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Encyclopedia > Cardiology
A diagram of a heart with an ECG indicator; diagrams like this are used in Cardiology.

Cardiology is the branch of internal medicine dealing with disorders of the heart and blood vessels. The field is commonly divided in the branches of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians specializing in this field of medicine are called cardiologists. Cardiologists should not be confused with cardiac surgeons who are surgeons who perform cardiac surgery - operative procedures on the heart and great vessels. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x800, 666 KB) Prinzip der EKG-Darstellung, langsam Summary en: Principle of ECG formation, schnell de: Prinzip der EKG-Darstellung, schnell Autor: Kalumet, selbst erstellt, 28. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x800, 666 KB) Prinzip der EKG-Darstellung, langsam Summary en: Principle of ECG formation, schnell de: Prinzip der EKG-Darstellung, schnell Autor: Kalumet, selbst erstellt, 28. ... ECG may also refer to the East Coast Greenway Lead II An Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG, abbreviated from the German Elektrokardiogramm) is a graphic produced by an electrocardiograph, which records the electrical voltage in the heart in the form of a continuous strip graph. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... A congenital heart defect (CHD) is a defect in the structure of the heart and great vessels of a newborn. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Current Clamp is a common technique in electrophysiology. ... Cardiac Surgeon is a surgeon who performs operative procedure on the Heart and also on Great vessels of the body. ...


The term cardiology is derived from the Greek word καρδιά (transliterated as kardia and meaning heart or inner self).

Contents

The heart

Main article: heart

The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...

Cardiac pacemaker (Electrical system of the heart)

The contractions of the heart are controlled by electrical impulses, these fire at a rate which controls the beat of the heart. ... The normal electrical conduction in the heart allows the impulse that is generated by the sinoatrial node (SA node) of the heart to be propagated to (and stimulate) the myocardium (Cardiac muscle). ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... At rest, the ventricular myocyte membrane potential is about -80 mV, which is close to the potassium reversal potential. ... The sinoAtrial node (abbreviated SA node or SAN, also called the sinus node) is the impulse generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart, and thus the generator of sinus rhythm. ... The atrioventricular node (abbreviated AV node) is an area of specialized tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. ... The bundle of His is a collection of heart muscle cells specialized for electrical conduction that transmits the electrical impulses from the AV node (located between the atria and the ventricles) to the point of the apex of the fascicular branches. ... Purkinje fibers (or Purkyne tissue) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium. ...

Basic cardiac physiology

Systole can mean the following: Systole (medicine) is a term describing the contraction of the heart. ... Diastole is the period of time when the heart relaxes after contraction. ... Front of thorax, showing surface relations of bones, lungs (purple), pleura (blue), and heart (red outline). ... Heart during ventricular diastole. ... In cardiac physiology, afterload is the tension produced by a chamber of the heart in order to contract. ... Kussmauls sign is the observation of a jugular venous pressure (JVP, the filling of the jugular vein) that rises with inspiration. ...

Disorders of the heart

Main article: Heart Disease

Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ...

Disorders of the coronary circulation

The coronary circulation consists of the blood vessels that supply blood to and from the heart muscle itself. ... Restenosis literally means the reoccurrence of stenosis. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... Ischaemic (or ischemic) heart disease is a disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart. ... An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a set of signs and symptoms suggestive of sudden cardiac ischemia, usually caused by disruption of atherosclerotic plaque in an epicardial coronary artery. ... angina tonsillaris see tonsillitis. ... Heart attack redirects here. ...

Sudden cardiac death (The abrupt cessation of blood flow, leading to death)

A cardiac arrest is the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract effectively during systole. ...

Treatment of sudden cardiac death

CPR redirects here. ...

Disorders of the myocardium (muscle of the heart)

Opened left ventricle of heart shows a thickened, dilated left ventricle with subendocardial fibrosis manifested as increased whiteness of endocardium. ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM, is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is hypertrophied (thickened) without any obvious cause. ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM, is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is hypertrophied (thickened) without any obvious cause. ... Dilated cardiomyopathy or DCM (also known as congestive cardiomyopathy), is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is dilated, often without any obvious cause. ... Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a disease in which alcohol use damages the heart muscle causing heart failure. ... Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy, also known as chronotropic cardiomyopathy and tachycardiomyopathy, is a weakening of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) that is due to prolonged periods of a fast heart rate. ... Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as transient apical ballooning and stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a type of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in which there is a sudden temporary weakening of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ... Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD, also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or ARVC) is a type of nonischemic cardiomyopathy that involves primarily the right ventricle. ... Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is the least common cardiomyopathy. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... Cor pulmonale is a medical term used to describe a change in structure and function of the right ventricle of the heart as a result of a respiratory disorder. ... Although ventricular hypertrophy may occur in either the left or right or both ventricles of the heart , left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is more commonly encountered. ... Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the thickening of the myocardium (muscle) of the left ventricle of the heart. ... Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a form of ventricular hypertrophy affecting the right ventricle. ... The primary tumors of the heart are tumors that arise from the normal tissues that make up the heart. ... A myxoma (Myxo- = Latin for mucus) is the most common primary tumor of the heart. ... Myocardial rupture is a laceration or tearing of the walls of the ventricles or atria of the heart, of the interatrial or interventricular septum, of the papillary muscles or chordae tendineae or of one of the valves of the heart. ...

Disorders of the pericardium (outer lining of the heart)

The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels. ... Pericarditis is inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium. ... Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is a medical emergency condition where liquid accumulates in the pericardium in a relatively short time. ... In physiology, constrictive pericarditis is due to a thickened, fibrotic pericardium, which prevents the heart from expanding during diastole (relaxation). ...

Disorders of the heart valves

In anatomy, the heart valves are valves in the heart that prevent blood from flowing the wrong way. ... The aortic valve is one of the valves of the heart. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. ... Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a heart condition caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. ... Aortic valve replacement is a cardiac surgery procedure in which a patients aortic valve is replaced by a different valve. ... Aortic valve repair is a surgical procedure used to correct some aortic valve disorders. ... Aortic valvuloplasty is the repair of a stenotic aortic valve using a balloon catheter inside the valve. ... The mitral valve (also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve), is a dual flap (bi = 2) valve in the heart that lies between the left atrium (LA) and the left ventricle (LV). ... Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart valve condition marked by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. ... Mitral regurgitation (MR), also known as mitral insufficiency, is the abnormal leaking of blood through the mitral valve, from the left ventricle into the left atrium of the heart. ... Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart. ... Mitral valve replacement is a cardiac surgery procedure in which a patients mitral valve is replaced by a different valve. ... Mitral valve repair involves the replacement of stenified vitrious fibres that have frayed off of the wall of the duct. ... A procedure carried out under local anaesthetic, in which a ballon is passed from the right femoral vein, up the Inferior Vena Cava and into the right atrium. ... The pulmonary valve, also known as pulmonic valve, is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps. ... The tricuspid valve is on the right side of the heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle. ...

Disorders of the electrical system of the heart (Cardiac electrophysiology)

Cardiac electrophysiology is the science of the electric functioning of the heart. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... A supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid rhythm of the heart in which the origin of the electrical signal is either the atria or the AV node. ... Atrial fibrillation (AF or afib) is a cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) that involves the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. ... Atrial flutter is an abnormal fast heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of the heart. ... Sick sinus syndrome, also called Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome is a group of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the hearts natural pacemaker. ... AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of reentrant tachycardia (fast rhythm) of the heart. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Bigeminy is a heart arrhythmia in which heart beats occur in pairs with a pause between each pair. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a fast rhythm that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart. ... Torsades de pointes or torsades is a French term that literally means twisting of the points. It refers to a specific variety of ventricular tachycardia and its name is derived from a maneuver in ballet. ... Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a cardiac condition which consists of a lack of coordination of the contraction of the muscle tissue of the large chambers of the heart that eventually leads to the heart stopping altogether. ... Sick sinus syndrome, also called Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome is a group of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the hearts natural pacemaker. ... Bundle branch block refers to a disorder of the hearts electrical conducting system. ... ECG characteristics of a typical LBBB showing wide QRS complexes with abnormal morphology in leads V1 and V6. ... ECG characteristics of a typical RBBB showing wide QRS complexes with a terminal R wave in lead V1 and slurred S wave in lead V6. ... A heart block is a disease in the electrical system of the heart. ... First degree AV block or PR prolongation is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart in which the PR interval is lengthened. ... Second degree AV block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Bifascicular block is a conduction abnormality in the heart where two of the three main fascicles of the His/Purkinje system are blocked. ... Trifascicular heart block is the triad of first degree heart block, right bundle branch block, and either left anterior or left posterior hemi block seen on an electrocardiogram (EKG). ... Third degree AV block, also known as complete heart block, is a defect of the electrical system of the heart, in which the impulse generated in the atria (typically the SA node on top of the right atrium) does not propagate to the ventricles. ... Levs disease (or Lenegre-Lev syndrome) is an acquired complete heart block due to idiopathic fibrosis of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... The Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease that is manifest by abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. ... The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heart disease in which there is an abnormally long delay between the electrical excitation (or depolarization) and relaxation (repolarization) of the ventricles of the heart. ... Andersen-Tawil syndrome, also called Andersen syndrome and Long QT syndrome 7 is a form of long QT syndrome. ... Romano-Ward syndrome, is the major variant of long QT syndrome. ... Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome is a condition that causes profound hearing loss and arrhythmia, it is a type of long QT syndrome. ... Short QT syndrome is a genetic disease of the electrical system of the heart. ... Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a syndrome of pre-excitation of the ventricles of the heart due to an accessory pathway known as the Bundle of Kent. ...

Inflammation and infection of the heart

Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after an infection with streptococcus bacteria (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... In medicine (cardiology), myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. ... Pericarditis is inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium. ...

Congenital heart disease

Cross-section diagram of a normal human heart. ... Atrial septal defects (ASD) are a group of congenital heart diseases that enables communication between atria of the heart and may involve the interatrial septum. ... A ventricular septal defect (or VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum (the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart). ... Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital heart defect wherein a childs ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth. ... A bicuspid aortic valve is a heart condition that is usually due to a congenital deformity. ... The tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect which classically has four anatomical components. ... Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects (CHDs) involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the primary vessels: superior and/or inferior vena cavae (SVC, IVC), pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta. ... Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (also known as HLHS), is a rare birth defect in which the left side of the heart is severely underdeveloped. ...

Diseases of blood vessels (Vascular diseases)

Vasculitis (plural: vasculitides), a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels including veins (phlebitis), arteries (arteritis) and capillaries due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage. ... Post surgical photo of brain aneurysm survivor. ... Vein gymnastics in the barefoot park Dornstetten, Germany. ... Economy class syndrome was coined in the late 1990s when it turned out that people who has traveled long distances by aeroplane were at an increased risk for thrombosis, especially deep venous thrombosis and its main complication, pulmonary embolism. ... Aortic coarctation is narrowing of the aorta in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts. ... Aortic dissection is a tear in the wall of the aorta (the largest artery of the body). ... An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location. ... In human anatomy, the carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ... Carotid arterial stenosis is a narrowing of the lumen of the carotid artery, usually by atheroma (a fatty lump or plaque causing atherosclerosis). ... Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of stroke in young patients. ...

Procedures done for coronary artery disease

Percutaneous coronary intervention is an invasive cardiologic therapeutic procedure to treat narrowed coronary arteries (artery stenosis). ... In medicine (cardiology), an atherectomy (pronounced ather-EKto-me) is a procedure to remove atherosclerotic plaque from arteries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Endoscopic image of self-expanding metallic stent in esophagus, which was used to palliatively treat esophageal cancer. ... Early in a coronary artery bypass surgery during vein harvesting from the legs (left of image) and the establishment of bypass (placement of the aortic cannula) (bottom of image). ... Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a procedure performed on individuals with ischemic cardiomyopathy in order to diminish the symptoms of their ischemia. ...

Devices used in cardiology

Look up stethoscope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pacemaker, scale in centimeters A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device which uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An automated external defibrillator, open and ready for pads to be attached An Automated External Defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,[1] and is able to treat them by application... ICD An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), also known as an automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD), is a small battery powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... An artificial heart is a device that is implanted into the body to replace the original biological heart. ... A heart-lung machine (upper right) in a coronary artery bypass surgery. ... The Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a mechanical device that is used to increase myocardial oxygen supply and decrease myocardial oxygen demand as well as increase cardiac output. ... A Ventricular assist device, or VAD, is mechanical device that is used to partially or completely replace the function of a failing heart. ...

Diagnostic tests and procedures

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) The diagnostic tests in cardiology are methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs. ... The diagnostic tests in cardiology are methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs. ... An echocardiogram. ... A cardiac stress test is a medical test performed to evaluate relative arterial blood flow increases to the left ventricular heart muscle during exercise, as compared to resting blood flow rates (i. ... “QRS” redirects here. ...

Schematic representation of normal ECG trace (sinus rhythm), with waves, segments, and intervals labeled. ... Osborn waves (also known as camel-hump sign, late delta wave, hathook junction, hypothermic wave, J point wave, K wave, H wave or current of injury) are usually observed on the electrocardiogram of people suffering from hypothermia, though they may also occur in people with high blood levels of calcium... Holter monitor In medicine, a Holter monitor (also called an ambulatory electrocardiography device), named after its inventor, Dr. Norman J. Holter, is a portable device for continuously monitoring the electrical activity of the heart for 24 hours or more. ... An electrophysiologic study (EPS) is one of a number of tests of the electrical conduction system of the heart performed by a cardiac electrophysiologist, a specialist in the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... An electrophysiologic study (EPS) is one of a number of tests of the electrical conduction system of the heart performed by a cardiac electrophysiologist, a specialist in the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... BP 126/70 mmHg as result on electronic sphygmomanometer A sphygmomanometer (often condensed to sphygmometer[1]) or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. ... Medical tests that are often referred to as cardiac enzymes include: GOT (Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase, also called Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), or aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase) troponin CK (creatine kinase, also known as phosphocreatine kinase or creatine phosphokinase), CK-MB Cardiac enzymes are released... Coronary angiogram A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter. ... Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an medical imaging methodology using (a) specially designed long thin complex manufactured catheters attached to (b) computerized ultrasound equipment. ...

Cardiac pharmaceutical agents

The followings are medications commonly prescribed in cardiology: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent in the heart. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ... Phenytoin sodium (marketed as Dilantin® in the USA and as Epanutin® in the UK, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer) is a commonly used antiepileptic. ... Propafenone (pro-PA-fen-own) (brand name Rythmol SR®) is a class Ic anti-arrhythmic medication, which treats illnesses associated with rapid heart beats such as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... “Minax” redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agent. ... Dofetilide is a class III antiarrhythmic agent that is approved by the FDA for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in individuals prone to the formation of atrial fibrillation and flutter, and for the chemical cardioversion to sinus rhythm from atrial fibrillation and flutter. ... Sotalol is a drug used in individuals with rhythm disturbances (cardiac arrhythmias) of the heart. ... Calcium channel blockers are a class of drugs and natural substances with effects on many excitable cells of the body, like the muscle of the heart, smooth muscles of the vessels or neuron cells. ... Diltiazem is a member of the group of drugs known as Benzothiapines , which are a class of calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia. ... Verapamil (brand names: Isoptin®, Verelan®, Calan®) is a medical drug that acts as an L-type calcium channel blocker. ... Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Digoxin (INN) (IPA: ) is a purified cardiac glycoside extracted from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata. ... Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Captopril is an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. ... Enalapril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. ... Coversyl (perindopril) is a long-acting ACE inhibitor. ... Ramipril (marketed as Tritace or Altace) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. ... Losartan, the first ARB Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), AT1-receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals which modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. ... Candesartan (kan-de-SAR-tan) belongs to the class of medicines called angiotensin II inhibitors. ... Eprosartan Teveten Eprosartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used for the treatment of high blood pressure. ... Irbesartan (INN) (IPA: ) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension. ... Losartan (rINN) (IPA: ) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist drug used mainly to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). ... Chemical structure of telmisartan Telmisartan is an antihypertensive drug categorized as an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). ... Valsartan (trade name Diovan®) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, acting on the AT1 subtype. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Calcium channel blockers are a class of drugs and natural substances with effects on many excitable cells of the body, like the muscle of the heart, smooth muscles of the vessels or neuron cells. ...

See also

Interventional cardiology is a branch of the medical specialty of cardiology that deals specifically with the mechanical treatment of heart diseases. ... Clinical cardiac electrophysiology (also referred to as cardiac electrophysiology or electrophysiology), is a branch of the medical specialty of cardiology concerned with the study and treatment of rhythm disorders of the heart. ... The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ... NHF logo The National Heart Foundation of Australia (NHF) or Heart Foundation [1] is a non-profit organization with the stated mission to improve the cardiac health of Australians. It was formed in 1959 by a group of cardiac physicians. ...

External links

For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... An arteriole is a small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... Blood flows from the heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ... A venule is a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The superior and inferior venae cavae are the veins that return de-oxygenated blood from the body into the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The human lungs are the human organs of respiration. ... The pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cardiology Online - International Academy of Cardiology (3327 words)
The International Academy of Cardiology is dedicated to the advancement of global research in cardiovascular medicine through the support of scientific meetings and publications.
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