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Encyclopedia > Cardinal Infante Ferdinand
Cardinale Infante Ferdinand of Austria as Hunter
Cardinale Infante Ferdinand of Austria as Hunter

Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand (1609/16101 in Escorial near Madrid, Spain - 9 November 1641 in Brussels) (also known as Fernando and as Ferdinand von Österreich), Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, Cardinal, Infante, Archbishop of Toledo (1619-41), and commander during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) Download high resolution version (559x986, 135 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (559x986, 135 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... Coat of arms Plaza de España (Spain square) Madrid, the capital of Spain, is located in the center of the country at 40°25′ N 3°45′ W. Population of the city of Madrid proper was 3,093,000 (Madrilenes, madrileños) as of 2003 estimates. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, French: Bruxelles, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium and is considered by many to be the headquarters of the European Union, as two of its three main institutions have their headquarters in the... For the history of the Austrian Netherlands and the Spanish Netherlands, see Seventeen Provinces. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals, during a consistory. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... The façade of Toledo cathedral The largest Toledo in the world is Toledo, Ohio. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ...

Contents


Biography

Youth

Born in Escorial near Madrid, Spain in 16091 as the son of King of Spain, Philip III, brother of King of Spain Philip IV, and Margaret of Austria, sister of Emperor Ferdinand II. His father wished that he make his career in the Catholic Church, and hence in 1619 he was made Archbishop of the Toledo, and shortly afterwards received the title of Cardinal. The style Cardinal-Infante was a combination of his title of Cardinal and his title as a Prince (Infante in Spanish) of Spain. Ferdinand was never ordained as a Priest, which was common enough at the time for members of the aristocracy who were placed in clerical office. The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... Coat of arms Plaza de España (Spain square) Madrid, the capital of Spain, is located in the center of the country at 40°25′ N 3°45′ W. Population of the city of Madrid proper was 3,093,000 (Madrilenes, madrileños) as of 2003 estimates. ... Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Philip III (April 14, 1578 - March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II), from 1598 until his death. ... Philip IV of Spain Philip IV (April 8, 1605 - September 17, 1665) was the king of Spain, from 1621 until his death, and king of Portugal until 1640. ... The name Margaret of Austria belongs to several notable historical figures, including the following: Margaret of Austria (d. ... Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the house of Habsburg, ruled 1620-1637. ... Saint Peters Basilica in Rome. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals, during a consistory. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ...


Events leading to the Battle of Nördlingen

In 1630 the Cardinal Infante's aunt Isabella Clara Eugenia planned to make him her successor as governor of the Spanish Netherlands. To move to the Netherlands in a style befitting to a governor, a strong army had to accompany him. Travel by ship from Spain was not an option, due to the superiority of the Dutch navy. Therefore he went to Genoa in 1633 to meet with an army from Milan for a planned march through Lombardy, Tyrol, and Swabia, and then following the Rhine to the Netherlands. Ferdinand also planned to secure this supply route with a string of garrisons, and to support the army of King Ferdinand of Hungary, his uncle the emperor's son and heir, who was leading the Imperial army facing the Swedes in the Thirty Years War. Since disease delayed his travels, he sent half of his army ahead under the command of the Duke of Feria. However, this army was severely depleted during fighting with the Swedish army of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and Gustaf Horn. The Spanish requested 4000 cavalry from theh Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein, but since Wallenstein declined the request the Spanish had to fund the troops on their own. The Cardinal-Infante was able to continue his travels in 1634, collecting in Bavaria the remains of the Army of Gómez Suárez, who had died in January 1634. Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Isabella and her husband Albert Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (12 August 1566 - 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova (jeno-vah), Genoese Zena (zaynah), French Gênes) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... Location within Italy Piazza della Scala Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese dialect: Milán) is the main city in northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed of Italian regions. ... Lombardy (in Italian Lombardia) is a region in northern Italy between the Alps and the Po Valley. ... This article is about Tyrol, the region in the eastern Alps. ... Swabia (German Schwabenland) is a historic region in Germany and a language area. ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1,320 km Elevation of the source Vorderrhein: approx. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Bernhard, duke of Saxe-Weimar (1604 - July 18, 1639), a celebrated general in the Thirty Years War, was the eleventh son of John, duke of Saxe-Weimar. ... Gustaf Horn (1592-1657) Count Gustaf Horn (October 22, 1592 - May 10, 1657) was a Swedish soldier and politician, appointed Privy Councilor in 1625, Field Marshal in 1628, Governor General of Livonia in 1652 and Lord High Constable in 1653. ... Italian cavalry officers practice their horsemanship in 1904 outside Rome. ... Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (also Waldstein, Czech: Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna), September 24, 1583 – February 25, 1634) was a Czech soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty Years War to Ferdinand II... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... With an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...


Battle of Nördlingen

(Main article: Battle of Nördlingen) This article is about the first Battle of Nördlingen fought in 1634 in Germany as part of the Thirty Years War. ...


Meanwhile, Ferdinand of Hungary was able to defeat the Swedish army at Regensburg in July 1634. This Ferdinand and his cousin the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand then raced to merge their armies. The Swedish forces of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and Gustaf Horn desperately tried to prevent this merger, but were unable to catch up with Ferdinand of Hungary. The Cardinal-Infante crossed the Danube in August 1634. In September both armies were able to merge, and camped south of Nördlingen in Swabia. At that time Nördlingen was protected by a small Swedish garrison. Shortly thereafter, the armies of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and Gustaf Horn also reached Nördlingen, preparing the events for the decisive Battle of Nördlingen. The cousins Ferdinand & Ferdinand then prepared for battle, ignoring the advice of the more experienced generals, such as the Imperial general Matthias Gallas. Bernhard and Horn also prepared for battle, but they were by now rivals and in disagreement with each other. They also underestimated the numerically superior enemy forces, and despite correct reports believed that the enemy forces numbered only 7,000, not 21,000 infantry, compared to 16,000 Swedish infantry. During the battle, almost anything that could go wrong went wrong for the Swedish forces, and the two Ferdinands achieved an outstanding military victory. Gustaf Horn was captured, the Swedish army was destroyed, and the remainder that fled to Heilbronn was only a shadow of the former glorious army. Regensburg (English formerly Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona, Czech Řezno) is a city (population 146,824 in 2002) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Nördlingen is a town in Bavaria, Germany. ... Swabia (German Schwabenland) is a historic region in Germany and a language area. ... This article is about the first Battle of Nördlingen fought in 1634 in Germany as part of the Thirty Years War. ... Matthias Gallas, count of Campo, duke of Lucera (1584-1647), Austrian soldier, first saw service in Flanders, and in Savoy with the Spaniards, and subsequently joined the forces of the Catholic League as captain. ... Categories: Germany-related stubs | Cities in Germany | Towns in Baden-Württemberg ...


The Spanish Netherlands

The King of Hungary tried to convince his cousin to stay and to strengthen their hold on Germany, but the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand moved his troops almost immediately after the battle to continue to Brussels. At the end of 1634 he entered Brussels with all the glory befitting a Governor-General. Due to the unpopularity of the clergy in Brussels, he downplayed his religious status and instead emphasized his worldly ranks. Ferdinand was a skilled politician and diplomat, and quickly reformed the government and the military. He especially managed to win the support of the Flemings against France. Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, French: Bruxelles, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium and is considered by many to be the headquarters of the European Union, as two of its three main institutions have their headquarters in the... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders, the northern half of Belgium. ...


However, his powers were secretly limited, and the leader of his army was instructed to follow Spanish orders instead of Ferdinand's orders if necessary. In 1635 the French attacked Namur, planning to merge with the Dutch near Maastricht. However, the Dutch hesitated, and the French retreated. Ferdinand subsequently was able to capture Diest, Goch, Gennep, Limburg, and Schenk. Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... Namur, the Meuse, the Walloon parliament and the citadel. ... Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; local dialect: Mestreech) is a municipality, and capital of the province of Limburg. ... Diest is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. ... Gennep is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Limburg is the name of two different adjoining provinces: Limburg (Netherlands) in the south of the Netherlands, its capital is Maastricht. ...


In 1636 Ferdinand disempowered the last protestant priests in the Spanish Netherlands, and continued his military expansion by capturing Hirsen, Châtelet, and Chapelle, and securing Luxembourg using Croatian troops. Events February 24 - King Christian of Denmark gives an order that all beggars that are able to work must be sent to Brinholmen Island to build ships or as galley rowers March 26 - Utrecht University founded in The Netherlands. ... Châtelet is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Chapelle, La Chapelle, Lachapelle and Les Chapelles, French for chapel, is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: La Chapelle, in the Allier département La Chapelle, in the Ardennes département La Chapelle, in the Charente département La Chapelle, in the Savoie département Related: La Chapelle...


Fall from Grace

On October 10, 1637, however, Breda was recaptured again after a 10 month siege by the Prince of Orange after being under Spanish control for 12 years. Despite repeated attempts the Cardinal-Infante was unable to recapture this critical fortress, strengthening not only the Dutch but also his enemies at the Spanish court in Madrid. Ferdinand also lost Chapelles, Landrey, and Damvilliers to the French, and was not only unable to capture Maubeuge but also lost significant ground to the French in the process. While Ferdinand was able to capture Antwerp, Chastillon, and Geldern in subsequent years, he lost the important town of Arras in 1640. October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. ... Frederick Henry (January 29, 1584–March 14, 1647), Prince of Orange, the youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about six months before his fathers assassination. ... The Cathedral of our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp)in the Handschoenmarkt, in the old part of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and is home to a number of triptychs by the Belgian painter, Rubens. ... Arras (Dutch: Atrecht) is a city and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ...


More dangerous than his military enemies were, however, his enemies at the Spanish court. Numerous rumors and lies floated about, and it was claimed that Ferdinand was planning to become an independent ruler of the Spanish Netherlands with the help of the French King, an enemy of Spain. This rumor was enhanced by another rumor that the French court was planning to marry Ferdinand to the daughter of the Duke of Orleans, the French king's brother. Both claims were totally without merit and only designed to hurt his reputation. Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ...


At the same time, the Spanish empire was in a bad state both military and financially. The Cardinal-Infante was even giving conflicting orders to send troops to Spain to aid against a Portugese uprising. The Republic of Portugal (Portuguese: República Portuguesa) is a democratic republic located on the west and southwest parts of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, and is the westernmost country in continental Europe. ...


Ferdinand fell ill during battles in 1641, and died on 9 November 1641 in Brussels at age 32. It is believed that the death was caused by exhaustion combined with ill health. Reports talk about an ulcer on the stomach, but continuing court rumors also claimed that he was poisoned. Before his death he also had an illegitimate daughter, Marie Anne de la Croix, who became a nun. She was born in Brussels 1641 and died in Madrid 1715. Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, French: Bruxelles, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium and is considered by many to be the headquarters of the European Union, as two of its three main institutions have their headquarters in the... An ulcer (from Latin ulcus) is an open sore of the skin, eyes or mucous membrane, often caused by an initial abrasion and generally maintained by an inflammation and/or an infection. ... The skull and crossbones symbol traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ... In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... Events September 1 - King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years, leaving the throne of his exhausted and indebted country to his great-grandson Louis XV. Regent for the new, five years old monarch is Philippe dOrléans, nephew of Louis XIV. September - First of the...


His body was brought to Spain in 1643, and a total of 12,000 requiems were performed according to his last wishes. Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... The requiem, also known formally as the Mass of Requiem, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church and its Eastern Rite. ...


Disputes about who should be his successor as the Governor-General of the Spanish Netherlands also destroyed the alliance between the Emperor in Vienna and the Spanish in Madrid. The Emperor (by now the Cardinal-Infante's old comrade in arms, Ferdinand III) favored his brother Leopold Wilhelm, a militarily unfortunate but otherwise capable leader. Madrid however favored Don Juan José, the twelve year old illegitimate son of King Philip IV and the famous actress María Calderón. The inauguration of the unpoular bastard was delayed, and Spain lost control of much of the Spanish Netherlands in the following years due to the flawed rule of the interim governor Francisco de Mello, Marquis of Terceira. Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ... Philip IV of Spain Philip IV (April 8, 1605 - September 17, 1665) was the king of Spain, from 1621 until his death, and king of Portugal until 1640. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority. ...



Preceded by:
Archduchess Isabella
Governor-General of the Spanish Netherlands
1634-1641
Succeeded by:
Marquis of Terceira


Isabella and her husband Albert Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (12 August 1566 - 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... For the history of the Austrian Netherlands and the Spanish Netherlands, see Seventeen Provinces. ...


Notes

  1. Conflicting sources of his birth. Dates given are 16 May 1609 and 24 May 1610.

May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ...

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