannabis smoking in the 1971 book Marihuana Reconsidered, whose editor was Sagan's close friend Lester Grinspoon.[19][20] In his essay, Sagan wrote how marijuana use had helped to inspire some of his works and enhance sensual and intellectual experiences. After Sagan's death, Grinspoon disclosed this to Sagan's biographer, Keay Davidson. The publishing of this biography, Carl Sagan: A Life, in 1999, brought much media attention to the issue of the use and legalization of marijuana.[21] Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... For other uses, see Alias. ... Lester Grinspoon. ...


Sagan and UFOs

Sagan had some interest in UFO reports from at least 1964, when he had several conversations on the subject with Jacques Vallee.[22] Though quite skeptical of any extraordinary answer to the UFO question, Sagan thought scientists should study the phenomenon, at least because there was widespread public interest in UFO reports. UFO can mean: Unidentified flying object United Future Organization, a Japanese-Brazilian electronic jazz band UFO, the rock band that previously featured Michael Schenker UFO, the Gerry Anderson TV series United Farmers of Ontario, a political party that formed the government in Ontario from 1919 to 1923 U.F.O... Dr. Allen Hynek (back), and Dr. Jacques Vallee (far right, front) at U.N. General Assembly, 1978. ...


Stuart Appelle notes that Sagan "wrote frequently on what he perceived as the logical and empirical fallacies regarding UFOs and the abduction experience. Sagan rejected an extraterrestrial explanation for the phenomenon but felt there were both empirical and pedagogical benefits for examining UFO reports and that the subject was, therefore, a legitimate topic of study."[23] Dr. Stuart Appelle is a professor and writer, with an interest in topics dealing with anomalous perception, including hypnotic experience, and reports of unidentified flying objects and alien abduction. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of related terms, see abduction. ... A photograph taken in Passoria, New Jersey, on July 31 1952 The Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) is the hypothesis that UFOs are best explained as being creatures from other planets occupying physical spacecraft visiting Earth. ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the...


In 1966, Sagan was a member of the Ad Hoc Committee to Review the Project Blue Book, the U.S. Air Force's UFO investigation project. The committee concluded Blue Book had been lacking as a scientific study, and recommended a university-based project to give the UFO phenomenon closer scientific scrutiny. The result was the Condon Committee (1966-1968), led by physicist Edward Condon, and their still-controversial final report, formally concluded that there was nothing anomalous about UFO reports. Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Mass-market paperback edition of the Condon Report, published by New York Times/Bantam Books (January, 1969), 965 pages. ... Edward Uhler Condon (March 2, 1902 – March 26, 1974) was a distinguished nuclear physicist, a pioneer in quantum mechanics, a participant in the development of radar and nuclear weapons in World War II, research director of Corning Glass, director of the National Bureau of Standards, and president of the American...


Ron Westrum writes that "The high point of Sagan's treatment of the UFO question was the AAAS's symposium in 1969. A wide range of educated opinions on the subject were offered by participants, including not only proponents as James McDonald and J. Allen Hynek but also skeptics like astronomers William Hartmann and Donald Menzel. The roster of speakers was balanced, and it is to Sagan's credit that this event was presented in spite of pressure from Edward Condon".[22] With physicist Thornton Page, Sagan edited the lectures and discussions given at the symposium; these were published in 1972 as UFO's: A Scientific Debate. Jerome Clark writes that Sagan's perspective on UFO's irked Condon: "... though a skeptic, [Sagan] was too soft on UFOs for Condon's taste. In 1971, [Condon] considered blackballing Sagan from the prestigious Cosmos Club".[24] Ron Westrum is an American sociologist. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Dr. James E. McDonald (May 7, 1920 – June 13, 1971) was an American physicist. ... Josef Allen Hynek (May 1, 1910 - April 27, 1986) was a U.S. astronomer, professor, and ufologist. ... Dr. William K. Hartmann is a noted planetary scientist, author, and writer, and is currently a senior scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. ... Donald Howard Menzel (April 11, 1901 – December 14, 1976) was an American astronomer. ... Edward Uhler Condon (March 2, 1902 – March 26, 1974) was a distinguished nuclear physicist, a pioneer in quantum mechanics, a participant in the development of radar and nuclear weapons in World War II, research director of Corning Glass, director of the National Bureau of Standards, and president of the American... Jerome Clark (1946 - ) is an American researcher and writer, specializing in unidentified flying objects and other anomalous phenomena; he is also a songwriter of some note. ... Blackballing was used in elections to membership of a Gentlemens club (and similarly organised institutions, such as Freemasonry). ... The Cosmos Club is a social club founded in Washington D.C. by John Wesley Powell in 1878. ...


Some of Sagan's many books examine UFOs (as did one episode of Cosmos) and he recognized a religious undercurrent to the phenomenon. However, Westrum writes that "Sagan spent very little time researching UFOs ... he thought that little evidence existed to show that the UFO phenomenon represented alien spacecraft and that the motivation for interpreting UFO observations as spacecraft was emotional".[22]


Sagan again revealed his views on interstellar travel in his 1980 Cosmos series. He rejected the idea that UFOs are visiting Earth, maintaining that the chances any alien spacecraft would visit the Earth are vanishingly small. In one of his last written works, Sagan again argued there was no evidence that aliens have actually visited the Earth, either in the past or present.[25]


Death and legacy

Stone dedicated to Carl Sagan in the Celebrity Path of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden

After a long and difficult fight with myelodysplasia, which included three bone marrow transplants, Sagan died of pneumonia at the age of 62, leaving behind a wife and five children on December 20, 1996, at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. Sagan was a significant figure, and his supporters credit his importance to his popularization of the natural sciences, opposing both restraints on science and reactionary applications of science, defending democratic traditions, resisting nationalism, defending humanism, and arguing against geocentric and anthropocentric views. The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, formerly known as preleukemia) are a diverse collection of hematological conditions united by ineffective production of blood cells and varying risks of transformation to acute myelogenous leukemia. ... Bone marrow transplantation or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is an institution in the Cascade neighborhood of Seattle, Washington engaged in scientific research towards the prevention and treatment of cancer. ... Seattle redirects here. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = earth and centron = centre) of the universe is a paradigm which places the Earth at its center. ... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, human, κέντρον, kentron, center), or the human-centered principle, refers to the idea that humanity must always remain the central concern for humans. ...


After landing, the unmanned Mars Pathfinder spacecraft was renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station on July 5, 1997. Asteroid 2709 Sagan is also named in his honor. The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched. ... The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... 2709 Sagan is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell in 1982. ...


The 1997 movie Contact, based on Sagan's novel of the same name and finished after his death, ends with the dedication "For Carl." Contact is a 1997 science fiction film adapted from the novel by Carl Sagan. ...


On November 9, 2001, on what would have been Sagan’s 67th birthday, the NASA Ames Research Center dedicated the site for the Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Cosmos. "Carl was an incredible visionary, and now his legacy can be preserved and advanced by a 21st century research and education laboratory committed to enhancing our understanding of life in the universe and furthering the cause of space exploration for all time", said NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. Ann Druyan was at the center as it opened its doors on October 22, 2006. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Aerial View of Moffett Field and NASA Ames Research Center. ... Daniel S. Goldin Daniel Saul Goldin (born July 23, 1940) served as the 9th and longest-tenured Administrator of NASA from April 1, 1992, to November 17, 2001. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sagan's son, Nick Sagan, wrote several episodes in the Star Trek franchise. In an episode of Star Trek: Enterprise entitled "Terra Prime", a quick shot is shown of the relic rover Sojourner, part of the Mars Pathfinder mission, placed by a historical marker at Carl Sagan Memorial Station on the Martian surface. The marker displays a quote from Sagan: "Whatever the reason you're on Mars, I'm glad you're there, and I wish I was with you." Nick Sagan (b. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... The starship Enterprise (NX-01) Star Trek: Enterprise is a science fiction television series set in the Star Trek universe. ... The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched. ...


Sagan has at least three awards named in his honour: the Carl Sagan Memorial Award presented jointly since 1997 by the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and the Planetary Society; the Carl Sagan Medal for Excellence in Public Communication in Planetary Science presented since 1998 by the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences (AAS/DPS) for outstanding communication by an active planetary scientist to the general public. Carl Sagan was one of the original organizing committee members of the DPS; and the Carl Sagan Award for Public Understanding of Science presented by Council of Scientific Society Presidents (CSSP). Sagan himself was the first recipient of the CSSP award in 1993.[26] The Carl Sagan Memorial Award is an award given to an individual or group with outstanding contributions to research or policies advancing exploration of the Cosmos. ... The American Astronautical Society logo Formed in 1954, the American Astronautical Society (AAS) is the premier independent scientific and technical group in the United States exclusively dedicated to the advancement of space science and exploration. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For the award presented by the American Astronautical Society, see Carl Sagan Memorial Award. ...


Sagan's student Steve Squyres led the team that landed the Spirit Rover and Opportunity Rover successfully on Mars in 2004. Steve Squyres Steven W. Squyres (b. ... The launch patch for Spirit, featuring Marvin the Martian. ... The launch patch for Opportunity, featuring Duck Dodgers (Daffy Duck). ...


On December 20, 2006, the tenth anniversary of Sagan's death, a blogger, Joel Schlosberg, organized a Carl Sagan "blog-a-thon" to commemorate Sagan's death, and the idea was supported by Nick Sagan. [1] Many members of the blogging community participated. is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Awards and honors

NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal

The Ohio State University (OSU) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Ohio. ... Cosmos: A Personal Voyage was the name of a thirteen part television series produced by Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan which was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The NASA Distinguished Service Medal is the second highest award which may be bestowed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, ranking immediately below the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. ... An Emmy Award. ... The Primetime Emmy Awards are awards presented by the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences in recognition of excellence in American primetime television programming. ... The NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal is an award of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration that was established in the year 1991. ... Dr. Helen Caldicott, October 2007 Helen Caldicott (born 1938) is an Australian physician and anti-nuclear advocate who has founded several associations dedicated to opposing nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons proliferation, war and military action in general, particularly the use of depleted uranium munitions. ... The HOMer Awards were founded in 1991 by Jim Schneider, one of the sysops of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature Forum on the CompuServe Information Service. ... Contact is a science fiction novel written by Carl Sagan and published in 1985. ... The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ... The American Humanist Association (AHA) is an educational organization in the United States that advances Humanism. ... The American Humanist Association (AHA) is an educational organization in the United States that advances Humanism. ... The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, or CSICOP, is a U.S. organization founded to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and disseminate factual information about the results of such inquiries to the scientific... this is a really weird award that means you are the best!!!!!!! ... The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, or CSICOP, is a U.S. organization founded to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and disseminate factual information about the results of such inquiries to the scientific... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Astronautics is the branch of engineering that deals with machines designed to work outside of Earths atmosphere, whether manned or unmanned. ... The American Astronautical Society logo Formed in 1954, the American Astronautical Society (AAS) is the premier independent scientific and technical group in the United States exclusively dedicated to the advancement of space science and exploration. ... The John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel has been awarded every year since 1973, except in 1994. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... The Klumpke-Roberts Award was established from a bequest astronomer Dorothea Klumpke-Roberts and recognizes outstanding contributions to the public understanding and appreciation of astronomy. ... The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) was founded in San Francisco in 1889. ... Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (Константин Эдуардович Циолковский, Konstanty Ciołkowski) (September 5, 1857 new style – September 19, 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics who spent most of his life in a log house on the outskirts of the Russian town of Kaluga. ... The Locus Awards are presented to winners of Locus Magazines annual readers poll, which was established in the early 70s specifically to provide recommendations and suggestions to Hugo Awards voters. ... Lowell Jackson Thomas (April 6, 1892 – August 29, 1981) was an American writer, broadcaster, and traveller best known as the man who made Lawrence of Arabia famous. ... The Explorers Club is international organzation formed by the survivors of Frederick Cooks 1894 Arctic expedition. ... The Masursky Award is awarded annually by the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society. ... The American Astronomical Society (AAS) is a US society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC. The main aim of the AAS is provide a political voice for its members and organise their lobbying. ... The Oersted Medal recognizes notable contributions to the teaching of physics. ... The American Association of Physics Teachers was founded in 1930 for the purpose of dissemination of knowledge of physics, particularly by way of teaching. ... The George Foster Peabody Awards, more commonly referred to as the Peabody Awards, are annual international awards given for excellence in radio and television broadcasting. ... Astronautics is the branch of engineering that deals with machines designed to work outside of Earths atmosphere, whether manned or unmanned. ... The Public Welfare Medal is awarded annually by the National Academy of Sciences. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence is a Pulitzer prize[1] winning 1977 book by Carl Sagan. ... The San Francisco Chronicle, the self-described Voice of the West, is Northern Californias largest newspaper. ... Contact is a 1997 science fiction film adapted from the novel by Carl Sagan. ... The Greatest American is a public vote, modeled after the 100 Greatest Britons competition, in which citizens of the United States are being asked to nominate, and then later vote for, the Greatest American. The competition is being conducted by AOL and the Discovery Channel. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ...

Bibliography

By Sagan

  • Planets (LIFE Science Library), Sagan, Carl, Jonathon Norton Leonard and editors of Life, Time, Inc., 1966
  • Intelligent Life in the Universe, I.S. Shklovskii coauthor, Random House, 1966, 509 pgs
  • UFO's: A Scientific Debate, Thornton Page coauthor, Cornell University Press, 1972, 310 pgs
  • Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence. MIT Press, 1973, 428 pgs
  • Mars and the Mind of Man, Sagan, Carl, et al., Harper & Row, 1973, 143 pgs
  • Cosmic Connection: An Extraterrestrial Perspective, Jerome Agel coauthor, Anchor Press, 1973, ISBN 0-521-78303-8, 301 pgs
  • Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science. Ballantine Books, 1974, ISBN 0-345-33689-5, 416 pgs
  • Other Worlds. Bantam Books, 1975
  • Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record, Sagan, Carl, et al., Random House, ISBN 0-394-41047-5, 1978
  • The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence. Ballantine Books, 1978, ISBN 0-345-34629-7, 288 pgs
  • Cosmos. Random house, 1980. Random House New Edition, May 7, 2002, ISBN 0-375-50832-5, 384 pgs
  • The Nuclear Winter: The World After Nuclear War, Sagan, Carl et al., Sidgwick & Jackson, 1985
  • Comet, Ann Druyan coauthor, Ballantine Books, 1985, ISBN 0-345-41222-2, 496 pgs
  • Contact. Simon and Schuster, 1985; Reissued August 1997 by Doubleday Books, ISBN 1-56865-424-3, 352 pgs
  • The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God, Ann Druyan editor, 1985 Gifford lectures, Penguin Press, 2006, ISBN 1-59420-107-2, 304 pgs
  • A Path Where No Man Thought: Nuclear Winter and the End of the Arms Race, Richard Turco coauthor, Random House, 1990, ISBN 0-394-58307-8, 499 pgs
  • Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors: A Search for Who We Are, Ann Druyan Coauthor, Ballantine Books, October 1993, ISBN 0-345-38472-5, 528 pgs
  • Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space. Random House, November 1994, ISBN 0-679-43841-6, 429 pgs
  • The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Ballantine Books, March 1996, ISBN 0-345-40946-9, 480 pgs
  • Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium, Ann Druyan coauthor, Ballantine Books, June 1997, ISBN 0-345-37918-7, 320 pgs

Iosif Samuilovich Shklovsky (Ио́сиф Самуи́лович Шкло́вский) (July 1, 1916 – March 3, 1985) was a Russian astronomer and astrophysicist. ... CETI (Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence, or METI, Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence) is a branch of SETI research that focuses on composing and deciphering messages that could theoretically be understood by another technological civilization. ... The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence is a Pulitzer prize[1] winning 1977 book by Carl Sagan. ... The cover For the TV series, see Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Ann Druyan (b. ... Contact is a science fiction novel written by Carl Sagan and published in 1985. ... The Gifford Lectures were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (d. ... Ann Druyan (b. ... The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark is a 1997 book by Carl Sagan. ... Ann Druyan (b. ...

About Sagan

  • Davidson, Keay (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons, p. 33-41. ISBN 0471252867. 
  • Head, Tom (ed.) (2005). Conversations with Carl Sagan. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1578067367. 
  • Poundstone, William (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life in the Cosmos. New York: Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 0805057668. 

References

  1. ^ StarChild: Dr. Carl Sagan. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  2. ^ a b Poundstone, William (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life in the Cosmos. New York: Henry Holt & Company, pp. 363-364, 374-375. ISBN 0805057668. 
  3. ^ Davidson, Keay (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life. John Wiley & Sons, p. 33-41. ISBN 0471252867. 
  4. ^ Graduate students receive first Sagan teaching awards
  5. ^ Much of Sagan's research in the field of planetary science is outlined by William Poundstone. Poundstone's biography of Sagan includes an eight page list of Sagan's scientific articles published from 1957 to 1998. Detailed information about Sagan's scientific work comes from the primary research articles. Example: Sagan, C., Thompson, W. R., and Khare, B. N. Titan: A Laboratory for Prebiological Organic Chemistry, Accounts of Chemical Research, volume 25, page 286 (1992). There is commentary on this research article about Titan at The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflight.
  6. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sagan, Carl Edward. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  7. ^ The Planetary Society accessdate=2007-05-14. Carl Sagan. The Planetary Society.
  8. ^ Turco RP, Toon OB, Ackerman TP, Pollack JB, Sagan C. Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter, Science, volume 247, pages 166-176 (1990). PubMed abstract|JSTORE link to full text article. Carl Sagan discussed his involvement in the political nuclear winter debates and his erroneous global cooling prediction for the Gulf War fires in his book, The Demon-Haunted World.
  9. ^ Sagan, Carl. The Demon-Haunted World. p. 257.
  10. ^ www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/pqrst/sagan_carl.html
  11. ^ Meet Dr. Carl Sagan. The Science Channel. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  12. ^ Sagan, Carl; p. 3-4 (1998). Billions and Billions. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-37918-7. 
  13. ^ [Sagan, Astronomer: Author of Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space]. Interview with Charlie Rose. Charlie Rose. PBS New York. 5 January 1995. Retrieved on 2007-04-25. starts at 00:39:29
  14. ^ Anthony Barnes (23 October 2005). 2001: The secrets of Kubrick's classic. The Independent. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  15. ^ This Week in Apple History: November 14-20. The Mac Observer.
  16. ^ CARL SAGAN, Plaintiff, v. APPLE COMPUTER, INC., Defendant CV 94-2180 LGB (BRx) UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE CENTRAL DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA 874 F. Supp. 1072; 1994 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 20154 June 27, 1994, Decided June 27, 1994, FILED
  17. ^ A similar quote can be found in Chapter 23 of Sagan's book Broca's Brain. "Some people think God is an outsized, light-skinned male with a long white beard, sitting on a throne somewhere up there in the sky, busily tallying the fall of every sparrow. Others — for example Baruch Spinoza and Albert Einstein — considered God to be essentially the sum total of the physical laws which describe the universe. I do not know of any compelling evidence for anthropomorphic patriarchs controlling human destiny from some hidden celestial vantage point, but it would be madness to deny the existence of physical laws."
  18. ^ Marcello Truzzi (1998). On Some Unfair Practices towards Claims of the Paranormal. Oxymoron: Annual Thematic Anthology of the Arts and Sciences, Vol.2: The Fringe. Oxymoron Media, Inc. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  19. ^ Grinspoon, Lester, M.D. (1994). Marihuana Reconsidered, 2nd edition, Oakland, CA: Quick American Archives. ISBN 0932551130. 
  20. ^ Carl Sagan (1971). Mr. X. Marihuana Reconsidered. Marijuana Uses. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  21. ^ a. Dr David Whitehouse. "Carl Sagan: A life in the cosmos", BBC News, 15 October 1999. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    b. "Billions and Billions of '60s Flashbacks", San Francisco Examiner, 22 August 1999. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
    c. Dana Larsen. "Carl Sagan: Toking Astronomer", Cannabis Culture magazine, 1 November 1999. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  22. ^ a b c Westrum, Ron; Jacobs, David Michael (ed.) (2000). "Limited Access: Six Natural Scientists and the UFO Phenomenon", UFOs and abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, p. 30-55. ISBN 0700610324. 
  23. ^ Appelle, Stuart; Jacobs, David Michael (ed.) (2000). "Ufology and Academia: The UFO Phenomenon as a Scholarly Discipline", UFOs and abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, p. 7-30. ISBN 0700610324. 
  24. ^ Clark, Jeromne (1998). The UFO book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. Detroit, Michigan: Visible Ink Press, p. 603. ISBN 1578590299. 
  25. ^ Sagan, 1996: 81-96, 99-104
  26. ^ Sagan Award for Public Understanding of Science. The Council of Scientific Society Presidents. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark is a 1997 book by Carl Sagan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
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Persondata
NAME Sagan, Carl Edward
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Astronomy and planetary science
DATE OF BIRTH November 9, 1934(1934-11-09)
PLACE OF BIRTH Brooklyn, New York
DATE OF DEATH December 20, 1996
PLACE OF DEATH Seattle, Washington
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Charlie Rose is an American television interview show, with Charlie Rose as executive producer, executive editor, and host. ... WorldCat is the worlds largest bibliographic database, the merged catalogs of over 50,000 OCLC member libraries in over 90 countries. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Seattle redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carl Sagan (339 words)
Carl Sagan succumbed to pneumonia on December 20, 1996 after a two year battle with bone marrow disease.
Sagan, who was, among many other things, an FAS Council Member, used his influence as a scientist, and as a public personality, to importantly advance a number of goals shared by FAS members.
Professor Sagan's efforts to sensitize his fellow Earthlings to the nature of their cosmic condition, coupled with the psychological relationship inspired by television, have given him unprecedented influence.
Stargazer Online || Carl Sagan (1046 words)
Carl Sagan was the David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Studies and Director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at
Sagan was the first president of The Planetary Society, a non-profit, tax-exempt membership organization dedicated to the exploration of the solar system and the search for extraterrestrial life.
Sagan and his colleagues were also engaged in research on Nuclear Winter, the previously unsuspected global climatic catastrophe that may follow a nuclear war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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