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Encyclopedia > Cargo ship

A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year; they handle the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built of welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 384 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 959 pixel, file size: 352 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Container Ship in Halifax Harbour, picture taken November 4, 2006 by Bryson109 (myself). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 384 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 959 pixel, file size: 352 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Container Ship in Halifax Harbour, picture taken November 4, 2006 by Bryson109 (myself). ... Hapag-Lloyd is a German transportation company comprising a cargo container shipping line and a cruise line. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ...

Contents

Types

Specialized types of cargo vessels include container ships and bulk carriers (technically tankers of all sizes are cargo ships, although they are routinely thought of as a separate category). Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... Main article: Merchant ship A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship used to transport unpackaged bulk cargo such as cereals, coal, ore, and cement. ... A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. ... A supertanker is an unofficial nickname that applies to a certain class of tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids; in practice this typically refers to crude oil. ...


History

The earliest records of waterborne activity mention the carriage of items for trade; the evidence of history and archaeology shows the practice to be widespread by the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. The desire to operate trade routes over longer distances and at more seasons of the year motivated improvements in ship design during the Middle Ages. The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Before the middle of the 19th century, the incidence of piracy resulted in most cargo ships being armed, sometimes quite heavily, as in the case of the Manila galleons and East Indiamen. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... The Manila Galleons were Spanish galleons that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines and Acapulco in New Spain (now Mexico). ... The East Indiaman Repulse (1820) in the East India Dock Basin. ...


Piracy

Piracy is still quite common in some waters, particularly around Asia, most notably in the Malacca Straits, a narrow channel between Indonesia and Singapore / Malaysia. In 2004, the governments of those three nations agreed to provide better protection for the ships passing through the Straits. Also piracy prone are the waters off Somalia and Nigeria, while smaller vessels are also in danger along parts of the South American coasts.[citation needed] The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... ...


Definitions

While the definitions have become "cross-pollinated" over the years, "cargo" technically refers to the goods carried aboard the ship for hire, while "freight" refers to the compensation the ship or charterer receives for carrying the cargo. Chartering can refer to: Charter airline Chartering (shipping) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Generally, the modern ocean shipping business is divided into two classes:

  1. Liner business: typically (but not exclusively) container vessels (wherein "general cargo" is carried in 20 or 40-foot "boxes"), operating as "common carriers", calling a regularly-published schedule of ports. A common carrier refers to a regulated service where any member of the public may book cargo for shipment, according to long-established and internationally agreed rules.
  2. Tramp-tanker business: generally this is private business arranged between the shipper and receiver and facilitated by the vessel owners or operators, who offer their vessels for hire to carry bulk (dry or liquid) or break bulk (cargoes with individually handled pieces) to any suitable port(s) in the world, according to a specifically drawn contract, called a charter party.

Larger cargo ships are generally operated by shipping lines: companies that specialize in the handling of cargo in general. Smaller vessels, such as coasters, are often owned by their operators. CHARTER PARTY (Lat. ... A shipping line is a business that operates ships that it itself either owns or operates for the benefit of the owner. ... Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. ...


Vessel prefixes: Before the vessel's name will be found a category designation. Naval ships, for example, will have "USS" (United States Ship), "HMS" (Her/His Majesty's Ship), "HTMS" (His Thai Majesty's Ship). Merchant ships may have "RMS (Royal Mail Ship, usually a passenger liner), "MV" (Motor Vessel, (powered by Diesel). "SS" (Steam Ship, now seldom seen, powered by steam). "TS", sometimes found in first position before a merchant ship's prefix, denotes that it has Twin Screws. (For further discussion, see Ship prefixes.) This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A ship prefix is a combination of letters, usually abbreviations, used in front of the name of a civilian or naval ship. ...


Famous cargo ships would include the Liberty ships of World War II, partly based on a British design, the sections for which were prefabricated all over the USA and then assembled by shipbuilders in an average of 6 weeks with the record being just over 4 days. These ships allowed the Allies to replace sunken cargo vessels at a rate greater than the Kriegsmarine's U-boats could sink them, and contributed significantly to the war effort, the delivery of supplies, and eventual victory over the Axis powers. SS is one of only two surviving Liberty ships. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black The Axis powers, also interpreted as Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those countries opposed to the Allies during the Second World War. ...


Lake freighters built for the Great Lakes in North America differ in design from "salties" because of the difference in wave size and frequency in the lakes. A number of these boats are so large that they cannot leave the lakes because they do not fit into the locks on the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The ill-fated SS Edmund Fitzgerald, built in the classic dual superstructure style with her wheelhouse up near the bow. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St. ...


Sizes of cargo ships

Cargo ships are categorized partly by their capacity, partly by their weight, and partly by their dimensions (often with reference to the various canals and canal locks through which they can travel). Some common categories include:

Handysize refers to a dry bulk vessel or product tanker with deadweight of 15,000–50,000 tons. ... Dead weight tonnage refers to the weight, in long tons, that a ship can safely carry when fully loaded. ... Handysize refers to a dry bulk vessel or product tanker with deadweight of 15,000–50,000 tons. ... Dead weight tonnage refers to the weight, in long tons, that a ship can safely carry when fully loaded. ... Handymax is a naval architecture term for a Bulk carrier between 30,001 and 50,000 DWT. Length 150-200 m (492-656 feet). ... Dead weight tonnage refers to the weight, in long tons, that a ship can safely carry when fully loaded. ... The term Seawaymax refers to vessels which are the maximum size that can fit through the canal locks of the St Lawrence Seaway. ... The Saint Lawrence Seaway in its broadest sense (see Great Lakes Waterway) is the system of canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes as far as Lake Superior. ... An Aframax ship is an oil tanker with capacity between 80,000 dwt and 120,000 dwt. ... Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Straits of Malacca. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... Cape Horn from the South. ... A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. ... A supertanker is an unofficial nickname that applies to a certain class of tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids; in practice this typically refers to crude oil. ... A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. ...

See also

Nautical Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:General cargo ships

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A container ship // “Water transport” redirects here. ... The British Red Ensign. ... Source: This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... Main article: Merchant ship A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship used to transport unpackaged bulk cargo such as cereals, coal, ore, and cement. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... The reefer is a type of ship typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foodstuffs. ... Roll-on/roll-off is a method of transport (as a ferry, train, or airplane) that vehicles roll onto at the beginning and roll off of at the destination. ... A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. ... A chemical tanker is a type of tanker designed to transport chemicals in bulk. ... Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. ... A passenger ship is a ship whose primary function is to carry passengers. ... Pacific Sky sails under Sydney Harbour Bridge A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... Pride of Bilbao, a cruise ferry operated by P&O Ferries. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... A cable layer is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electricity, and such. ... The Le Four manoeuvering in Brest harbour A tugboat, or tug, is a boat used to manoeuvre, primarily by towing or pushing other vessels (see shipping) in harbours, over the open sea or through rivers and canals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The term Seawaymax refers to vessels which are the maximum size that can fit through the canal locks of the St Lawrence Seaway. ... Handymax is a naval architecture term for a Bulk carrier between 30,001 and 50,000 DWT. Length 150-200 m (492-656 feet). ... Handysize refers to a dry bulk vessel or product tanker with deadweight of 15,000–50,000 tons. ... An Aframax ship is an oil tanker with capacity between 80,000 dwt and 120,000 dwt. ... Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. ... Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Straits of Malacca. ... A supertanker is a tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids, especially crude oil. ... A supertanker is a tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids, especially crude oil. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 309 pixel Image in higher resolution (2394 × 924 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Barge Ferry Tugboat...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cargo ship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (738 words)
Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes.
Famous cargo ships would include the liberty ships of World War II, which were prefabricated all over the USA and then assembled by the coast in an average of 6 weeks and as little as 4 days.
Cargo ships are categorized partly by their capacity and partly by their dimensions (often with reference to the various canals and canal locks through which they can travel).
Ship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2487 words)
One can measure ships in terms of overall length, length of the waterline, beam (breadth), depth (distance between the crown of the weather deck and the top of the keelson), draft (distance between the highest waterline and the bottom of the ship) and tonnage.
Before mechanisation, merchant ships always used sail, but as long as naval warfare depended on ships closing to ram or to fight hand-to-hand, galleys dominated in marine conflicts because of their maneuverability and speed.
A few ships have used nuclear reactors, but this is not a separate form of propulsion; the reactor heats steam to drive the turbines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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