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Encyclopedia > Carillon
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The Netherlands Carillon in Arlington, Virginia, USA.

A carillon (Dutch: beiaard) is a musical instrument composed of at least 23 cup-shaped bells played from a baton keyboard using fists and feet (such an instrument with fewer than this number of bells is known as a chime). Carillon bells are made of bell bronze, approximately 78% copper and 22% tin. Carillons are normally housed in bell towers. However, there are indoor Carillons usually of light weight bells which may be hung inside shopping malls or in theatres or Opera houses such as at the Bolshoi in Moscow. The Carillon is the heaviest of all musical instruments with total weight of bells alone being around 100-200 tons in large instruments. It is sometimes referred to as the "duke" of instruments (the organ is "king") The Organ has the widest range followed by the Carillon and Piano. Though some claim the harpsichord to be the ancestor of the piano, in reality the carillon is. The action of the Carillon is very similar to that of the Piano as well as the tracker Organ. The word carillon is pronounced /‖karijɔ̃/, /ˈkærɪljɒn/ or /kəˈrɪljən/ (International Phonetic Alphabet), according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The University of Regina is a degree granting institution located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. ... The Carillon is the student published newspaper at the University of Regina in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. ... Carillion plc is a British based construction services business headquartered in Wolverhampton. ... National Park Service photo of Netherlands Carillon at Arlington National Cemetary File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... National Park Service photo of Netherlands Carillon at Arlington National Cemetary File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Netherlands Carillon at Arlington National Cemetery was a gift from the people of the Netherlands to the people of the United States of America in 1954. ... Arlington County is an urban county of about 203,000 residents in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the U.S., directly across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. [1] Originally part of the District of Columbia, the land now comprising the county was retroceded to Virginia in a July... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... The layout of a typical musical keyboard A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which cause the instrument to produce sounds. ... A carillon-like instrument with less than 23 bells is called a chime. ... Bell metal is a hard alloy used for making bells. ... Bell Tower is an office tower in Edmonton, Canada. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is any of a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument currently called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...

Contents

History

Carillon bells.
A carillon keyboard.

The carillon originated in the 12th century in the Low Countries when people wanted not only to make beautiful bells, but also to achieve a sonorous and concordant sound. In the 17th century, François and Pieter Hemony perfected the art of bell-founding by tuning at multiple interior points so that bells could be sounded together to produce concordant harmonies. The Hemonys kept their tuning methods secret and the secret died with them. Independently, in the 18th century Andreas Vanden Gheyn developed a technique of tuning bells, in addition to a technique different from the Hemonys for higher pitched bells, creating a lighter, less harsh sound. Unfortunately his techniques also passed away with him. It was not until the 19th century in England under the Taylor foundry at White Chapel that well-tuned bells were made again. Photo of the bells of a mobile carillon, photographed by the uploader (Brummig) File links The following pages link to this file: Carillon ... Photo of the bells of a mobile carillon, photographed by the uploader (Brummig) File links The following pages link to this file: Carillon ... National Park Service photo inside Netherlands Carillon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... National Park Service photo inside Netherlands Carillon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... The Hemony carillon of the Zuiderkerk in Amsterdam was installed in 1656 François Hemony (±1609-1667) and his brother Pieter (Pierre) Hemony (1619-1680) were the greatest carillon bell founders in the history of the Low Countries. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ...


Bells in medieval times were not only used to make music but also notify people of fires, storms, wars and other events in various towns and cities. The great bell Rowland (goes also under other spellings) is one of the most famous of these bells and has survived for over 500 years escaping being melted down by Napoleon or Hitler. Rowland announced births, deaths, fires, wars, etc., as well as being the bourdon of the Bruges Belfry. The announcements were done by the way the bells were rung. A ringing of bells rung from the lowest note to the highest note indicated that a war or attack had taken place or was about to. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... The bourdon is the heaviest of the bells that belong to a musical instrument, especially a chime or a carillon, and produces its lowest tone. ... Belfry of Bruges The belfry of Bruges, sometimes called the Halletoren, is one of the most prominent symbols of Bruges, Belgium. ...


The greatest concentration of carillons is still to be found in Belgium, the Netherlands, and the French département du Nord, where they were commonly mounted in the grand towers of rich cities as tokens of civic pride and status. Carillons were usually housed in church towers, belfries, or in municipal buildings, and the same holds true for those carillons that have been installed in other parts of the world since the art of casting precisely tuned bells was rediscovered in the late 19th century. In Germany, such a carillon is also called a Glockenspiel. Extent of Flemish in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (French: North) is a département in the north of France. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... Belfry of Bruges A belfry is a building (also known as a bell tower) - or a part of a building - in which bells are hung. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... Casting may be used to create artistic sculptures Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material such as metal or plastic is introduced into a mold, allowed to solidify within the mold, and then ejected or broken out to make a fabricated part. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ...


Concentrations of traditional carillons in their original heartlands

Overview of highest concentrations of carillons (as defined by the World Carillon Federation) (data September 2006):

Region Surface area
(km²)
Number of
carillons
Concentration
per 1000 km²
Netherlands 41,526 182 4.383
Belgium 30,528 89 2.915
Brussels-C. R. 161 2 12.422[1]
Flanders 13,522 64 4.733
Wallonia 16,844 23 1.365
Nord, France[2] 5,743 15 2.612
Côte d'Or, France[3] 8,763 5 0.571
for comparison only:
USA 9,631,420 164 0.017

Highly reputed carillon schools are also present in the carillon heartlands, including the Netherlands Carillon School in the Netherlands and the first international school, the Royal Carillon School "Jef Denyn" in Mechelen, Belgium. In North America one can study the carillon at The University of California Berkeley, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor (which is home to two of only twenty-three grand carilloNs in the world), Colorado State, and Missouri State University, all of which offer complete courses of study. One can also take private lessons at many carillon locations and there are Universities that offer limited College credit for Carillon performance as Clemson University or Cornell University. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Flemish region is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium (alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region). ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ... Extent of Flemish in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (French: North) is a département in the north of France. ... For other uses, see Côte dOr (disambiguation). ... Old carillon practice keyboard being removed from the Royal Carillon School Jef Denyn for replacement on October 25, 2005 The Royal Carillon School Jef Denyn (Dutch: Koninklijke Beiaardschool Jef Denyn) in Mechelen, Belgium, is the first and largest carillon school in the world. ... Mechelen: Grote Markt square, with St. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Missouri State University located in Springfield, Missouri is the states second largest university in student enrollment, second only to the University of Missouri. ... Clemson University is a public, coeducational, land-grant, research university located in Clemson, South Carolina, United States. ... Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ...


Musical characteristics

Carillonneur Brian Swager plays the carillon at the Cathedral Saint-Jean-Baptiste (John the Baptist) in Perpignan, France.

Since each separate note is produced by an individual bell, a carillon's musical range is determined by the number of bells it has. Different names are assigned to instruments based on the number of bells they comprise: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Perpignan (French: Perpignan, pronounced ; Catalan Perpinyà, pronounced ) is a commune and the préfecture (administrative capital city) of the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southern France. ... In music, the range of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. ...

  • Carillons with 23 through 27 bells are referred to as two-octave carillons. Players of these instruments often use music arranged specifically for their limited range of notes.
  • The "keyboard" of a Carillon is called a baton console.
  • A concert carillon has a range of at least four octaves (47 bells) and is generally accepted unofficially as the world's standard sized Carillon.
  • The carillon with largest range contains 77 bells, or six and a half octaves (Kirk in the Hills, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, United States). The Riverside Carillon in New York City has or did have (that is there maybe other instruments with larger bourdons) the largest tuned bell in the World which sounds 8foot C or the C two octaves below middle C on the Piano.
  • The Campanology article compares other musical bell instruments with the carillon.
  • Some modern fake instruments (such as some made by Schulmerich) use semantra (rectangular metal bars roughly the diameter of a pencil but of varying lengths) struck by an electric solenoid. The resulting sound, which sounds nothing like real bells, feeds through an electronic amplifier into audio speakers. Though sometimes called 'carillon' as well, these do not conform to the definitions given by the World Carillon Federation[4] or the Guild of Carillonneurs in North America[5]. The GCNA as of 2000 has disqualified all instruments in which more than 12 bells are played electrically. Twelve bells are allowed so that automatic chiming of tunes may take place. Chiming means that one bell at a time is usually played.

The carillonneur is the title of the musician who plays the carillon, sits in a cabin beneath the bells. The carillonneur presses down, with a loosely closed fist, on a series of baton-like keys arranged in the same pattern as a piano keyboard. The Batons are almost never played with the fingers as one does a piano and this is sometimes used as a special carillon playing technique. The keys activate levers and wires that connect directly to the bells' clappers; thus, as with a piano, the carillonneur can vary the intensity of the note according to the force applied to the key. In addition to the manual keys, the heavier bells are also connected to pedals. These notes can either be played with the hands or the feet. Kirk in the Hills is a Presbyterian church located in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan that includes the Tower of the Apostles. ... Bloomfield Hills is a city in Oakland County of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Campanology is the study of bells and the methods of casting, tuning and sounding them, of the creation and perfection of musical instruments consisting of one or more racks of bells and the composing for and playing on these. ... Various solenoid actuators from Trombetta Motion Technologies A solenoid is a loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electrical current is passed through it. ... Generally, an amplifier is any device that will use a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Template:Cleanup-notability The Guild of Carillonneurs in North America is a professional society of players of carillon bells in the United States and Canada. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ...


To a musician's ear, a carillon can sound "out of tune." Poorly tuned bells often give this impression and also can be out of tune with itself. This is due to the unusual harmonic characteristics of foundry bells, which have a strong overtones above and below the fundamental frequency. Foundry bells are tuned to have the following set of partials (overtones): In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... The fundamental tone, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is the lowest frequency in a harmonic series. ...


Octave above prime
Fifth
Minor third
Prime and strike tone resultant
Hum tone (an octave below prime)


Additionally, there is a major 10th, 12th, and 15th which are not typically individually tuned , but are usually present anyway. They all combine to create a "resultant" pitch, which is in unison with prime on a well-tuned bell. Properly tuned bells emphasize the fundamental frequency of the bell. Tuning a bell involves pouring more metal than is needed into the mold. Then removed the cold bell from the mold and place it on a lathe and metal shaved at the correct places to voice and give the bell the correct fundamental frequency.


Carillon Music

There is no standard pitch range Carillon as of 2007 although the implied world standard pitch range for the average Carillon is 48 bells which gives good upper range and good lower range. The minimum and maximum range of an instrument generally depend on the money available to pay for the instrument--more money =more bells and larger range. The more expensive bells are found in the lower part of the baton console. When one writes for this instrument; it should be designated the size instrument that the work is to be played on since a work demanding a large range can not be played on a Carillon of 23 bells while on the other hand a 23 bell range composition can be played on a 48 bell carillon. For example: Phantasie for Carillon in C for Carillon of 23 bells; Soul of the Great Bell for Carillon in C of 61 bells. Carillons, because they do not have a standardised pitch range, tend to be transposing instruments particularly in older instruments which are now being re-set up as non transposing (except in octaves) C instruments so that the bells can not only be played solo but with other instruments also without the hassle of transposing to match the instruments being played with the Carillon. The days of transposing instruments have just about ended and music is now being written so that if the baton note C is played one gets a C which maybe higher or lower than written depending on the size instrument or it may sounds as written. In instruments which are large; the baton C gives the same note sounds which sounds as written for instance middle c sounds middle c just as it also would on the piano. It use to be part of a Carillonneurs training; to be able to transpose music in any key for his or her instrument thankfully this is now passing which also makes it easier on composers to write for the instrument. One of the other difficulties/frustrations in writing for Carillon is that older builders often failed to provide bells for some of the lower bells. You can see this in the photograph of the Carillon Console being played here. The reasons for this were expense of these bells which sometimes meant that they builder either could insist on putting these bells in and loose the contract or he could not put in the bells and get the contract. In modern instruments this has thankfully been done away with for most part. These days a large Carillon maybe envisioned but the large bells will be installed then those upwards from there so that the less expensive bells will be assured of being gotten to fill in the gaps.


Carillon music is typically written on two or three staves. The pedal stave used to play the heavier, larger bells which are connected to the lower portion of the baton clavier and also help form chords and thirds and other intervals with the middle and upper baton bells. Pedal ranges maybe 32 notes, usually beginning on C in modern octave transposing and non transposing Carillons or more duplicating the batons. In most Carillons; the pedal is not independent and sounds the same baton bells that are coupled to the same pedal notes. Complicated music maybe written on four staves with the staves labeled High bells, Mid Bells, Tenor Bells and Bourdons or bass bells.


Just about any music that can be played on the piano or organ can also be composed and or arranged to be played on the Carillon. However, one should not expect that chords can be played with one's fingers as is on the piano---this can be done on upper bells however, Trills and tremolandi as well as rapid runs are effective. Very Fast music and slow music can be played and the Carillon is ideal for playing polyphonic music with florid counterpoint. Arrangements and original compositions for Carillon should focus on the middle and upper bells because their sounds die out quicker than the bourdons. While Carillon music can be written on standard 9.5 x12 inches paper; Carillon music is most often preferred to be printed in folding landscape format so that no page turns are necessary or the need to is greatly reduced.


Carillon music is effective when combined with Orchestra in Concertos, Orchestral piece as well as solo pieces. It is also effective when used in film scores and in duos, trios, quartets, quintets with guitar, Strings and Brass with timpani.


In recording Carillon music; the mikes should be some distance from the bells otherwise it will pick up the softer lingering of tones and frequencies that are not intended to be heard usually.


Music for Carillon has a long history dating back from to the 12th century when bells began to chime out tunes. By the 15th century automatic music was possible by arranging pegs on giant spring loaded drums. When the time came to play the spring was released and the drums caused the instrument to play. The 19th century saw the beginnings of much original music written for the instrument.


Bell foundries

Bellmaking is an old art. Carillon bells, which can weigh many tons, are made in a foundry by casting, and can be tuned by turning on a lathe. Campanology is the study of bells — the methods of casting and tuning them, and the art or science of sounding them. Bellmaking or bellfounding is the craft of creating bells in a foundry. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... Center lathe with DRO and chuck guard. ... Campanology is the study of bells and the methods of casting, tuning and sounding them, of the creation and perfection of musical instruments consisting of one or more racks of bells and the composing for and playing on these. ...

St. Rumbolds Tower at Mechelen, Belgium, the only tower housing two functional concert carillons.
The National Carillon on Aspen Island in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra, celebrates the 50th anniversary of Australia's capital.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 740 KB) en:Mechelen Cathedral, taken by Donar Reiskoffer, File links The following pages link to this file: Mechelen ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 740 KB) en:Mechelen Cathedral, taken by Donar Reiskoffer, File links The following pages link to this file: Mechelen ... St. ... Mechelen: Grote Markt square, with St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 140 KB) Summary The Carillon on Aspen Island in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra, celebrates the 50th Anniversary of Australias National Capital Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 140 KB) Summary The Carillon on Aspen Island in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra, celebrates the 50th Anniversary of Australias National Capital Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... The National Carillon is a large carillon situated on Aspen Island in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra, Australia. ... Sunset over Lake Burley Griffin, viewed from the Commonwealth Bridge Lake Burley Griffin is a lake in the centre of Canberra, Australias federal capital city. ... For other meanings see Canberra (disambiguation). ...

Currently open foundries

Royal Eijsbouts is the largest bell foundry in the world. ... Asten ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. ... John Taylor Bellfounders is, as of 2004, the worlds largest bell foundry, based in Loughborough, England. ... Loughboroughs carillon Loughborough parish church The Brush engineering works Loughborough University Loughborough (pronounced locally as either , LUFF-burra or , LUFF-bruh, and more widely as [ˈlÊŒfËŒb(É™)ɹə]) is a town in Leicestershire, central England with a population of 57,600 as of 2004. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Annecy-le-Vieux is a commune in France, situated in the département of Haute-Savoie in the région of Rhône-Alpes. ... Royal Bellfounders Petit & Fritsen, based in Aarle-Rixtel, the Netherlands is the oldest family owned business in the Netherlands, with the foundry dating back to 1660. ... Laarbeek is a municipality in the southern Netherlands. ... Georgetown is a village in Brown County, Ohio, United States. ... The Verdin Company is a manufacturer of bronze bells based in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Nickname: Motto: Juncta Juvant (Strength in Unity) Location in Hamilton County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio County Hamilton Founded 1788 Incorporated 1802 (village) - 1819 (city) Government  - Type Mayor-council government  - Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D) Area  - City 79. ... The Whitechapel Bell Foundry is a bell foundry based in the Whitechapel district of east London. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ...

Closed foundries

History William Gillett started a clock making business on Union Road in Croydon, UK in 1844. ... It has been suggested that Central Croydon be merged into this article or section. ... The Meneely Bell Foundry was started in 1826 by Andrew Meneely in West Troy (now Watervliet), New York. ... Looking west down Broadway at downtown Troy. ... The Meneely Bell Foundry was started in 1826 by Andrew Meneely in West Troy (now Watervliet), New York. ... Watervliet is a city located in Albany County, New York. ...

Further reading

See also

Campanology is the study of bells and the methods of casting, tuning and sounding them, of the creation and perfection of musical instruments consisting of one or more racks of bells and the composing for and playing on these. ... Bell Tower is an office tower in Edmonton, Canada. ... Template:Cleanup-notability The Guild of Carillonneurs in North America is a professional society of players of carillon bells in the United States and Canada. ... Old carillon practice keyboard being removed from the Royal Carillon School Jef Denyn for replacement on October 25, 2005 The Royal Carillon School Jef Denyn (Dutch: Koninklijke Beiaardschool Jef Denyn) in Mechelen, Belgium, is the first and largest carillon school in the world. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Carillon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (866 words)
A carillon is a musical instrument composed of at least 23 cup-shaped bells played from a baton keyboard using fists and feet (such an instrument with fewer than this number of bells is known as a chime).
Carillon bells are made of bell bronze, approximately 78% copper and 22% tin.
Carillons originated in the 15th century in the Low Countries of Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands and Northern France, when bell-makers perfected their art by tuning bells at several points so that they could be sounded together to produce concordant harmonies.
Carillon (831 words)
The carillon usually is an outdoor instrument, its bronze cup-shaped bells fixed in a tower belfry or, in some modern examples, on an open frame.
The carillon is played from a keyboard of large round wooden keys and short pedals which are connected to the bell clappers by simple tracker action.
The carillon's rarity may be attributed to the difficulty in tuning the partial tones in the bells so that chords and complex passages may be sounded accurately.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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