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Encyclopedia > Carl Jung
Carl Gustav Jung
A recent edition of Jung's partially autobiographical work Memories, Dreams, Reflections.
A recent edition of Jung's partially autobiographical work Memories, Dreams, Reflections.
Born July 26, 1875(1875-07-26)
Kesswil, Thurgau, Switzerland
Died June 6, 1961 (aged 85)
Zürich, Switzerland
Residence Switzerland
Citizenship Swiss
Fields Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Analytical psychology
Institutions Burghölzli
Doctoral advisor Eugen Bleuler, Sigmund Freud
Known for Analytical psychology

Carl Gustav Jung (IPA: [ˈkarl ˈgʊstaf ˈjʊŋ]) (July 26, 1875, KesswilJune 6, 1961, Küsnacht) was a Swiss psychiatrist, influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. Look up jung in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Karl Jung is the name of: Karl Jung (civil servant) (1930-2005), German civil servant, jurist, and Secretary of State Karl Jung (geophysicist) (1902-1972), German geophysicist See also: Carl Jung, psychoanalyst Category: ... Image File history File links Mem_dream_reflec_Jung. ... Memories, Dreams, Reflections (original German title Erinnerungen Träume Gedanken) is a partially autobiographical book by Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and associate Aniela Jaffé. The book details Jungs childhood, his personal life, and exploration into the psyche. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Kesswil is a municipality in the district of Arbon, in the canton of Thurgau, Switzerland. ... Thurgau (Thurgovia) is a canton of Switzerland. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... Burghölzli Burghölzli is the common name given for the University of Zurich psychiatric hospital. ... Eugene Bleuler (b. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Kesswil is a municipality in the district of Arbon, in the canton of Thurgau, Switzerland. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Küsnacht is a town near Zürich, Switzerland. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ...


Jung's unique approach to psychology was influential in countercultural movements in Europe and the United States in the 1960s. He has emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, world religion and philosophy. Although he was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician, much of his life's work was spent exploring other realms, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts. His most notable ideas include the concept of the Jungian archetype, the collective unconscious, and his theory of synchronicity. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... According to Swiss psychologist Carl Jung, archetypes are innate universal psychic dispositions that form the substrate from which the basic themes of human life emerge. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... Synchronicity is the experience of two or more events which occur in a meaningful manner, but which are causally inexplicable to the person or persons experiencing them. ...


Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of the unconscious realm.

Contents

Biography

Early years

Carl Jung was born Karl Gustav II Jung[1] on July 26, 1875 in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton (state) of Thurgau, as the fourth but only surviving child of Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preiswerk. His father, Paul Jung, was a poor rural parson in the Swiss Reformed Church while his mother, Emilie, came from a wealthy, established Swiss family. is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A canton is a territorial subdivision of a country, e. ... Thurgau (Thurgovia) is a canton of Switzerland. ... The Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland was started in Zurich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basle (Johannes Oecolampadius), Berne (Berchtold Haller and Niklaus Manuel), St. ...

Six-year old Jung.
Six-year old Jung.

When Carl was six months old, Paul Jung acquired a position at a better parsonage in Laufen and the family moved there. Meanwhile, the tension between Paul and Emilie was growing. An eccentric and depressed woman, Emilie spent much of the time in her own separate bedroom, enthralled by the spirits that she said visited her at night. Emilie left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for an unknown physical ailment. Young Carl was taken by his father to live with Emilie's single sister in Basel, but later brought back to the vicarage. Emilie's continuing bouts of absence and often depressed mood influenced his attitude towards women — one of "innate unreliability," a view that he later called the "handicap I started off with."[2] After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jung requested a transfer and was called to Kleinhüningen in 1879. The relocation brought Emilie in closer contact to her family and lifted her melancholy and despondent mood. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Laufen (French: Laufon) is a municipality and the capital of the district of Laufen in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ...


A very solitary and introverted child, Jung was convinced from childhood that he had two personalities—a modern Swiss citizen, and a personality more at home in the eighteenth century.[3] "Personality No. 1," as he termed it, was a typical schoolboy living in the era of the time, while No. 2 was a dignified, authoritative, and influential man from the past. Although Jung was close to both parents, he was rather disappointed in his father's academic approach to faith. Introvert is a rock band from Miami, Florida. ...


A number of childhood memories had made a life-long impression on him. As a boy he carved a tiny mannequin into the end of the wooden ruler from his pupil's pencil case and placed it inside the case. He then added a stone which he had painted into upper and lower halves and hid the case in the attic. Periodically he would come back to the mannequin, often bringing tiny sheets of paper with messages inscribed on them in his own secret language. This ceremonial act, he later reflected, brought him a feeling of inner peace and security. In later years, he discovered that similarities existed in this memory and the totems of native peoples like the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim, or the tjurungas of Australia. This, he concluded, was an unconscious ritual that he did not question or understand at the time, but which was practiced in a strikingly similar way in faraway locations that he as a young boy had no way of consciously knowing about.[4] His findings on psychological archetypes and the collective unconscious were inspired in part by this experience. A totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan or tribe (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [1] and Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition). ... Arlesheim is a municipality in the district of Arlesheim, in the canton of Basel-Country, Switzerland. ... // Tjurunga defined Figure 1: A stone tjurunga Tjurunga or churinga was a term applied to objects of religious significance by Central Australian Aboriginal Arrente (Aranda, Arundta) groups. ... According to Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and his school of analytical psychology, archetypes are innate universal pre-conscious psychic dispositions that form the substrate from which the basic themes of human life emerge. ...


Shortly before the end of his first year at the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Basel, at age 12, he was pushed unexpectedly by another boy, which knocked him to the ground so hard that he was for a moment unconscious. The thought then came to him that "now you won't have to go to school any more."[5] From then on, whenever he started off to school or began homework, he fainted. He remained at home for the next six months until he overheard his father speaking worriedly to a visitor of his future ability to support himself, as they suspected he had epilepsy. With little money in the family, this brought the boy to reality and he realized the need for academic excellence. He immediately went into his father's study and began poring over Latin grammar. He fainted three times, but eventually he overcame the urge and did not faint again. This event, Jung later recalled, "was when I learned what a neurosis is."[6] Latin, like all other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflectional, and so has a very flexible word order. ... In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ...


Adolescence and early adulthood

Jung wanted to study archaeology at university, but his family was not wealthy enough to send him further afield than Basel, where they did not teach this subject, so instead Jung studied medicine at the University of Basel from 1894 to 1900. The formerly introverted student became much more lively here. In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach, from one of the richest families in Switzerland. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The University of Basel (German: Universität Basel) is located at Basel, Switzerland. ... Emma Jung (née Emma Rauschenbach, 1882-1955) was wife to the famous psychologist Carl Jung for fifty two years. ...


Towards the end of studies, his reading of Krafft-Ebing persuaded him to specialize in psychiatric medicine. He later worked in the Burghölzli, a psychiatric hospital in Zürich. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (August 4, 1840–December 22, 1902), German psychiatrist, wrote Psychopathia Sexualis (1886), a famous study of sexual perversity, and remains well-known for his coinage of the term sadism. ... Burghölzli Burghölzli is the common name given for the University of Zurich psychiatric hospital. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ...

Jung in 1910.
Jung in 1910.

In 1906, he published Studies in Word Association and later sent a copy of this book to famed psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, after which a close friendship between these two men followed for some 6 years (see section on Jung and Freud). In 1912 Jung published Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (known in English as The Psychology of the Unconscious) resulting in a theoretical divergence between Jung and Freud and consequently a break in their friendship, both stating that the other was unable to admit he could possibly be wrong. After this falling-out, Jung went through a pivotal and difficult psychological transformation, which was exacerbated by news of the First World War. Henri Ellenberger called Jung's experience a "creative illness" and compared it to Freud's period of what he called neurasthenia and hysteria. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (463 × 635 pixel, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (463 × 635 pixel, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Henri F. Ellenberger was a Swiss medical historian, considered by some to be the founding historiographer of psychiatry. ... Neurasthenia was a term first coined by George Miller Beard in 1869 to describe a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and pessimism. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ...


Later life

Following World War I, Jung became a worldwide traveler, facilitated by his wife's inherited fortune as well as the funds he received through psychiatric fees, book sales, and honoraria. He visited Northern Africa shortly after, and New Mexico and Kenya in the mid-1920s. In 1938, he delivered the Terry Lectures, Psychology and Religion, at Yale University. It was at about this stage in his life that Jung visited India. His experience in India led him to become fascinated and deeply involved with Eastern philosophies and religions, helping him come up with key concepts of his ideology, including integrating spirituality into daily life and appreciation of the unconscious. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Yale redirects here. ...


Jung's marriage with Emma produced five children and lasted until Emma's death in 1955, but he had more or less open relationships with other women. The most well-known women with whom Jung is believed to have had extramarital affairs were patient and friend Sabina Spielrein[7] and Toni Wolff.[8] Jung continued to publish books until the end of his life, including a work showing his late interest in flying saucers. He also enjoyed a friendship with an English Catholic priest, Father Victor White, who corresponded with Jung after he had published his controversial Answer to Job.[9] Sabina Spielrein was born 1885 into a family of a Jewish merchant in Rostov na Donu, and died there in 1941 (1942?), murdered by Nazi troops. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... UFO redirects here. ... Antwort auf Hiob (Answer to Job) is a 1952 book by Carl Gustav Jung addressing the moral, mythological and psychological implications of the Book of Job. ...


Jung's work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. Our main task, he believed, is to discover and fulfill our deep innate potential, much as the acorn contains the potential to become the oak, or the caterpillar to become the butterfly. Based on his study of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Gnosticism, Taoism, and other traditions, Jung perceived that this journey of transformation is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Jung thought spiritual experience was essential to our well-being.[10] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ...


Jung died in 1961 in Zürich, after a short illness.


Jung and Freud

Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, Granville Stanley Hall, Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sandor Ferenczi.

Jung was thirty when he sent his work Studies in Word Association to Sigmund Freud in Vienna. The first conversation between Jung and Freud lasted over 13 hours. Half a year later, the then 50 year old Freud reciprocated by sending a collection of his latest published essays to Jung in Zürich, which marked the beginning of an intense correspondence and collaboration that lasted more than six years and ended shortly before World War I in May 1910, when Jung resigned as the chairman of the International Psychoanalytical Association. Image File history File links Hall_Freud_Jung_in_front_of_Clark_1909. ... Image File history File links Hall_Freud_Jung_in_front_of_Clark_1909. ... Statue at the center of campus of Sigmund Freud, commemorating his 1909 visit to the University Front Entrance to Clark Universitys Jonas Clark Hall, the main academic facility for undergraduate students For the university in Atlanta, see Clark Atlanta University. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Granville Stanley Hall (1 February 1844 - 24 April 1924) was a psychologist and educationalist who pioneered American psychology. ... Abraham Arden Brill (1874–1948), American psychiatrist, born in Austria, graduated New York University. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Sándor Ferenczi 1873-1933 was a Hungarian psychoanalyst who came to believe that his patients accounts of sexual abuse as children were truthful, having verified those accounts through other patients in the same family. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... The Internal Psychoanalytical association (API) is an association including 11 000 psychoanalysts as members and works with 57 associations, or schools, in 34 different countries. ...


Today Jung's and Freud's theories influence different schools of psychiatry, but, more importantly, they influenced each other during intellectually formative years of their lives. In 1906 psychoanalysis as an institution was still in its early developmental stages. Jung, who had become interested in psychiatry as a student by reading Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard von Krafft-Ebing, professor in Vienna, now worked as a doctor under the psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in the Burghölzli and became familiar with Freud's idea of the unconscious through Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) and was a proponent of the new "psycho-analysis". At the time, Freud needed collaborators and pupils to validate and spread his ideas. The Burghölzli was a renowned psychiatric clinic in Zürich at which Jung was an up-and-coming young doctor whose researches had already given him a worldwide reputation. Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Psychopathia Sexualis may refer to: Psychopathia Sexualis (book), a psychology book on sexuality by Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing Psychopathia Sexualis (album), an album by Whitehouse An album by The Makers (American band) Psychopathia Sexualis (play), a play by John Patrick Shanley A controversial comic by Miguel Ángel Martín... Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (August 4, 1840–December 22, 1902), German psychiatrist, wrote Psychopathia Sexualis (1886), a famous study of sexual perversity, and remains well-known for his coinage of the term sadism. ... Eugene Bleuler (b. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ...


In 1908, Jung became editor of the newly founded Yearbook for Psychoanalytical and Psychopathological Research. The following year, Jung traveled with Freud and Sandor Ferenczi to the U.S. to spread the news of psychoanalysis and in 1910, Jung became chairman for life of the International Psychoanalytical Association. While Jung worked on his Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (Psychology of the Unconscious), tensions grew between Freud and Jung, due in a large part to their disagreements over the nature of libido and religion. In 1912 these tensions came to a peak because Jung felt severely slighted after Freud visited his colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen without paying him a visit in nearby Zürich, an incident Jung referred to as the Kreuzlingen gesture. Shortly thereafter, Jung again traveled to the U.S.A. and gave the Fordham lectures, which were published as The Theory of Psychoanalysis, and while they contain some remarks on Jung's dissenting view on the nature of libido, they represent largely a "psychoanalytical Jung" and not the theory Jung became famous for in the following decades. Sándor Ferenczi 1873-1933 was a Hungarian psychoanalyst who came to believe that his patients accounts of sexual abuse as children were truthful, having verified those accounts through other patients in the same family. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ...


In November 1912, Jung and Freud met in Munich for a meeting among prominent colleagues to discuss psychoanalytical journals.[11]. At a talk about a new psychoanalytic essay on Amenhotep IV, Jung expressed his views on how it related to actual conflicts in the psychoanalytic movement. While Jung spoke, Freud suddenly fainted and Jung carried him to a couch. For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Sigmund Freud founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September 1913 for the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress, also in Munich. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and the extraverted type, in analytical psychology. This constituted the introduction of some of the key concepts which came to distinguish Jung's work from Freud's in the next half century. For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Introvert is a rock band from Miami, Florida. ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ... Jungian therapy refers to psychotherapy that has been influenced by Carl Jung (1875-1961). ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ...


In the following years Jung experienced considerable isolation in his professional life, exacerbated through World War I. His Seven Sermons to the Dead (1917) reprinted in his autobiography Memories, Dreams, Reflections (see bibliography) can also be read as expression of the psychological conflicts which beset Jung around the age of forty after the break with Freud. Basilides redirects here. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ...


Jung's primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. Jung saw Freud's theory of the unconscious as incomplete and unnecessarily negative. According to Jung (though not according to Freud), Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires. Jung agreed with Freud's model of the unconscious, what Jung called the 'personal unconscious,' but he also proposed the existence of a second, far deeper form of the unconscious underlying the personal one. This was the collective unconscious, where the archetypes themselves resided, represented in mythology by a lake, or body of water, and in some cases a jug or other container. Freud had actually mentioned a collective level of psychic functioning but saw it primarily as an appendix to the rest of the psyche. Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ...


Jung and Nazism

Though the field of psychoanalysis was dominated at the time by Jewish practitioners, and Jung had many friends and respected colleagues who were Jewish, a shadow hung over Jung's career due to allegations that he was a Nazi sympathizer. Jung was editor of the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie, a publication that eventually endorsed Mein Kampf as required reading for all psychoanalysts. Jung claimed this was done to save psychoanalysis and preserve it during the war, believing that psychoanalysis would not otherwise survive because the Nazis considered it to be a "Jewish science." He also claimed he did it with the help and support of his Jewish friends and colleagues.[12] This after-the-fact explanation, however, has been challenged on the basis of available documents.[13] Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ...


Jung also served as president of the Nazi-dominated International General Medical Society for Psychotherapy created by Matthias Göring. One of his first acts as president was to modify the constitution so that German Jewish doctors could maintain their membership as individual members even though they were excluded from all German medical societies. Also, in 1934 when he presented his paper "A Review of the Complex Theory," in his presidential address he did not discount the importance of Freud and credited him with as much influence as he could possibly give to an old mentor. Later in the war, Jung resigned. In addition, in 1943 he aided the Office of Strategic Services by analyzing Nazi leaders for the United States.[14] See also ongoing discussion in relation to 'post-Jungian' interpretation[15] International General Medical Society for Psychotherapy was a society founded by Dr. Josef Sullivan (a German psychologist). ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ...


In an interview with Carol Baumann in 1948, published in the Bulletin of Analytical Psychology Club of New York, December 1949, Jung explicitly denies rumors regarding any sympathy for the Nazi movement, saying, "It must be clear to anyone who has read any of my books that I have never have been a Nazi sympathizer and I never have been anti-Semitic, and no amount of misquotation, mistranslation, or rearrangement of what I have written can alter the record of my true point of view. Nearly every one of these passages [referring to a list of quotations cited against him] has been tampered with, either by malice or by ignorance. Furthermore, my friendly relations with a large group of Jewish colleagues and patients over a period of many years in itself disproves the charge of anti-Semitism." A full response from Jung discounting the rumors can be found in C.G Jung Speaking, Interviews and Encounters, Princeton University Press, 1977. Since his death it has become public knowledge that he also conducted secret psychological work for the United States Office of Strategic Services, an intelligence-gathering unit interested in what Jung had to say about Nazi psychology.


Influence

Jung has had an enduring influence on psychology as well as wider society. He has influenced psychotherapy (see Jungian psychology and analytical psychology). Jungian psychology refers to a school of psychology originating in the ideas of Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and advanced by many other thinkers who followed in his tradition. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ...

For the software company, see Introversion Software. ... For the software company, see Introversion Software. ... In psychology a complex is generally an important group of unconscious associations, or a strong unconscious impulse lying behind an individuals otherwise mysterious condition: the detail varies widely from theory to theory. ... The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality questionnaire designed to identify certain psychological differences according to the typological theories of Carl Gustav Jung as published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923). ... Socionics (Russian: соционика) is a model of personality based on Carl Jungs work on Psychological Types, Freuds theory of the conscious and subconscious mind, and Antoni Kępińskis theory of information metabolism. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... Synchronicity is the experience of two or more events which occur in a meaningful manner, but which are causally inexplicable to the person or persons experiencing them. ... Causality or causation denotes the relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. ...

Spirituality as a cure for alcoholism

Jung's influence can sometimes be found in more unexpected quarters. For example, Jung once treated an American patient (Rowland H.) suffering from chronic alcoholism. After working with the patient for some time, and achieving no significant progress, Jung told the man that his alcoholic condition was near to hopeless, save only the possibility of a spiritual experience. Jung noted that occasionally such experiences had been known to reform alcoholics where all else had failed. For other persons named Rowland Hazard, see Rowland Hazard (disambiguation) Rowland Hazard III (October 29, 1881, Peace Dale, Rhode Island, US – December 20, 1945, Waterbury, Connecticut, US) was an American businessman and member of a prominent Rhode Island family involved in the foundation and executive leadership of a number of... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


Rowland took Jung's advice seriously and set about seeking a personal spiritual experience. He returned home to the United States and joined a Christian evangelical movement known as the Oxford Group. He also told other alcoholics what Jung had told him about the importance of a spiritual experience. One of the alcoholics he told was Ebby Thacher, a long-time friend and drinking buddy of Bill Wilson, later co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Thacher told Wilson about Jung's ideas. Wilson, who was finding it impossible to maintain sobriety, was impressed and sought out his own spiritual experience. The influence of Jung thus indirectly found its way into the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, the original 12-step program, and from there into the whole 12-step recovery movement, although AA as a whole is not Jungian and Jung had no role in the formation of that approach or the 12 steps. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      In contemporary usage, the word evangelicalism refers to a collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions typified by an emphasis on the Bible and on evangelism [1]. Evangelical... Not to be confused with the Oxford Movement of the 19th century Anglican Church. ... Edwin Throckmorton Thacher (29 April 1896–21 March 1966) (commonly known as Ebby Thacher or Ebby T.), was an old drinking friend of Alcoholics Anonymous co-founder Bill W. and is credited with introducing Wilson to the initial principles that AA would soon develop, such as one alcoholc talking to... William Griffith Wilson (commonly known as Bill Wilson or Bill W.), was a co-founder of the self-help group Alcoholics Anonymous. ... AA meeting sign // Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an informal meeting society for recovering alcoholics whose primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety. ... (Redirected from 12-step program) A twelve-step program is a self-help group whose members attempt recovery from various addictions and compulsions through the use of a plan referred to as the twelve steps. Characteristics All twelve-step programs follow some version of the twelve steps. ... (Redirected from 12 steps) A twelve-step program is a self-help group whose members attempt recovery from various addictions and compulsions through the use of a plan referred to as the twelve steps. Characteristics All twelve-step programs follow some version of the twelve steps. ...


The above claims are documented in the letters of Carl Jung and Bill W., excerpts of which can be found in Pass It On, published by Alcoholics Anonymous.[16] Although the detail of this story is disputed by some historians, Jung himself made reference to its substance -- including the Oxford Group participation of the individual in question -- in a talk that was issued privately in 1954 as a transcript from shorthand taken by an attendee (Jung reportedly approved the transcript), later recorded in Volume 18 of his Collected Works, The Symbolic Life ("For instance, when a member of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, 'You are in the Oxford Group; so long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group. I can't do it better than Jesus.'" Jung goes on to state that he has seen similar cures among Catholics.[17])


Influences on culture

Literature

  • Jung had a 16-year long friendship with author Laurens van der Post from which a number of books and a film were created about Jung's life.[18]
  • Herman Hesse, author of works such as Siddhartha and Der Steppenwolf, was treated by a student of Jung, Dr. Joseph Lang. This began for Hesse a long preoccupation with psychoanalysis, through which he came to know Carl Jung personally.[19]
  • James Joyce in his Finnegans Wake, asks "Is the Co-education of Animus and Anima Wholly Desirable?" his answer perhaps being contained in his line "anama anamaba anamabapa." The book also ridicules Carl Jung's analytical psychology and Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis, by referring to "psoakoonaloose." Jung had been unable to help Joyce's daughter Lucia, who Joyce claimed was a girl "yung and easily freudened." Lucia was diagnosed as schizophrenic and was eventually permanently institutionalized.[20]
  • Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man can be read as an ironic parody of Jung's "four stages of eroticism." See Hiromi Yoshida, Joyce & Jung: The "Four Stages of Eroticism" in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (New York: Peter Lang, 2007).
  • Jung's differentiation between sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling inspired the categorization of two of the four delineating factors in the Myers-Briggs personality test. These are the "N" (intuition) vs. "S" (sensing) and "T" (thinking) vs. "F" (feeling) groupings.
  • Jung's influence on noted Canadian novelist Robertson Davies is apparent in many of Davies's fictional works. In particular, The Cornish Trilogy and his novel The Manticore base their designs on Jungian concepts.
  • Jung appears as a character in the novel Possessing the Secret of Joy by Alice Walker. He appears as the therapist of Tashi, the novel's protagonist. He is usually called "Mzee," but is identified by Alice Walker in the afterword.[21]
  • In the novel "Pilgrim" by Timothy Findley Carl Jung has a fictional main role where he is treating a suicide who believes he has lived many lifetimes.

Sir Laurens Jan van der Post by Frances Baruch Sir Laurens Jan van der Post (aka Laurens van der Post) December 13, 1906 – December 16, 1996. ... Hermann Hesse Hermann Hesse (July 2, 1877 – August 9, 1962) was a German author, and the winner of the 1946 Nobel Prize in literature. ... Siddhartha is an allegorical novel by Hermann Hesse which deals with the spiritual journey of an Indian man called Siddhartha during the time of the Buddha. ... For other uses, see Steppenwolf. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Lucia Anna Joyce (July 26, 1907 - December 12, 1982), daughter of Irish writer James Joyce and Nora Barnacle, was born in Trieste, speaking Italian as her first language. ... For other uses, see Schizophrenia (disambiguation). ... A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist from 1914 to 1915 and published in book form in 1916. ... The Center for Applications of Psychological Type is a non-profit organization co-founded by Isabel Myers in 1975 for MBTI development, research and training. ... William Robertson Davies, CC, FRSC, FRSL (born August 28, 1913, at Thamesville, Ontario, and died December 2, 1995 at Orangeville, Ontario) was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. ... The Cornish Trilogy is the name given to three related novels by Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor Robertson Davies. ... The Manticore is the second novel in Robertson Davies Deptford Trilogy. ... Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9, 1944) is an American author and feminist. ...

Art

  • The visionary Swiss painter Peter Birkhäuser was treated by a student of Jung, Marie-Louise von Franz, and corresponded with Jung regarding the translation of dream symbolism into works of art.[22]
  • American Abstract Expressionist Jackson Pollock underwent Jungian analysis. Archetypal images crept into his work as he moved from representational forms to his classic "drip paintings."
  • Jungian influenes on art also include the work of composer Michael Tippett. Jung's influence here helps us to understand transpersonal art.

Visionary art is art that purports to transcend the physical world and portray a wider vision of awareness including spiritual or mystical themes, or is based in such experiences. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Peter Birkhäuser (7 June 1911 - 1976) was a Swiss poster artist, portraitist, and visionary painter, noted for his paintings illustrating imagery from dreams in the context of analytical psychology. ... Marie-Louise von Franz (January 4, 1915 - February 17, 1998), the daughter of an Austrian baron and born in Munich, Germany, was a Swiss Jungian Psychologist and scholar. ... American post-World War II art movement. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Sir Michael Kemp Tippett, OM (2 January 1905 – 8 January 1998) was one of the foremost English composers of the 20th century. ...

Television and film

  • Dr. Niles Crane on the popular television sitcom Frasier is a devoted Jungian psychiatrist, while his brother Dr. Frasier Crane is a Freudian psychiatrist. This is mentioned a number of times in the series, and from time to time forms a point of argument between the two brothers. One memorable scene had Niles filling in for Frasier on Frasier's call-in radio program, in which Niles introduces himself as the temporary substitute saying, "...and while my brother is a Freudian, I am a Jungian, so there'll be no blaming Mother today."
  • Jung and his ideas are mentioned often, and sometimes play an integral role, in the television series Northern Exposure. Jung even makes an appearance in one of the character's dreams.
  • An episode of the popular cartoon series Martin Mystery takes Carl Jung's interpretation of The Shadow as an explanation for what a doppelganger is.
  • "The duality of man, the Jungian thing" is offered as an explanation by Sgt. Joker (played by Matthew Modine) in the film Full Metal Jacket when asked why he wears both a peace sign and a helmet inscribed with "Born To Kill".
  • Television programmes have been devoted to Jung; for example, in the autumn of 1984, an edition of the BBC documentary "The Sea of Faith" (see Sea of Faith: Television series) was on Jung.

Dr. Niles Winslow Crane (b. ... Frasier is an American sitcom starring Kelsey Grammer as psychiatrist Dr. Frasier Crane. ... This article is about the TV series; there is also a mix album of the same name. ... For the Italian comic book, see Martin Mystère. ... Matthew Avery Modine (born March 22, 1959) is an American actor. ... For the type of ammunition, see Full metal jacket bullet. ... A peace symbol is a representation or object that has come to symbolize peace. ...

Music

  • Jung appears on the cover of The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.
  • Peter Gabriel's song "Rhythm Of The Heat" (Security, 1982), tells about psychologist Carl Jung's visit to Africa, during which he joined a group of tribal drummers and dancers and became overwhelmed by the fear of losing control of himself. At the time, Jung was exploring the concept of the Collective Unconscious, and was afraid he would come under control of the music, as the drummers and dancers let the music control them in fulfillment of their ritual objectives. Gabriel learned about Jung's journey to Africa from Jung's essay Symbols And The Interpretation Of Dreams (ISBN 0-691-09968-5). In his song, Gabriel tries to capture the powerful feelings the African tribal music evoked in Jung by means of intense use of tribal drumbeats. The original song title was Jung in Africa.[23]
  • The British rapper The Streets refers to Jung in the song The Irony of It All, saying "I like to get deep sometimes and think about Einstein and Carl Jung".
  • The British pop band The Police's final album, Synchronicity, contains numerous allusions to Jung; the album cover prominently depicts bassist Sting reading a copy of Jung's work.
  • The band Saigon Kick makes a reference to Jung in I Love You, saying "I may not have the mind of Jung".
  • Alternative/metal band Tool use many allusions to Jungian psychology throughout much of their work.
  • Alternative Singer/Songwriter Tori Amos explores the use of Jungian Archetypes in her 2007 studio album American Doll Posse. In it, she created 5 different fictional women who she says makes up the full expression of modern woman.

The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... For other uses, see Sgt. ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Cobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Security (1982) is an album by the British progressive rock musician Peter Gabriel. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... Mike Skinner (born November 27, 1978), more commonly known by his stage name The Streets, is a rapper from Birmingham, England. ... The Irony of It All is a song by The Streets. ... Einstein redirects here. ... This article is about the rock band. ... Synchronicity is the fifth album by The Police, released in 1983. ... This article is about the musician. ... This article may not give enough verifiable information about the subject, or may not sufficiently explain its importance. ... Tool is a Grammy-award winning American rock band, formed in 1990 in Los Angeles, California. ... Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ...

See also

Topics

People Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are few or no other articles linked to this one. ... Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Depth psychology is a broad term that refers to any psychological approach examining the depth (the hidden or deeper parts) of human experience. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Organizations Carl Alfred Meier (April 19, 1905 – 1995) was a Swiss psychiatrist, Jungian Psychologist and scholar. ... The C.G. Jung Institute in Zürich, Switzerland (in Küsnacht, suburb of Zürich) was founded in 1948 by psychologist Carl Gustav Jung. ... Herbert Silberer (February 28, 1882 – January 12, 1923) was a Viennese psychologist involved with the professional circle surrounding Sigmund Freud which included other pioneers of psychological study as Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and others. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Marie-Louise von Franz (January 4, 1915 - February 17, 1998), the daughter of an Austrian baron and born in Munich, Germany, was a Swiss Jungian Psychologist and scholar. ... Richard Wilhelm was born in Tübingen, Germany on May 10, 1873 and died in Stuttgart, Germany on March 2, 1930. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ...

The International Association of Analytical Psychologists (IAAP) is the international association of those who practice analytical psychology, which is to say, psychology in the tradition of Carl Jung. ... Formed in 2002, the International Association for Jungian Studies (IAJS) is a learned society for Jungian scholars and clinicians. ... The Philemon Foundation is a non-profit organization that has set itself the task of preparing a new edition of Carl Jungs Collected Works, including many new manuscripts that were previously thought to be lost or had not yet been translated. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ As a university student Jung changed the modernized spelling of his name to the original family form. Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung: A Biography. New York: Back Bay Books, pp. 7–8, 53. ISBN 0-316-15938-7. 
  2. ^ Jung, C.G.; Aniela Jaffé (1965). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. New York: Random House, p. 8. 
  3. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections, pp. 33–34. 
  4. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections, pp. 22–23. 
  5. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p. 30. 
  6. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p. 32. 
  7. ^ Hayman, Ronald (1999). A Life of Jung. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., pp. 84-5, 92, 98-9, 102-7, 121, 123, 111, 134-7, 138-9, 145, 147, 152, 176, 177, 184, 185, 186, 189, 194, 213-4. ISBN 0393019675. 
  8. ^ A Life of Jung, pp. 184-8, 189, 244, 261, 262. 
  9. ^ In Psychology and Religion, v.11, Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Princeton. It was first published as "Antwort auf Hiob," Zürich, 1952 and translated into English in 1954, in London.
  10. ^ Crowley, Vivianne (2000). Jung: A Journey of Transformation:Exploring His Life and Experiencing His Ideas. Wheaton Illinois: Quest Books. ISBN 978-0835607827. 
  11. ^ Jonest, Ernest, ed. Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud New York: Anchor Books, 1963.
  12. ^ Mark Medweth, « Jung and the Nazis », in Psybernetika, Winter 1996.
  13. ^ Richard Noll (1997), 'The Aryan Christ,' Random House.
  14. ^ Article Jung, Carl Gustav in Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
  15. ^ ArticleThe Recent Attacks on Jung: Answer to the Post-Jungians
  16. ^ Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. (1984) Pass It On: The Story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world. New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. ISBN 0-916856-12-7, pp. 381-386
  17. ^ Jung, C. G.; Adler, G. and Hull, R. F. C., eds. (1977) Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 18: The Symbolic Life: Miscellaneous Writings, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-09892-0, p. 272, as noted 2007-08-26 at http://www.stellarfire.org/additional.html
  18. ^ "Laurens van der Post" (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  19. ^ "Hermann Hesse" (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  20. ^ Bair, Deirdre. Jung: A Biography. 
  21. ^ "Possessing the Secret of Joy" (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  22. ^ Birkhäuser, Peter; Marie-Louise von Franz, Eva Wertanschlag and Kaspar Birkhäuser (1980-1991). Light from the Darkness: The Paintings of Peter Birkhäuser. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 3764311908. 
  23. ^ "Rhythm Of The Heat by Peter Gabriel", Song Facts (HTML). Retrieved on 2006-12-16.

Deirdre Bair is an American biographer who has gained acclaim for her biographies of Samuel Beckett, Anais Nin, and Carl Jung. ... Memories, Dreams, Reflections (original German title Erinnerungen Träume Gedanken) is a partially autobiographical book by Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and associate Aniela Jaffé. The book details Jungs childhood, his personal life, and exploration into the psyche. ... Ronald Hayman is a British playwright, critic and writer, known for his biographies. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Deirdre Bair is an American biographer who has gained acclaim for her biographies of Samuel Beckett, Anais Nin, and Carl Jung. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

There is much literature on Jungian thought. For a good, short and easily accessible introduction to Jung's thought:

Other good introductory texts include: Man and His Symbols is the last psychological work undertaken by Carl Jung. ...

  • The Portable Jung, edited by Joseph Campbell (Viking Portable), ISBN 0-14-015070-6
  • Edward F Edinger, Ego and Archetype, (Shambala), ISBN 0-87773-576-X
  • Another recommended tool for navigating Jung's works is Robert Hopcke's book, A Guided Tour of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung, ISBN 1-57062-405-4. He offers short, lucid summaries of all of Jung's major ideas and suggests readings from Jung's and others' work that best present that idea.
  • Edward C. Whitmont, The Symbolic Quest: Basic Concepts of Analytical Psychology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1969, 1979, ISBN 0-691-02454-5
  • Anthony Stevens, Jung. A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994, ISBN 0-19-285458-5
  • O'Connor, Peter A. (1985). Understanding Jung, understanding yourself. New York, NY: Paulist Press. ISBN 0 809127997. 

Good texts in various areas of Jungian thought: For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ...

  • Robert Aziz, C.G. Jung’s Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity (1990), currently in its 10th printing, is a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0166-9.
  • Robert Aziz, Synchronicity and the Transformation of the Ethical in Jungian Psychology in Carl B. Becker, ed. Asian and Jungian Views of Ethics. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. ISBN 0-313-30452-1.
  • Robert Aziz, The Syndetic Paradigm:The Untrodden Path Beyond Freud and Jung (2007), a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN 13:978-0-7914-6982-8.
  • Edward F. Edinger, The Mystery of The Coniunctio, ISBN 0-919123-67-8. A good explanation of Jung's foray into the symbolism of alchemy as it relates to individuation and individual religious experience. Many of the alchemical symbols recur in contemporary dreams (with creative additions from the unconscious e.g. space travel, internet, computers)
  • James A Hall M.D., Jungian Dream Interpretation, ISBN 0-919123-12-0. A brief, well structured overview of the use of dreams in therapy.
  • James Hillman, "Healing Fiction", ISBN 0-88214-363-8. Covers Jung, Adler, and Freud and their various contributions to understanding the soul.
  • Andrew Samuels, Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis, ISBN 0-415-05910-0
  • June Singer, Boundaries of the Soul, ISBN 0-385-47529-2. On psychotherapy
  • Marion Woodman, The Pregnant Virgin: A Process of Psychological Transformation ISBN 0-919123-20-1. The recovery of feminine values in women (and men). There are many examples of clients' dreams, by an experienced analyst.
  • Frederic Fappani," Education and Archetypal Psychology ", Ed.Cursus, Paris.

And a more academic text: For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... James Hillman (1926- ) is an American psychologist, considered to be one of the most original of the 20th century (Moore, in Hillman, 1989). ... Marion Woodman is a mythopoetic womens movement figure. ...

  • Andrew Samuels, The Political Psyche (Routledge), ISBN 0-415-08102-5. Difficult, but useful.

For the Jung-Freud relationship:

  • Kerr, John. A Most Dangerous Method : The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein. Knopf 1993. ISBN 0-679-40412-0.

For critical scholarship on Jung from the perspective of historians of psychiatry:

  • Richard Noll, The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (Princeton University Press, 1994); and
  • Richard Noll, The Aryan Christ: The Secret Life of Carl Jung (Random House, 1997)[1]
  • Sonu Shamdasani, Cult Fictions, ISBN 0-415-18614-5. Critique of the above works by Noll.
  • Sonu Shamdasani, Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology : The Dream of a Science, ISBN 0-521-53909-9. A comprehensive study of the origins of Jung's psychology which places it in a historical and philosophical context. The author calls this a "Cubist history".
  • Sonu Shamdasani, Jung Stripped Bare, ISBN 1-85575-317-0. Critique of Jung biographies.
  • Bair, Deirdre. Jung: A Biography. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 2003.

Richard Noll (born 1959) is a well-known author and clinical psychologist. ... Richard Noll (born 1959) is a well-known author and clinical psychologist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Deirdre Bair is an American biographer who has gained acclaim for her biographies of Samuel Beckett, Anais Nin, and Carl Jung. ...

Jung bibliography

Works arranged by original publication date if known:

  • Jung, C. G. (1902–1905). Psychiatric Studies. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung Vol. 1. 1953, ed. Michael Fordham, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, and Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. This was the first of 18 volumes plus separate bibliography and index. Not including revisions the set was completed in 1967.
  • Jung, C. G. (1904–1907) Studies in Word Association. London: Routledge & K. Paul. (contained in Experimental Researches, Collected Works Vol. 2)
  • Jung, C. G. (1907). The Psychology of Dementia Praecox. (2nd ed. 1936) New York: Nervous and Mental Disease Publ. Co. (contained in The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease, Collected Works Vol. 3. This is the disease now known as schizophrenia)
  • Jung, C. G. (1907–1958). The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease. 1991 ed. London: Routledge. (Collected Works Vol. 3)
  • Jung, C. G., & Hinkle, B. M. (1912). Psychology of the Unconscious : a study of the transformations and symbolisms of the libido, a contribution to the history of the evolution of thought. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner. (revised in 1952 as Symbols of Transformation, Collected Works Vol.5 ISBN 0-691-01815-4)
  • Jung, C. G., & Long, C. E. (1917). Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology (2nd ed.). London: Balliere Tindall & Cox. (contained in Freud and Psychoanalysis, Collected Works Vol. 4)
  • Jung, C. G. (1917, 1928). Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (1966 revised 2nd ed. Collected Works Vol. 7). London: Routledge.
  • Jung, C. G., & Baynes, H. G. (1921). Psychological Types, or, The Psychology of Individuation. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner. (Collected Works Vol.6 ISBN 0-691-01813-8)
  • Jung, C. G., Baynes, H. G., & Baynes, C. F. (1928). Contributions to Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Jung, C. G., & Shamdasani, S. (1932). The Psychology of Kundalini Yoga: notes of a seminar by C.G. Jung. 1996 ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Jung, C. G. (1933). Modern Man in Search of a Soul. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner, (1955 ed. Harvest Books ISBN 0-15-661206-2)
  • Jung, C. G., (1934–1954). The Archetypes and The Collective Unconscious. (1981 2nd ed. Collected Works Vol.9 Part 1), Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. ISBN 0-691-01833-2
  • Jung, C. G. (1938). Psychology and Religion The Terry Lectures. New Haven: Yale University Press. (contained in Psychology and Religion: West and East Collected Works Vol. 11 ISBN 0-691-09772-0).
  • Jung, C. G., & Dell, S. M. (1940). The Integration of the Personality. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Jung, C. G. (1944). Psychology and Alchemy (2nd ed. 1968 Collected Works Vol. 12 ISBN 0-691-01831-6). London: Routledge.
  • Jung, C. G. (1947). Essays on Contemporary Events. London: Kegan Paul.
  • Jung, C. G. (1947, revised 1954). On the Nature of the Psyche. 1988 ed. London: Ark Paperbacks. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 8)
  • Jung, C.G. (1949). Foreword, pp. xxi-xxxix (19 pages), to Wilhelm/Baynes translation of The I Ching or Book of Changes. Bollingen Edition XIX, Princeton University Press.(contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
  • Jung, C. G. (1951). Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self (Collected Works Vol. 9 Part 2). Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. ISBN 0-691-01826-X
  • Jung, C. G. (1952). Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. 1973 2nd ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01794-8 (contained in Collected Works Vol. 8)
  • Jung, C. G. (1956). Mysterium Coniunctionis: An Inquiry into the Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in Alchemy. London: Routledge. (2nd ed. 1970 Collected Works Vol. 14 ISBN 0-691-01816-2) This was Jung's last book length work, completed when he was eighty.
  • Jung, C. G. (1957). The Undiscovered Self (Present and Future). 1959 ed. New York: American Library. 1990 ed. Bollingen ISBN 0-691-01894-4 (50 p. essay, also contained in collected Works Vol. 10)
  • Jung, C. G., & De Laszlo, V. S. (1958). Psyche and Symbol: A Selection from the Writings of C.G. Jung. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.
  • Jung, C. G., & De Laszlo, V. S. (1959). Basic Writings. New York: Modern Library.
  • Jung, C. G., & Jaffe A. (1962). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. London: Collins. This is Jung's autobiography, recorded and edited by Aniela Jaffe, ISBN 0-679-72395-1
  • Jung, C. G., Evans, R. I., & Jones, E. (1964). Conversations with Carl Jung and Reactions from Ernest Jones. New York: Van Nostrand.
  • Jung, C. G., & Franz, M.-L. v. (1964). Man and His Symbols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, ISBN 0-440-35183-9
  • Jung, C. G. (1966). The Practice of Psychotherapy: Essays on the Psychology of the Transference and other Subjects (Collected Works Vol. 16). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Jung, C. G. (1967). The Development of Personality. 1991 ed. London: Routledge. Collected Works Vol. 17 ISBN 0-691-01838-3
  • Jung, C. G. (1970). Four Archetypes; Mother, Rebirth, Spirit, Trickster. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 9 part 1)
  • Jung, C. G. (1974). Dreams. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press (compilation from Collected Works Vols. 4, 8, 12, 16), ISBN 0-691-01792-1
  • Jung, C. G., & Campbell, J. (1976). The Portable Jung. a compilation, New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-015070-6
  • Jung, C. G., Rothgeb, C. L., Clemens, S. M., & National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information (U.S.). (1978). Abstracts of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office.
  • Jung, C. G., & Antony Storr ed., (1983) The Essential Jung. a compilation, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-02455-3
  • Jung, C. G. (1986). Psychology and the East. London: Ark. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
  • Jung, C. G. (1987). Dictionary of Analytical Psychology. London: Ark Paperbacks.
  • Jung, C. G. (1988). Psychology and Western Religion. London: Ark Paperbacks. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
  • Jung, C. G., Wagner, S., Wagner, G., & Van der Post, L. (1990). The World Within C.G. Jung in his own words [videorecording]. New York, NY: Kino International : Dist. by Insight Media.
  • Jung, C. G., & Hull, R. F. C. (1991). Psychological Types (a revised ed.). London: Routlege.
  • Jung, C. G., & Chodorow, J. (1997). Jung on Active Imagination. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Jung, C. G., & Jarrett, J. L. (1998). Jung's Seminar on Nietzsche's Zarathustra (Abridged ed.). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Jung, C. G., & Pauli, Wolfgang, C. A. Meier (Editor). (2001). Atom and Archetype : The Pauli/Jung Letters, 1932-1958, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01207-5
  • Jung, C. G., & Sabini, M. (2002). The Earth Has a Soul: the nature writings of C.G. Jung. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.
  • Anthony Stevens. "Jung, A Very Short Introduction" (1994)

An early writing by Jung, dating from around 1917, was his poetic work, The Seven Sermons To The Dead (Full Text). Written in the persona of the 2nd century religious teacher Basilides of Alexandria, it explores ancient religious and spiritual themes, including those of gnosticism. This work is included in some editions of Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Psychiatric Studies is the first volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. ... The Collected Works of C. G. Jung is a multi-volume work containing the writings of psychiatrist Carl Jung. ... Michael Scott Montague Fordham (born 4 August 1905, Kensington, London, died 14 April 1995) was an English psychiatrist, a Jungian analyst. ... Experimental Researches is the second volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. ... The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease is the third volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. ... The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease is the third volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. ... Symbols of Transformation is the fifth volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. ... Freud and Psychoanalysis is the fourth volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. ... Two Essays on Analytical Psychology is the seventh volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. ... Psychological Types is the sixth volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. ... Psychology and Alchemy is the twelveth volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung Categories: | ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... Mysterium Coniunctionis is the fourteenth volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung Categories: | ... Man and His Symbols is the last psychological work undertaken by Carl Jung. ... Basilides redirects here. ... Basilides redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


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Persondata
NAME Jung, Carl Gustav
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Swiss psychiatrist, influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology
DATE OF BIRTH July 26, 1875
PLACE OF BIRTH Kesswil, in the Swiss canton (state) of Thurgau
DATE OF DEATH June 6, 1961
PLACE OF DEATH Zürich, Switzerland

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... means basic pussy and the dick In psychology, biological psychology or psychobiology[1] is the application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes and behavior. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... A brain of a cat Psychologists and scientists do not always agree on what should be considered Comparative Psychology. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Physiological psychology is sometimes related to psychiatry, and in fact may end up becoming the parent branch which contains psychiatry. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Psychophysics is a subdiscipline of psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their subjective correlates, or percepts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the broadest sense qualitative research is research which uses only dichotomous data — that is, data which can take only the values 0 (zero) and 1 (one). ... Quantitative psychological research is psychological research which performs statistical estimation or statistical inference. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... Psychological testing is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Counseling psychology is an application of the basic professional skills in psychology to a population that has been more located in schools rather than hospitals and clinics. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ... Relationship counseling is the process of counseling the parties of a relationship in an effort to recognize and to better manage or reconcile troublesome differences. ... Educational psychology or school psychology is the psychological science studying how children and adults learn, the effectiveness of various educational strategies and tactics, and how schools function as organizations. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ... Existential psychotherapy is partly based on the existential belief that human beings are alone in the world. ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ... Feminist Therapy Code of Ethics* (Revised, 1999) Preamble Feminist therapy evolved from feminist philosophy, psychological theory and practice, and political theory. ... Gestalt Therapy is an existential and experiential psychotherapy that focuses on the individuals experience in the present moment, the therapist-client relationship, the environmental and social contexts in which these things take place, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of the overall situation. ... Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... It has been suggested that Psychodynamic psychology be merged into this article or section. ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), Ph. ... Jean Piaget (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called genetic epistemology. He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Albert Bandura (born 4 20 1925 in Mundare, Canada), a Ball Licker, is best known for his work on nut sack and on self-efficacy. ... Leon Festinger Leon Festinger (May 8, 1919 – February 11, 1989) was a social psychologist from New York City who became famous for his Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger, 1957). ... Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. ... Stanley Schachter was born on April 15, 1922, to Nathan and Anna Schachter in Flushing, New York. ... Neal E Miller was born in Milwaukee in 1909. ... Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 - August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. ... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ... Gordon Willard Allport (November 11, 1897 - October 9, 1967) was an American psychologist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 - September 4, 1997) was an eminent psychologist, most remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... David McClelland David Clarence McClelland (1917 – March 27, 1998) was an American personality psychologist, social psychologist, and an advocate of quantitative history. ... Raymond Bernard Cattell (20 March 1905 - 2 February 1998) was a British and American psychologist who theorized the existence of fluid and crystallized intelligences to explain human cognitive ability. ... John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878–September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. ... Kurt Zadek Lewin (September 9, 1890 – February 12, 1947) was a German psychologist and one of the pioneers of social psychology. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952) was an influential American psychologist and behaviorist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior. ... Jerome Kagan (born 1929) was one of the key pioneers of developmental psychology. ... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... This page aims to list all topics related to psychology. ... This is an List of counseling topics is incomplete list. ... These are some of the sub-fields within the field of psychology: Abnormal psychology Activity theory Analytical psychology Applied psychology Asian Psychology Behavior analysis Behavioural medicine Behavioural psychology Biobehavioural health Biological psychology Biopsychology Cognitive neuropsychology Cognitive psychology Cognitive neuroscience Community psychology Comparative psychology Clinical psychology Counselling psychology Critical psychology Developmental... This is a list of psychiatric drugs used by psychiatrists to treat mental illness or distress. ... This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e. ... List of organizations and societies in psychology. ... This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ... This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... A very wide range of research methods are used in psychology. ... The psychological schools are the great classical theories of psychology. ... This is a timeline of psychology. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Kesswil is a municipality in the district of Arbon, in the canton of Thurgau, Switzerland. ... A canton is a territorial subdivision of a country, e. ... Thurgau (Thurgovia) is a canton of Switzerland. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Carl Jung (7366 words)
Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, 1875, in the small Swiss village of Kessewil.
According to Jung, someone whose own mother failed to satisfy the demands of the archetype may well be one that spends his or her life seeking comfort in the church, or in identification with "the motherland," or in meditating upon the figure of Mary, or in a life at sea.
Jung borrowed the idea from physics, where entropy refers to the tendency of all physical systems to "run down," that is, for all energy to become evenly distributed.
Carl Gustav Jung (1284 words)
Jung was probably unaware of the Friesian background of Otto's term "numinosity" when he began to use it for his Archetypes, but it is unlikely that he would object to the way in which Otto's theory, through Fries, fits into Kantian epistemology and metaphysics.
Jung was often at pains not to complicate his theory of the Archetypes by committing himself to a metaphysical theory -- he wanted the theory to work whether he was talking about the brain or about the Transcendent -- but that was merely a concession to the materialistic bias of contemporary science.
Jung's Kantianism enables him to avoid the materialism and reductionism of Freud ("all of civilization is a substitute for incest") and, with a great breadth of learning, employs principles from Kant, Schopenhauer, and Otto that are easily conformable to the Kant-Friesian tradition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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