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Encyclopedia > Carinthian Slovenes

The description Carinthian Slovenes (German: Kärntner Slowenen; Slovenian: Koroški Slovenci) is used to refer to the autochthonous, Slovene-speaking population group in the Austrian province of Carinthia. The Carinthian Slovenes send representatives to the National Ethnic Groups Advisory Council. The status of the minority group is guaranteed in principle constitutionally and under international law. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Italian: Carinzia, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) is an Austrian state or Land, located in the south of Austria. ...

Contents

History

Migration period

The Prince's Stone on which Carinthian princes were enthroned.
The Prince's Stone on which Carinthian princes were enthroned.

The Slovene language area was initially settled towards the end of the migration period by, among others, the western Slavs, and thereafter eventually by southern Slavs, who became the predominant group. A southern Slavonic informal language with western Slavonic influence arose. At the end of the migration period, a Slavic national proto-state called Karantania, the precursor of the current Carinthia, arose; it extended far beyond the present area of the province and its political centre lay in the Zollfeld. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Karantania sometimes Carantania, Carentania, Carinthia (in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slavic principality that developed in the 6th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ...


Middle Ages and modern times

Under Charlemagne, Karantania became part of the Frankish Empire and, in consequence, of the Holy Roman Empire. As a result of this, German noble families became gradually prevalent, while the population remained Slovene. Finally, the Bavarii moved into Carinthia as settlers. They settled the hitherto sparsely populated areas, such as wooded regions and high valleys. Only here and there did this lead to the direct displacement of Slavs (the development to being Slovenians did not take place until later). However, a process of assimilation of Slovenes by Germans began. In the 19th century, about two thirds of Carinthians had in this way become German. Nevertheless, Klagenfurt, at this time a German city with Slovene surroundings, was the predominant Slovene city of learning. A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Bavarii was a large and powerful tribe which emerged late in Teutonic tribal times, in what is now the Czech Republic (Bohemia). ... Klagenfurt, (Slovenian Celovec) is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia, in Austria, on the Glan river. ...


19th and 20th centuries

With the emergence of the nationalist movement in the late Austro-Hungarian monarchy, there was an acceleration in the process of assimilation; at the same time the conflict between national groups became more intense.


With the end of World War I the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs attempted to occupy the districts that remained Slovene. This issue also split the Slovene population. In the plebiscite zone in which the Slovene-speaking proportion of the population constituted about 70 per cent, 59 per cent of those who voted at the plebiscite voted to remain in Austria. In the run-up to the plebiscite the provincial government gave an assurance that it would promote and support the retention of Slovene culture. These conciliatory promises, in addition to economic and other reasons, led to about 40 per cent of the Slovenes living in the plebiscite zone voting to retain the unity of the province. Voting patterns were, however, different by region; in many municipalities there were majorities who voted to become part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Flag Capital Zagreb Language(s) Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian Government Republic President¹ Anton KoroÅ¡ec Vice presidents¹ Ante Pavelić Svetozar Pribićević Historical era World War I  - Independence 29 October, 1918  - Joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1 December, 1918 ¹ President and vice presidents of the National Council. ... The Carinthian Plebiscite (Slovene Koroški plebiscit, German: Kärntner Volksabstimmung) on October 10, 1920 determined the border between Austria and the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia) after World War I. In particular it divided Carinthia, formerly a province of Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, in...


As everywhere else in Europe, nationalism grew in the Interwar period. Promises made were broken, assimilation was forced by dividing the Slovenes into Slovenes and Windisch, even by denying that their language was Slovene at all. This culminated in targeted persecution in the Third Reich. Certainly it was possible to put oneself on good terms with the regime by professing to be Windisch with the associated promise to assimilate. At the same time, many Slovenes took part in Tito’s partisans’ resistance, who after the war again tried to occupy parts of Carinthia, but withdrew under pressure from the British occupying forces. In view of this extreme development on both sides, the atmosphere between the two national groups was extremely tense after the Second World War. The Slovene language continued to retreat steadily. Europe between 1929 and 1938 The Interwar period (also interbellum) is understood within Western culture to be the period between the end of the First World War and the beginning of the Second World War in Europe, specifically 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


On 15 May 1955 the Austrian State Treaty was signed, in Article 7 of which the “rights of the Slovene and Croat minorities” in Austria were regulated. In 1975 the electoral grouping of the Slovene national group (Enotna Lista) only just failed to gain entry to the provincial parliament. Before the next elections in 1979 the originally single constituency of Carinthia was divided into four constituencies. The area of settlement of the Carinthian Slovenes was divided up and these parts were in turn combined with purely German-speaking parts of the province. In the new constituencies the Slovene-speaking proportion of the population was reduced in such a way that in reality it was no longer possible for the representatives of national minorities to succeed in getting into the provincial parliament. The Austrian Centre for Ethnic Groups and representatives of the Carinthian Slovenes saw in this way of proceeding the successful attempt to reduce the political influence of the Slovene-speaking national minority group. Occupation zones in Austria, 1945-1955 The Austrian Independence Treaty (complete form: Treaty for the re-establishment of an independent and democratic Austria, signed in Vienna on the 15 May 1955), more commonly referred to as the Austrian State Treaty (German Staatsvertrag), was signed on May 15, 1955 in Vienna... Local council election results for the Enotna Lista from 2003. ...


In the 1970s the situation again escalated in the so-called signpost dispute, but thereafter became less tense.[1] However, continuing up to the present, individual statements by Slovene politicians are interpreted by parts of the German-speaking population as Slovene territorial claims, and they therefore regard the territorial integrity of Carinthia as still not being guaranteed. This interpretation is rejected both by the Slovene government and by the organisations representing the interests of the Carinthian Slovenes. The territorial integrity of Carinthia and its remaining part of Austria are said not to be placed in question at all.


The 21st century

Since the 1990s a growing interest in Slovene on the part of German-speaking Carinthians has been perceptible, but this could turn out to be too late in view of the increase in the proportion of old people. The success of Jörg Haider (Governor of Carinthia since 1999) in making a political issue out of the signpost dispute shows that the conflict is, as before, still present. Jörg Haider in Carinthia (promotional photo) Jörg Haider (born 26 January 1950) is an Austrian politician. ...


Area of settlement and proportion of the population

2001 Census
1971 Census

At the end of the 19th century, the Carinthian Slovenes comprised approximately one quarter to one third of the total population of Carinthia. In the course of the 20th century the numbers declined, especially because of the pressure to assimilate, to an official figure of 2.3 per cent of the total population. As the pressure from German came above all from the west and north, the present area of settlement lies in the south and east of the province, in the valleys known in German as Jauntal, Keutschacher and Rosental, the lowest Lavanttal, and the lower Gailtal (to about as far as Tröpolach). Köstenberg and Diex form approximately the most northerly points. The municipalities with the highest proportion of Carinthian Slovenes are Zell (89%), Globasnitz (42%) and Eisenkappel-Vellach (38%), according to the 2001 census. The actual number of Carinthian Slovenes is disputed, as both the representatives of Slovene organisations and the representatives of Carinthian traditional organisations describe the census results as inaccurate. The former point to the, in part, strongly fluctuating census results in individual municipalities, which in their opinion correlate strongly with political tensions in national minority questions. Consequently the results would underestimate the actual number of Carinthian Slovenes. The South Carinthian municipality of Gallizien is cited as an example: according to the 1951 census the proportion of Slovene speakers was 80 per cent, whereas in 1961 with simultaneously an absence of significant migratory movements and with approximately the same population, the proportion was only 11 per cent.

Carinthian parishes with bilingual (German-Slovenian) liturgies
Carinthian parishes with bilingual (German-Slovenian) liturgies
Census results
Year Number of Slovenes
1880 85,051
1890 84,667
1900 75,136
1910 66,463
1923 34,650
1934 24,875
1939 43,179
1951 42,095
1961 24,911
1971 20,972
1981 16,552
1991 14,850
2001 13,109

As a further example the results of the former municipality of Mieger (now in the municipality of Ebental), are cited, which in 1910 and 1923 had a Slovene-speaking population of 96 per cent and 51 per cent respectively, but in 1934 only 3 per cent. After World War II and a relaxation of relations between both population groups, the municipality showed a result of 91.5 per cent in the 1951 census. Ultimately, in 1971 in the run-up to the so-called Carinthian signpost dispute, the number of Slovenes was reduced again to 24 per cent. Representatives of the Carinthian Slovenes regard the census results as the absolute lower limit. They refer to an investigation carried out in 1991 in bilingual parishes, in the process of which there was a question about the colloquial language used by members of the parish. The results of this investigation (50,000 members of national minority groups) differed significantly from those of the census that took place in the same year (about 14,000). Carinthian traditional organisations estimate the actual number of self-declared Slovenes as being 2,000 to 5,000 persons. Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... {{year nav|1939 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Dialects

The Carinthian dialect branch of Slovene (Koroško) extends beyond the present borders of Carinthia. It is spoken in the bilingual areas that until 1918 formed the Duchy of Carinthia (i.e. in addition to the present province, the upper Kanaltal around Tarvis as well as the Miesstal) Additionally, the Carinthian-Slovene form of dialect is spoken in Rateče (known in German as Ratschach) in Slovenia very near the border with Italy, a locality of the Oberkrain (Gorenjska), as well as in the River Drautal in lower Styria. It can be divided into sub-dialects for the Jauntal, Rosental, and Gailtal. Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state arms The Duchy of Carinthia (German language: Kärnten, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. ...


The Obir dialect, which is influenced by the dialect of the Oberkrain, can be regarded as a subgroup of the Jauntal dialect. The Carinthian dialects are particularly unadulterated. In the present German-speaking areas the Slavonic basis of place and pasture names as far as into the upper Mölltal can be demonstrated. German and Slovene have in any case exercised a reciprocal influence in tone and vocabulary on each other in the course of the centuries.


(See also: Slovenian dialects.) Spoken Slovenian language has at least 32 main dialects (narečje) (dI) and speeches (govor) (sP). ...


The term Windisch

The description "Windisch" was originally applied in the German-speaking area to all Slavonic languages and in particular in southern Austria to the Slovene language. It is still used in part (predominantly by German nationalist circles) as an overall term for Slovene dialects spoken in Carinthia. However, because of the historical associations of the term, “a German word with pejorative overtones”,[2] it is rejected by a large part of the Carinthian Slovene population. In censuses Windisch is counted in addition to Slovene as a separate language category.


Literature after the Second World War

In early 1981 the novel Der Zögling Tjaz by Florjan Lipus appeared in a German translation by Peter Handke, which led to Handke being described by the Wiener Extrablatt as "Article 7 personified" for this literary achievement. In addition to Lipus, Handke later translated Gustav Janus. However, Slovene literature in Carinthia is made up not only of Janus and Lipus, but also a number of other authors. Mirko Kumer, Kristo Srienc and Valentin Polansek are part of the tradition, but in addition to Lipus, Janko Messner is part of a small, more innovative group that is nevertheless committed to the literary tradition. Lipus himself has developed into an outstanding belletrist. Younger prose authors include Joze Blajs, Martin Kuchling, Kristijan Mocilnik and the internationally known Janko Ferk. There is a considerable number of lyric poets, Milka Hartman being outstanding. Anton Kuchling is part of this generation. Gustav Janus and Andrej Kokot, as well as those lyric poets not currently writing, namely Erik Prunč and Karel Smolle, form the next generation. A group including Janko Ferk, Maja Haderlap, Franc Merkac, Jani Oswald, Vincenc Gotthardt, Fabjan Hafner and Cvetka Lipus that formed itself predominantly around the literary periodical "mladje" (Youth) follows these lyric poets. Rezka Kanzian and Tim O. Wüster, whose works have not (as of 2006) appeared in books of their own, are part of the youngest generation. Slovene literature in Carinthia since the Second World War has displayed a clear will to live; in the 2000s it is an emancipated literature free from provincialism. Johann Strutz (Janez Strutz) in particular has rendered outstanding services to the literature of the Carinthian Slovenes from the point of view of the sociology, theory and history of literature. His book Profile der neuen slowenischen Literatur in Kärnten (“Profiles of modern Slovene literature in Carinthia”), published in 1998 in a revised and extended edition, is a much respected standard work. Peter Handke (born December 6, 1942) is an avant-garde Austrian novelist and playwright. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


School and kindergarten system

In 1848 the Ministry of Education decreed that compulsory school pupils should be taught in their respective native language. The efforts of German nationalist forces in Carinthia to change this regulation were unsuccessful until the end of the 1860s. Between 1855 and 1869 the Slovene compulsory school system lay in the hands of the Roman Catholic Church, which was traditionally friendly to the Slovenes. From 1869 there was a major alteration in the instructions regarding the use of the native language in teaching, resulting from the Imperial law on state schools, as from this time the authority maintaining the school could lay down the language of instruction. This led to a large proportion of the compulsory schools being converted into so-called utraquist schools, in which Slovene was regarded as an auxiliary language to be used in teaching only until the pupils had acquired an adequate command of German.[3] Only a few schools remained purely Slovene (In 1914: St Jakob in Rosental, St Michael ob Bleiburg and Zell Parish)[4]. The utraquist form of school remained in existence until 1941.[3] This school system was rejected by the Slovene national minority as an “instrument of Germanisation”.[4] The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ...


On 3 October 1945 a new law on schools that envisaged a bilingual education for all children in the traditional area of settlement of Carinthian Slovenes, regardless of the national minority to which they belonged, was passed.[5] Bilingual education was meant to take place in the first three school years, after which Slovene was envisaged as a compulsory subject. After the signing of the State Treaty in 1955 and the solution of the hitherto open question of the course of the Austrian–Yugoslav border that was implicitly associated with this, there were protests against this model, culminating in 1958 in a school strike. As a result of this development, the provincial prime minister (Landeshauptmann), Ferdinand Wedenig, issued a decree in September 1958 that made it possible for parents or guardians to deregister their children from bilingual teaching. In March 1959 the educational system was again altered to the effect that henceforth pupils had to register explicitly for bilingual education.[3] As a result of what in effect was an associated compulsion to declare one’s allegiance to a national minority, the numbers of pupils in the bilingual system sank considerably. In 1958 only 20.88 per cent, and in the 1970s only 13.9 per cent, of bilingual pupils registered for German–Slovene teaching.[5] The minorities’ school law that was altered in the course of a three-party agreement (SPÖ (Social Democratic Party of Austria), ÖVP (Austrian People's Party), and FPÖ (Austrian Freedom Party)) that envisaged a far-reaching separation on the basis of classes of primary school pupils into those taught bilingually and those taught only in German. The issue of whether headteachers of bilingual schools must be able to produce a bilingual qualification remains controversial.[3] Landeshauptmann (literally country captain or state captain) is the German title of the governor of a state of Austria or of the Italian province of Bolzano (South Tyrol). ... The Social Democratic Party of Austria (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, or SPÖ) is one of the oldest political parties in Austria. ... The Austrian Peoples Party (de:Österreichische Volkspartei, or ÖVP) is an Austrian political party. ... The Austrian Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, abbreviated to FPÖ) is an Austrian political party usually associated with the name of Jörg Haider. ...


An extension of what is being offered by schools is faced with the general development in the bilingual education system that has been described and that is viewed critically by Slovene organisations In 1957 the federal grammar school and federal secondary school for Slovenes (Bundesgymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium für Slowenen/Zvezna gimnazija in Zvezna realna gimnazija za Slovence) was founded, in whose building the bilingual federal commercial school (Zweisprachige Bundeshandelsakademie/Dvojezična zvezna trgovska akademija) has also been accommodated since 1991. Since 1989 there has been a secondary school (Höhere Bundeslehranstalt) operated by the Church in St Peter in Rosental (municipality of St Jakob). Following a decision by the Constitutional Court, school pupils in Klagenfurt are able to attend a public-funded bilingual primary school, in addition to the one operated by the Church.[3] As a result of a private initiative, the Slovene music school (Kärntner Musikschule/Glasbena šola na koroškem) was founded in 1984 and has received public funds since a co-operation agreement was concluded with the province of Carinthia in 1998. However, the amount of this financial support (in relation to the number of pupils) contravenes the law on equality of treatment in the view of the Austrian National Minorities Centre, as the other operator in the Carinthian music school system, the Musikschulwerk, receives, on a per capita basis, a higher amount.[6] The Glasbena šola is able to continue its operations, however, with the help of contributions from the Republic of Slovenia.


An increased interest by people in South Carinthia in bilingual education has been generally perceptible since the 1990s. In the school year 2003/04, 32 per cent of the pupils in primary schools in the area in which the minority school system applied were registered for bilingual teaching – the proportion of children without previous knowledge of Slovene amounted to over 50 per cent.[7]


Lobbying

The Christian cultural association (Christlicher Kulturverband) and the council of Christian Slovenes (Rat der Kärntner Slowenen/Narodni svet koroških Slovencev) have endowed an annual award, the Einspieler prize (named after the founder of the Hermagoras publishing company, Andrej Einspieler), for persons who have rendered outstanding services to the cause of co-existence. The prize has been awarded to, among others, the industrialist Herbert Liaunig and the University of Klagenfurt professor of general and diachronic linguistics, Heinz Dieter Pohl.


Personalities

  • Janko Ferk – judge and writer (b. 1958)
  • Peter Handke – writer (b. 1942; Carinthian Slovene mother)
  • Franc Kattnig – publisher and cultural official (b. 1945)
  • Martin Kušej – theatre and opera director (b. 1961)
  • Florjan Lipuš – writer and translator (b. 1937)
  • Janko Messner – writer (b. 1921)
  • Mirko Messner – politician (b. 1948)
  • Valentin Oman – artist (b. 1935)
  • Wolfgang Petritsch – diplomat, former High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (b. 1947)
  • Erik Prunč – professor at the University of Graz (b. 1941)
  • Johann (Janez) Strutz – professor at the University of Klagenfurt (b. 1949)
  • Jožef Stefan – mathematician and physicist (1835–1893)
  • Peter Wrolich – racing cyclist (b. 1974)

In September 2003, Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch, Austria’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations in Geneva, was elected President-Designate of the Mine Ban Convention’s First Review Conference. ... The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was created in 1995 immediately after the Dayton Peace Agreement to oversee the civilian implementation of this agreement. ... University of Graz The University of Graz (German, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz), a university located in Graz, Austria, is the second-largest university in Austria. ... Founded in 1971 as Hochschule für Bildungswissenschaften (College of Educational Studies). Since October 2004 the official name is Alpen-Adria Universität Klagenfurt (Alps-Adria University of Klagenfurt) - in order to stress the intercultural connections between alpine regions and the mediterrane Adriatic Sea. ... Joseph Stefan (Slovene Jožef Stefan) (March 24, 1835 – January 7, 1893) was a Slovene physicist, mathematician and poet. ... Peter Wrolich (born May 30, 1974) is an Austrian cyclist. ...

Organisations

  • Kärntner Einheitsliste (Koroška enotna lista) – a joint political movement that stands at local elections
  • Rat der Kärntner Slowenen (Narodni svet koroških Slovencev) – council of Christian Slovenes, representing Christian-conservative interests
  • Zentralverband slowenischer Organisationen (Zveze slovenskih organizacij) – association representing left-leaning interests
  • Christlicher Kulturverband (Krščanska kulturna zveza) – Christian cultural association
  • Slowenischer Kulturverband (Slovenska prosvetna zveza) – Slovene cultural association
  • Slowenischer Wirtschaftsverband (Slovenska gospodarska zveza) – Slovene economic organisation
  • Gemeinschaft der Südkärntner Bauern (Skupnost južnokoroških kmetov) – community of South Carinthian farmers
  • Alpenverein der Kärntner Slowenen (Slovenska Planinska Družba) – Alpine climbing club of Carinthian Slovenes
  • Slowenischer Athletikklub (Slovenski atletski klub) – Slovene athletic club
  • Slowenischer Studenten Verband (Koroška dijaška zveza) – Slovene students’ association

Media

  • Nedelja – Slovene-language weekly newspaper of the diocese of Gurk
  • Novice – Slovene-language weekly news-sheet
  • Mohorjeva družba-Hermagoras – Catholic bilingual publisher (Klagenfurt)
  • Drava Verlag – bilingual publisher (Klagenfurt)

See also

Burgenland Croats are ethnic Croats in the Austrian province of Burgenland. ... Austrians are a homogeneous people, although four decades of strong immigration have significantly altered the composition of the population of Austria. ...

Sources

Literature

  • (German) Albert F. Reiterer: ‘‘Kärntner Slowenen: Minderheit oder Elite? Neuere Tendenzen der ethnischen Arbeitsteilung.’’ Drava Verlag/Založba Drava, Klagenfurt 1996, ISBN 3-85435-252-2
  • (German) Andreas Moritsch (Hrsg.): ‘‘Kärntner Slovenen/Koroški Slovenci 1900-2000’’ Hermagoras/Mohorjeva, Klagenfurt 2003 ISBN 3-85013-753-8
  • (German) Johann Strutz: Profile der neuen slowenischen Literatur in Kärnten, by Hermagoras Verlag, Klagenfurt, 1998, ISBN 3-85013-524-1

External links

Politics

Culture and History

Notes

  1. ^ (English) "Will Carinthia Remain German?"
  2. ^ Dictionary of Languages, Andrew Dalby, first edition, Bloomsbury, London, 1999, ISBN 0747531188, p. 567
  3. ^ a b c d e Amt der Kärntner Landesregierung - Volksgruppenbüro (Hrsg.), Die Kärntner Slowenen, 2003
  4. ^ a b Heinz Dieter Pohl, Die ethnisch-sprachlichen Voraussetzungen der Volksabstimmung (Accessed on 3 August 2006)
  5. ^ a b C. Bratt Paulston and D. Peckham (eds.) Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe, 1998, p. 32 f., ISBN 1853594164
  6. ^ Bericht des Österreichischen Volksgruppenzentrums zur Durchführung des Europäischen Rahmenübereinkommens zum Schutz nationaler Minderheiten in der Republik Österreich Teil II (Accessed on 3 August 2006)
  7. ^ Volksgruppenarchiv des ORF Kärnten (Accessed on 3 August 2006)

References

  • This article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia.

 
 

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