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Encyclopedia > Cardinal direction
A compass rose showing the cardinal directions

In geography, the four principal directional indicators are marked as points or arrowheads on a traditional compass rose. Called cardinal directions, they are north, east, south and west. There are simple specific means to establish each direction which should work anywhere on Earth where there is a view of the sky. North and south are oriented toward their respective poles near each end of the Earth's axis. The Earth's rotation upon that axis can define the orientation of east and west. Cardinal point can refer to: Cardinal direction, the directions of the compass Cardinal point (optics), a set of special points in an optical system, which help in the analysis of its properties Cardinal Points, a student-run newspaper at Plattsburgh State University Category: ... A 16 point Compass Rose. ... A 16 point Compass Rose. ... A common compass rose as is found on a nautical chart showing both true and magnetic north with magnetic declination A compass rose is a figure displaying the orientation of the cardinal directions, north, south, east and west on a map or nautical chart. ... A common compass rose as is found on a nautical chart showing both true and magnetic north with magnetic declination A compass rose is a figure displaying the orientation of the cardinal directions, north, south, east and west on a map or nautical chart. ... Compass rose with north highlighted and at top Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Sky (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ...


A manufactured magnetized ferrous needle (or historically a naturally occurring lodestone), allowed to move freely, aligns itself readily with the Earth's natural magnetic field. Upon aligning, the needle points reliably, but only approximately, in the directions we call north and south. This is the very basis of the magnetic compass, whose importance lies in both the stark simplicity of the device and the fact that it does not depend on having access to a clear view of the night sky. For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Ferrous in chemistry is a term used for the iron with an oxidation number +2. ... Magnetite Lodestone or loadstone refers to either: Magnetite, a magnetic mineral form of iron(II), iron(III) oxide Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... This article is about the time of day. ...


Due to the Earth's rotation, the Sun rises during the morning in the east, while the Sun sets during the evening in the west. Note that the Moon can also be used in defining east and west, but is not visible for a portion of each month. This definition of east and west is a matter of convention. A typical sunrise, in New Zealand A sunrise through clouds over Oakland, California. ... Morning mist Morning Forest The word morning originally referred to the sunrise, but has been extended to mean the whole early part of the day, from dawn to noon. ... A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ... Informally, the evening is the period in which the daylight is decreasing, between the late afternoon and night; it extends from the latter portion of the daylight (before sunset) until dark (after sunset). ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

How to accurately locate both poles

The earth axis is currently (but not permanently) pointed, to within a fraction of 1 degree, toward the bright star Polaris. The exact direction of the axis changes over thousands of years due to the precession of the equinoxes. We call the end of the Earth's axis that points to Polaris the North Pole. The opposite end of the axis is named the South Pole. Polaris is also known as the North Star, and is generically also called a lodestar. Polaris is only visible during fair weather at night to inhabitants of the Northern Hemisphere. This article describes the unit of angle. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... For other uses, see Polaris (disambiguation). ... The precession of Earths axis of rotation with respect to inertial space is also called the precession of the equinoxes. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... A lodestar is a star that is used to find direction, particularly with reference to a pole star. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... This article is about the time of day. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ...


Picking out a specific single star may leave one uncertain they've found the right one. As an aid to identifying Polaris, the asterism "Big Dipper" may be employed. The 2 corner stars of the "pan" (those opposite from the handle) point above the top of the "pan" to Polaris. This is illustrated at this example, the beginning of a tutorial that teaches how to find Polaris. To see the rest of the tutorial click the link at the bottom of the illustration. In astronomy, an asterism is a pattern of stars seen in Earths sky which is not an official constellation. ... Big Dipper map A group of the brightest stars of the constellation Ursa Major, the Great Bear, form a well-known asterism that has been recognized as a distinct grouping in many cultures from time immemorial. ...


From the Southern Hemisphere, nightly observations of the sky directly above the vicinity of the true pole will reveal that the visible stars appear to be moving in a circular path. (It is actually the observer that is moving in the circular path.) This becomes completely obvious when a special case of long exposure photography is employed to record the observations, by locking the shutter open for most of the intensely dark part of a moonless night. The resulting photograph reveals a multitude of concentric arcs (portions of perfect circles) from which the exact center can be readily derived. The common center is exactly aligned with the true (as opposed to the magnetic) pole. (This also is true of the Northern Hemisphere, and can be used to verify one has correctly identified Polaris, which will not appear to move.) A published photograph exposed for nearly 8 hours demonstrates this effect. Note that many digital cameras will exhaust their battery before achieving the excellent result illustrated here. Either provide an external power source, or use a film-based camera, to duplicate this effect. southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... It has been suggested that Leaf shutter be merged into this article or section. ... Darkness is the absence of light. ... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... Concentric objects share the same center, axis or origin with one inside the other. ... In Euclidean geometry, an arc is a closed segment of a differentiable curve in the two-dimensional plane; for example, a circular arc is a segment of a circle. ... In geometry, the centre (or center) of an object is a point in some sense in the middle of the object. ... Look up digital camera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A battery is of one or more electrochemical cells, which store chemical energy and make it available in an electrical form. ... For other uses, see Camera (disambiguation). ...


At the very end of the 19th century, to avoid the need to wait for fair weather at night to precisely verify one's alignment with true north, the gyrocompass was developed for ship use in scenarios where the magnetic compass simply wasn't good enough. It has the further advantages of immunity to interference by stray magnetic fields, and not depending on Earth's magnetic field at all. Its major disadvantage is that it depends on technology that many individuals might find too expensive to justify outside the context of a large commercial or military operation. It also requires a continuous power supply for its motors, and that it be allowed to sit in one location for a period of time while it properly aligns itself. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... True Pizza is a navigational term referring to the direction of the North Pole relative to the navigators position. ... This article is about gyrocompasses used on ships. ...


Near the end of the 20th century the advent of satellite-based Global Positioning Systems (GPS) provided yet another means for any individual to determine true north accurately. While GPS Receivers (GPSRs) require a clear view of the entire sky, they work day or night, and in all but the most severe weather. The government agencies responsible for the satellites continuously monitor and adjust them to maintain their accurate alignment with the Earth. There are consumer versions of the receivers that are attractively priced. Since there are no periodic access fees, or other licensing charges, they have become widely used. Handheld GPSRs have modest power requirements, can be shut down as needed, and become calibrated again within a couple of minutes of being restarted. In contrast to the gyrocompass, which is most accurate when stationary, the GPS receiver must be moving, typically at least more than 0.1 mile per hour, to correctly display compass directions. Within these limitations GPSRs are considered both accurate and reliable. The GPSR has thus become the fastest and most convenient way to obtain a verifiable alignment with both true north and true south. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... GPS redirects here. ...


Once the north-south orientation of the Earth's axis is known with precision, east and west are further refined as following arcs running in planes which are perpendicular to the Earth's axis. This article is about the mathematical construct. ... Fig. ...


Additional points

The directional names are also routinely and very conveniently associated with the degrees of rotation in the unit circle, a necessary step for navigational calculations (derived from trigonometry) and/or for use with Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) Receivers. The four cardinal directions correspond to the following degrees of a compass: This article describes the unit of angle. ... Illustration of a unit circle. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Trigonometry The Canadarm2 robotic manipulator on the International Space Station is operated by controlling the angles of its joints. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... GPS redirects here. ... In radio terminology, a receiver is an electronic circuit that receives a radio signal from an antenna and decodes the signal for use as sound, pictures, navigational-position information, etc. ...

  • North (N): 0° = 360°
  • East (E): 90°
  • South (S): 180°
  • West (W): 270°

An ordinal, or intercardinal, direction is one of the four intermediate compass directions located halfway between the cardinal directions.

  • Northeast (NE), 45°, halfway between north and east, is the opposite of southwest.
  • Southeast (SE), 135°, halfway between south and east, is the opposite of northwest.
  • Southwest (SW), 225°, halfway between south and west, is the opposite of northeast.
  • Northwest (NW), 315°, halfway between north and west, is the opposite of southeast.

These 8 words have been further compounded, resulting in a total of 32 named (and numbered) points evenly spaced around the compass. It is noteworthy that there are languages which do not use compound words to name the points, instead assigning unique words, colors, and/or associations with phenomena of the natural world.


Usefulness of cardinal points

With the cardinal points thus accurately defined, by convention cartographers draw standard maps with north (N) at the top, and east (E) at the right. In turn, maps provide a systematic means to record where places are, and cardinal directions are the foundation of a structure for telling someone how to find those places. Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) has been an integral part of the human story for a long time (maybe 8,000 years - nobody knows exactly, but longer than written words). ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... A right-handed Cartesian coordinate system, illustrating the x (right-left), y (forward-backward) and z (up-down) axes relative to a human being. ... A right-handed Cartesian coordinate system, illustrating the x (right-left), y (forward-backward) and z (up-down) axes relative to a human being. ...


North (N) does not have to be at the top. Portable GPS-based navigation computers can be set to display maps either conventionally (N always up, E always right) or with the current instantaneous direction of travel, called the heading, always up (and whatever direction is +90° from that to the right). GPS redirects here. ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... This article is about the machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into output device. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... This article is about positional information. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... A right-handed Cartesian coordinate system, illustrating the x (right-left), y (forward-backward) and z (up-down) axes relative to a human being. ...


The direction of travel required to reach the intended destination is called the bearing. Since the real world presents numerous obstacles, one must adjust his or her heading accordingly. Upon moving forward, the bearing will change so that it always points at the destination, thereby giving clues as to which way one should turn. When you are traveling, it can be easier to figure out where your next turn is, and whether to turn left or right, when the direction of travel is always up. In navigation, a bearing is the clockwise angle between a reference direction (or a datum line) and the direction to an object. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... A course, in navigation, is the direction of travel. ... A right-handed Cartesian coordinate system, illustrating the x (right-left), y (forward-backward) and z (up-down) axes relative to a human being. ...


Beyond geography

Children are sometimes taught the order of these directions (clockwise, from North) by using a mnemonic, such as "Naughty Elephants Squirt Water," "Never Eat Soggy Waffles" ("Weet-bix" in Australia & New Zealand), "Never Enter Stinky Washroom, "Never Eat Slimy Worms," or "Never Eat Shredded Wheat." For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ...


In mathematics, cardinal directions or cardinal points are the six principal directions or points along the x-, y- and z-axis of three-dimensional space. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Fig. ... The space we live in is three-dimensional space. ...


In the real world there are six cardinal directions not involved with geography which are north, south, east, west, up and down. In this context, up and down relate to elevation or altitude. The topographic map is a special case of cartography in which the elevation is indicated on the map, typically via contour lines. Compass rose with north highlighted and at top Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... A right-handed Cartesian coordinate system, illustrating the x (right-left), y (forward-backward) and z (up-down) axes relative to a human being. ... A right-handed Cartesian coordinate system, illustrating the x (right-left), y (forward-backward) and z (up-down) axes relative to a human being. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... // Topographic maps are a variety of maps characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. ... Contour and Contour map redirect here. ...


Germanic origin of names

During the Migration Period, the Germanic languages' names for the cardinal directions entered the Romance languages, where they replaced the Latin names borealis (or septentrionalis) with north, australis (or meridionalis) with south, occidentalis with west and orientalis with east. It is possible that some northern people used the Germanic names for the intermediate directions. Medieval Scandinavian orientation would thus have involved a 45 degree rotation of cardinal directions.[1] Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

  • north (Proto-Germanic *norþ-) from a root *ner- "left, below", i.e. "to the left of the rising Sun".
  • east (*aus-to-) from the word for dawn, see Eostre.
  • south (*sunþ-) is root-cognate to Sun itself, thus "the region of the Sun"
  • west (*wes-t-) from a word for "evening", root-cognate to Latin vesper.

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dawn in Peng Chau, Hong Kong. ... Eostre (Easter) and Ostara are the name of a putative Germanic goddess. ... Sol redirects here. ...

Cardinal directions in world cultures

Many cultures not descended from European traditions use cardinal directions, but have a number other than four. Typically, a “center” direction is added, for a total of five. Rather than the Western use of direction letters, properties such as colors are often associated with the various cardinal directions—these are typically the natural colors of human perception rather than optical primary colors. Some examples are shown here; for more (esp. with regard to American Indian tribes) see Colors of the Four Directions. Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... The Natural Color System (NCS) is a perceptual color model published by the Scandinavian Colour Institute of Stockholm, Sweden. ... This article is about colors. ...


In many regions of the world, prevalent winds change direction seasonally, and consequently many cultures associate specific named winds with cardinal and ordinal directions. The classical Greeks personified these winds as Anemoi. The article on boxing the compass contains a more recent list of directional winds from the Mediterranean Sea. For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Zephyrus, the Greek god of the west wind and the goddess Chloris, from a 1875 engraving by William-Adolphe Bouguereau In Greek mythology, the Anemoi (in Greek, Άνεμοι — winds) were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction, from which their respective winds came, and were each associated with various... A modern compass card. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


Far East

Asia N E S W C Source
China [2][3]
Ainu [4][5]
Turkic [4]
Kalmyks [6]
Tibet [4]

Dynastic Chinese culture and some other Central Asian cultures view the center as a fifth principal direction hence the English translated term "Five Cardinal Points". Where it is different than the west, is that the term is used as a foundation for I Ching, the Five Elements and the five Naked-eye planets. Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Kalmyk (alternatively Kalmuck, Kalmuk, or Kalmyki) is the name given to and later adopted by those Oirats who migrated en masse from Central Asia in the seventeenth century to settle in European Russia [8]. Alone among the peoples of Europe, the Kalmyks national religion is Buddhism. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... For the failed IAU planet category proposal, Classical planets, see 2006 redefinition of planet This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Each direction is often identified with a color, and geographical or ethnic terms may contain the name of the color instead of the name of the corresponding direction.[2][3] These traditions were also carried west by the westward migration of the Turkic peoples. This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


East: Green/Blue (青 "qīng" corresponds to green or blue); Spring; Wood For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... This article is about the colour. ... For other uses, see Spring. ... In Chinese alchemy, wood was one of the five elements. ...

Qingdao (Tsingtao) "Green Island": a city on the east coast of China

South: Red; Summer; Fire Tsingtao redirects here. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ...

Red River (Vietnam): south of China
Red Sea: south of Turkey

West: White; Autumn; Metal Flowing from China through Vietnam to the South China Sea, the Red River (Vietnamese Sông Hồng, Chinese Hónghé) is also known as the Yuan Jiang (元江, pinyin yuan2jiang1), which means Primary River. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... This article is about the color. ... This article is about the temperate season. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

White Sheep Turkmen
Ak Deniz "White Sea" in Turkish indicates the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean Sea, or the Mediterranean Sea

North: Black; Winter; Water The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Ağqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Water has been important to all peoples of the earth, and it is rich in spiritual tradition. ...

Heilongjiang "Black Dragon River" province in Northeast China, also the Amur River
Black Sea: north of Turkey
Kara-Khitan Khanate

Center: Yellow; Earth Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... The Amur (Russian: Амур) (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hēilóng Jiāng, literally meaning Black Dragon River) (Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River) (Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is one of the worlds ten longest rivers, located between the Russian Far East and Manchuria of... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liaó) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as Liao Dynasty). ... A yellow Tulip. ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ...

Huangshan "Yellow Mountain" in central China
Golden Horde: "Central Army" of the Mongols

Huangshan 2002 Mount Huangshan is a mountain range in Anhui province in eastern China. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ...

Americas

America N E S W C Source
Apache [7]
Aztec [8][9]
Cherokee [4][10]
Lakota [4]
Mayan [4][8]
Navajo [4][7]
Pueblo [4][10]
Sioux [4]

In Mesoamerica and North America, many traditional indigenous beliefs include four cardinal directions and a center. Each direction was associated with a color, which varied between groups but which generally corresponded to the hues of corn (green, black, red, white, and yellow). There seems to be no “preferred” way of assigning these colors; as shown in the table, great variety in color symbolism occurs even among cultures that are close neighbors geographically. For other uses, see Apache (disambiguation). ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... The Navajo people (or Diné) of the Southwestern United States are currently the largest Native American tribe in North America, with an estimated tribal population of 300,000. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pueblo Indians . ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... This article is about the culture area. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


Non-English names of ordinal directions

In some languages, such as Finnish and Estonian, there are words for ordinal directions that are not compounds of the names of the cardinal directions (as, for instance, northeast is compounded from north and east). In Finnish those are (listed clockwise starting from northeast) koillinen, kaakko, lounas and luode. The Clockwise direction A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ...


Non-compass directional systems

Use of the compass directions is common and deeply embedded in European culture, and perhaps even more so in Chinese culture. Some other cultures make greater use of other referents, such as towards the sea or towards the mountains (Hawaii, Bali), or upstream and downstream (most notably in ancient Egypt, also in the Yurok and Karok languages). Lengo (Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands) has four non-compass directions: landward, seaward, upcoast, and downcoast.[citations needed] The Culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures of Europe. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Yurok (also Weitspekan) is a moribund Algic language. ... Karuk (also Karok) are an indigenous people of California in the United States. ...


See also

Azimuth is the horizontal component of a direction (compass direction), measured around the horizon, from the north toward the east (i. ... A modern compass card. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... A Geocache in Germany Geocaching is an outdoor treasure-hunting game in which the participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers (called geocaches or caches) anywhere in the world. ... GIS redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Magnetic deviation is the error induced in a compass by local magnetic fields, which must be allowed for if accurate bearings are to be calculated. ... The international orienteering symbol. ... Trigonometry has an enormous variety of applications. ...

References

  1. ^ See e.g. Weibull, Lauritz. De gamle nordbornas väderstrecksbegrepp. Scandia 1/1928; Ekblom, R. Alfred the Great as Geographer. Studia Neophilologica 14/1941-2; Ekblom, R. Den forntida nordiska orientering och Wulfstans resa till Truso. Förnvännen. 33/1938; Sköld, Tryggve. Isländska väderstreck. Scripta Islandica. Isländska skällskapet årsbok 16/1965.
  2. ^ a b Cardinal colors in Chinese tradition. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  3. ^ a b Chinese Cosmogony. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Colors of the Four Directions. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  5. ^ Two Studies of Color. Retrieved on 2008-03-14. “In Ainu... siwnin means both 'yellow' and 'blue' and hu means 'green' and 'red'”
  6. ^ Krupp, E. C.: "Beyond the Blue Horizon: Myths and Legends of the Sun, Moon, Stars, and Planets", page 371. Oxford University Press, 1992
  7. ^ a b Symbolism of Color. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  8. ^ a b Aztec Calendar and Colors. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  9. ^ The Aztec Gateway. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  10. ^ a b Native American Quotes & Proverbs. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Compass rose with north highlighted and at top Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ordinal directions are the four compass directions: northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest, located halfway between the cardinal directions. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... Ordinal directions are the four compass directions: northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest, located halfway between the cardinal directions. ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... Ordinal directions are the four compass directions: northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest, located halfway between the cardinal directions. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Ordinal directions are the four compass directions: northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest, located halfway between the cardinal directions. ... A modern compass card. ...

 
 

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