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Encyclopedia > Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 I51.6
ICD-9 429.2
DiseasesDB 28808
MeSH D002318

Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). [1] While the term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, it is usually used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis (arterial disease). These conditions have similar causes, mechanisms, and treatments. In practice, cardiovascular disease is treated by cardiologists, thoracic surgeons, vascular surgeons, neurologists, and interventional radiologists, depending on the organ system that is being treated. There is considerable overlap in the specialties, and it is common for certain procedures to be performed by different types of specialists in the same hospital. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // I00-I99 - Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I02) Acute rheumatic fever (I00) Rheumatic fever without mention of heart involvement (I01) Rheumatic fever with heart involvement (I02) Rheumatic chorea (I05-I09) Chronic rheumatic heart diseases (I05) Rheumatic mitral valve diseases (I050) Mitral stenosis (I051) Rheumatic mitral insufficiency (I06) Rheumatic aortic... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... A diagram of a heart with an ECG indicator; diagrams like this are used in Cardiology. ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting the heart (cardiovascular disease) and lungs (lung disease). ... Vascular surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and veins, are managed, largely via surgical intervention, and was originally founded by Dr. Clyde Otis Hagood Jr. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Interventional Radiology (abbreviated IR or sometimes IVR) is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. ...


Most Western countries face high and increasing rates of cardiovascular disease. Each year, heart disease kills more Americans than cancer.[2] Diseases of the heart alone caused 30% of all deaths, with other diseases of the cardiovascular system causing substantial further death and disability. Two out of three cardiac deaths occur without any diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.[3] Up until the year 2005, it was the number 1 cause of death and disability in the United States and most European countries. A large histological study (PDAY) showed vascular injury accumulates from adolescence, making primary prevention efforts necessary from childhood.[4][5] Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ...


By the time that heart problems are detected, the underlying cause (atherosclerosis) is usually quite advanced, having progressed for decades. There is therefore increased emphasis on preventing atherosclerosis by modifying risk factors, such as healthy eating, exercise and avoidance of smoking. A healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ... U.S. Marine emerging from the swim portion of a triathlon. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ...

Contents

Biomarkers

Some biomarkers are thought to offer a more detailed risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the clinical value of these biomarkers is questionable.[6] Currently, biomarkers which may reflect a higher risk of cardiovascular disease include: In medicine, a biomarker is an indicator of a particular disease state or a particular state of an organism. ...

Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is the principal inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase (uPA), the activators of plasminogen and hence fibrinolysis (the physiological breakdown of blood clots). ... Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... Molecular structure of ADMA Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a naturally occurring chemical found in blood plasma. ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein, an acute phase protein produced by the liver. ...

Prevention

Attempts to prevent cardiovascular disease are more effective when they remove and prevent causes, and they often take the form of modifying risk factors. Some factors, such as gender, age, and family history, cannot be modified. Smoking cessation (or abstinence) is one of the most effective and easily modifiable changes. Regular cardiovascular exercise (aerobic exercise) complements the healthful eating habits. According to the American Heart Association, build up of plaque on the arteries (atherosclerosis), partly as a result of high cholesterol and fat diet, is a leading cause for cardiovascular diseases. The combination of healthy diet and exercise is a means to improve serum cholesterol levels and reduce risks of cardiovascular diseases; if not, a physician may prescribe "cholesterol-lowering" drugs, such as the statins. These medications have additional protective benefits aside from their lipoprotein profile improvement. Aspirin may also be prescribed, as it has been shown to decrease the clot formation that may lead to myocardial infarctions and strokes; it is routinely prescribed for patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors. A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ... Aerobic exercise is a type of exercise in which muscles draw on oxygen in the blood as well as fats and glucose, that increase cardiovascular endurance. ... Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Lovastatin, the first statin to be marketed The statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) form a class of hypolipidemic drugs used to lower cholesterol levels in people with or at risk of cardiovascular disease. ... This article is about the drug. ... For Trombe wall (used in solar homes), see Trombe wall. ...


One possible way to decrease risk of cardiovascular disease is keep your total cholesterol below 150. In the Framingham Heart Study, those with total cholesterol below 150 only very rarely got coronary heart disease. The Framingham Heart Study is a cardiovascular study based in Framingham, Massachusetts. ...


A magnesium deficiency, or lower levels of magnesium, can contribute to heart disease and a healthy diet that contains adequate magnesium may prevent heart disease.[8] Magnesium can be used to enhance long term treatment, so it may be effective in long term prevention.[9] Excess calcium may contribute to a buildup of calcium in the veins. Excess calcium can cause a magnesium deficiency, and magnesium can reduce excess calcium. Magnesium deficiency refers to an absolute lack of magnesium, the result of numerous conditions. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... A healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Magnesium deficiency refers to an absolute lack of magnesium, the result of numerous conditions. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Foods for cardiovascular health

Research has shown that a diet that includes dark chocolate, almonds, fish, wine, fruits, vegetables, and garlic can increase life expectancy and decrease your risk for cardiovascular disease.[10]


Eating oily fish at least twice a week may help reduce the risk of sudden death and arrhythmias. A 2005 review of 97 clinical trials by Studer et al. noted that omega-3 fats gave lower risk ratios than did statins.[11] Olive oil is said to have benefits. Studies of individual heart cells showed that fatty acids blocked excessive sodium and calcium currents in the heart, which could otherwise cause dangerous, unpredictable changes in its rhythm. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fish oil. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Cardiovascular disease and salt

There is evidence from one large unblinded randomised controlled trial of more than 3000 patients that reducing the amount of sodium in the diet reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by more than 25%.[12] This re-affirms evidence from the Intersalt study published in 1988, that high levels of dietary salt are harmful;[13] these results were at the time heavily disputed by the Salt Institute (the salt producers' trade organisation).[14] The Intersalt study was a landmark observational study that showed a strong association between dietary salt and risk of cardiovascular disease. ...


In the results of a study of 8,700 adults in the US released in 2008 by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, researchers found that the people who ranked in the 25% of the lower sodium intake in their diet were 80% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than the 25% who had the higher intake of sodium in their diet. This particular research implies that low sodium intake is also harmful.


Oral Hygiene and Cardiovascular Disease

Many recent clinical research discuss the direct relation between poor oral hygiene and cardiovascular disease. Oral bacteria and periodontal disease may trigger the inflammation in the coronary arteries and contribute to atherosclerosis (artery hardening and narrowing); same bacteria may determine the clot formation increasing the risk of heart attack or cerebral stroke. [15] [16] Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ...


Awareness

Atherosclerosis is a process that develops over decades and is often silent until an acute event (heart attack) develops in later life. Population based studies in the youth show that the precursors of heart disease start in adolescence. The process of atherosclerosis evolves over decades, and begins as early as childhood. The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Study demonstrated that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 15–19 years. However, most adolescents are more concerned about other risks such as HIV, accidents, and cancer than cardiovascular disease.[17] This is extremely important considering that 1 in 3 people will die from complications attributable to atherosclerosis. In order to stem the tide of cardiovascular disease, primary prevention is needed. Primary prevention starts with education and awareness that cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat and measures to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken.


Treatment

Treatment of cardiovascular disease depends on the specific form of the disease in each patient, but effective treatment always includes preventive lifestyle changes discussed above. Medications, such as blood pressure reducing medications, aspirin and the statin cholesterol-lowering drugs may be helpful. In some circumstances, surgery or angioplasty may be warranted to reopen, repair, or replace damaged blood vessels. Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... Early in a coronary artery bypass surgery during vein harvesting from the legs (left of image) and the establishment of bypass (placement of the aortic cannula) (bottom of image). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Types of cardiovascular diseases

Post surgical photo of brain aneurysm survivor. ... angina tonsillaris see tonsillitis. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Cerebrovascular disease is damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. ... Cross-section diagram of a normal human heart. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with blood or pump a sufficient amount of blood through the body. ... In medicine (cardiology), myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... Dilated cardiomyopathy or DCM (also known as congestive cardiomyopathy), is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is dilated, often without any obvious cause. ... Diastolic dysfunction refers to an abnormality in the hearts (i. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM, is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is hypertrophied (thickened) without any obvious cause. ... Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart valve condition marked by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ...

Research

The causes, prevention, and/or treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease are active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies being published on a weekly basis. Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ...


A fairly recent emphasis is on the link between low-grade inflammation that hallmarks atherosclerosis and its possible interventions. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker that may be present in increased levels in the blood in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. Its exact role in predicting disease is the subject of debate. An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein, an acute phase protein produced by the liver. ...


Some areas currently being researched include possible links between infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae and coronary artery disease. The Chlamydia link has become less plausible with the absence of improvement after antibiotic use.[18] BAnging cows An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae (previously known as Chlamydia pneumoniae) is a species of chlamydiae bacteria which infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia. ...


See also

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... Dental hygienist flossing a patients teeth Dental floss is either a bundle of thin nylon filaments or a plastic (teflon or polyethylene) ribbon used to remove food and dental plaque from teeth. ...

References

  1. ^ Maton, Anthea (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 
  2. ^ United States (1999). Chronic Disease Overview. United States Government. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  3. ^ Informational page on cardiovascular disease at Itamar Medical
  4. ^ Rainwater DL, McMahan CA, Malcom GT, Scheer WD, Roheim PS, McGill HC Jr, Strong JP. Lipid and apolipoprotein predictors of atherosclerosis in youth: apolipoprotein concentrations do not materially improve prediction of arterial lesions in PDAY subjects. The PDAY Research Group. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999; 19: 753-61.
  5. ^ Mcgill, HC, Jr., Mcmahan, CA, Zieske, AW et al. Associations of coronary heart disease risk factors with the intermediate lesion of atherosclerosis in youth. The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) Research Group. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2000; 20: 1998–2004.
  6. ^ Wang TJ, Gona P, Larson MG, Tofler GH, Levy D, Newton-Cheh C, Jacques PF, Rifai N, Selhub J, Robins SJ, Benjamin EJ, D'Agostino RB, Vasan RS (2006). "Multiple biomarkers for the prediction of first major cardiovascular events and death". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (25): 2631-9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055373. PMID 17182988. 
  7. ^ Ramachandran Vasan, et al. "{{{title}}}". N. Engl. J.. 
  8. ^ Lack Energy? Maybe It's Your Magnesium Level
  9. ^ Comparison of Mechanism and Functional Effects of Magnesium and Statin Pharmaceuticals Andrea Rosanoff, PhD, Mildred S. Seelig, MD. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 23, No. 5, 501S–505S (2004)
  10. ^ Franco, O, Bonneux, L, de Laet. C, Steyerberg, E, Mackenbach, J (2004). "Franco, O, Bonneux, L, de Laet. C, Steyerberg, E, Mackenbach, J". BMJ. 329: 1447–1450. 
  11. ^ Studer M, Briel M, Liemenstoll B, Blass TR, Bucher HC. "Effect of different antilipidemic agents and diets on mortality: a systematic review." Arch. Intern. Med. 2005; 165(7): 725-730.
  12. ^ Cook NR, Cutler JA, Obarzanek E, et al. (2007). "Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP)". Br Med J 334: 885. doi:10.1136/bmj.39147.604896.55. 
  13. ^ Elliott P, Stamler J, Nichols R, et al. (1996). "Intersalt revisited: further analyses of 24 hour sodium excretion and blood pressure within and across populations. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group". Br Med J 312 (7041): 1249–53. PMID 8634612. 
  14. ^ Godlee F (2007). "Editor's Choice: Time to talk salt". Br Med J 334 (7599): 0. doi:10.1136/bmj.39196.679537.47. 
  15. ^ Oral Hygiene and Cardiovascular Disease American Heart Association
  16. ^ Real connection between oral health and heart disease University of Michigan Jan. 22, 1999
  17. ^ Vanhecke TE, Miller WM, Franklin BA, Weber JE, McCullough PA. Awareness, knowledge, and perception of heart disease among adolescents. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. October, 2006; 13(5): 718-723. ISSN 1741-8267
  18. ^ Andraws R, Berger JS, Brown DL. Effects of antibiotic therapy on outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease. JAMA 2005;293:2641-7. PMID 15928286.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ...

External links

Frank has no emotions Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is a result of obstruction of the superior vena cava. ... Venous ulcers are wounds that are thought to occur due to improper functioning of valves in the veins usually of the legs. ... Vasculitis (plural: vasculitides), a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels including veins (phlebitis), arteries (arteritis) and capillaries due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... An embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... Lymph originates as blood plasma lost from the circulatory system, which leaks out into the surrounding tissues. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning disease of the lymph nodes. ... Azskeptic 17:34, 10 July 2007 (UTC) Lymphedema, also spelled lymphoedema, also known as lymphatic obstruction, is a condition of localized fluid retention caused by a compromised lymphatic system. ... Lymphadenopathy is swelling of one or more lymph nodes. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... In kidney, as a result of benign arterial hypertension, hyaline (pink, amorphous, homogeneous material) accumulates in the wall of small arteries and arterioles, producing the thickening of their walls and the narrowing of the lumens - hyaline arteriolosclerosis. ... While most forms of hypertension in humans have no known underlying cause (and are thus known as essential hypertension or primary hypertension), in about 10% of the cases, there is a known cause, and thus the hypertension is secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension). ... Renovascular hypertension (or renal hypertension) is a form of secondary hypertension. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... Orthostatic hypotension (also known as postural hypotension, orthostatic intolerance and, colloquially, as head rush or a dizzy spell) is a sudden fall in blood pressure, typically greater than 20/10 mm Hg, that occurs when a person assumes a standing position, usually after a prolonged period of rest. ... Perinatal defines the period occurring around the time of birth (5 months before and 1 month after). ... Cord prolapse, depicted by W.Smellie, 1792 Cord prolapse is an obstetric emergency during pregnancy or labour that endangers the life of the baby. ... A Nuchal cord (sometimes also referred to as a Nuchal loop) occurs when the umbilical cord of a fetus becomes wrapped around a part of the fetus, usually the neck. ... Chorioamnionitis is a inflammatory condition of pregnancy affecting the uterus. ... link titleThe gestational age of a newborn is the length of his or her gestation up to delivery. ... Birth weight is the weight of a baby at its birth. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... A postmature birth occurs when a pregnancy lasts longer than 42 weeks. ... Pre- and perinatal psychology is the study of the psychological implications of the earliest experiences of the individual, before (prenatal) and during (perinatal) childbirth. ... A cephalhematoma (American English) or cephalhaematoma (British English) is a hemorrhage of blood between the skull and the periosteum of a newborn baby. ... Brachial plexus lesions are classified as traumatic or obstetric. ... Erbs Palsy, also known as Brachial Plexus Paralysis, is a condition which mainly due to birth trauma can affect 1 or all of the 5 primary nerves that supply the movement and feeling to an arm. ... Klumpkes paralysis or Klumpkes palsy or Dejerine-Klumpke palsy is palsy of the brachial plexus. ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ... Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, also called Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn, previously called hyaline membrane disease), is a syndrome caused by developmental lack of surfactant and structural immaturity in the lungs of premature infants. ... Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTNB) is a respiratory problem seen in the newborn shortly after delivery. ... Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS, alternatively Neonatal aspiration of meconium) occurs when infants take meconium into their lungs during or before delivery. ... “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ... Pneumomediastinum (or mediastinal emphysema, from Greek pneuma - air) is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum. ... In paediatrics, Wilson-Mikity syndrome is a rare lung condition that affect low birth weight babies. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a coagulation disturbance in newborns due to vitamin K deficiency. ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as HDN, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG antibodies that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ... Rh disease (also known as Rh (D) disease, Rhesus disease, RhD Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn, Rhesus D Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn or RhD HDN) is one of the causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN). ... Hydrops fetalis is a blood condition in the fetus characterized by an edema in the fetal subcutaneous tissue, sometimes leading to spontaneous abortion. ... Jaundice, technically known as icterus, is yellowing of the skin, sclera (eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. ... Kernicterus is damage to the brain centers of infants caused by jaundice. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (adjective:Icteric), is yellowing of the skin, sclera (the white of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body. ... All diseases that pertain to the gastrointestinal tract are labelled as digestive diseases. ... Ileus, formerly called iliac passion, refers to limited or absent intestinal passage. ... Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a medical condition primarily seen in premature infants, where portions of the bowel undergo necrosis (tissue death). ... An integument is an outer protective covering such as the feathers or skin of an animal or rind or shell. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Erythema toxicum is a common rash in infants. ... Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is characterized by the death of the white matter of the brain due to softening of the brain tissue. ... Gray baby syndrome (also termed Gray or Grey syndrome) is a rare but serious side effect that occurs in newborn infants (especially premature babies) following the intravenous administration of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. ... Bodybuilder showing highly developed muscle tone. ... An increase in stiffness, tension, and spasticity of a muscle. ... Hypotonia is a condition of abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. ... Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella during her first trimester. ...



Anthony bent the goal post


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cardiovascular disease - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (820 words)
Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins).
In practice, cardiovascular disease is treated by cardiologists, thoracic surgeons, vascular surgeons, neurologists, and interventional radiologists, depending on the organ system that is being treated.
The causes, prevention, and/or treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease are active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies being published on a weekly basis.
Cardiovascular Disease - Print Version : Online Reference For Health Concerns (18145 words)
Cardiovascular disease is rarely caused by a single frailty.
In addition to causing cardiovascular disease by increasing the incidence of blood clots, hyperhomocysteinemia triggers atherosclerosis by encouraging smooth muscle cell proliferation, intimal-medial wall thickness, thromboxane A2 activity, lipid abnormalities, and the binding of Lp(a) to fibrin (Magott 1998; Sandrick 2000).
Although the incidence of hypertension, thrombotic stroke, peripheral vascular disease (gangrene), blood vessel toxicity, and the risk of heart attack escalate as homocysteine levels increase, homocysteine levels are not routinely evaluated in a cardiovascular work-up.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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