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Encyclopedia > Cardinal Richelieu
Armand Jean du Plessis,
Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu

Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu, 1637, Philippe de Champaigne ... Ex Voto (1662) by Philippe de Champaigne Philippe de Champaigne (26 May 1602 - 12 August 1674) was a Baroque era painter of the French school. ...


In office
August 12, 1624 – December 4, 1642
Monarch Louis XIII of France
Succeeded by Jules Cardinal Mazarin

Born September 9, 1585
Paris, France
Died December 4, 1642
Paris, France
Nationality French
Alma mater Collège de Navarre
Occupation Clergyman, cardinal
Profession Statesman, nobleman
Religion Roman Catholicism
Styles of
Armand Cardinal de Richelieu
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
See

Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links Blason_France_moderne. ... The College of Navarre (French: Collège de Navarre) was one of the colleges of the historic University of Paris. ... see also Holy Orders The following terms have traditional meanings for the Anglican Church, and possibly beyond: A churchman is in principle a member of a church congregation, in practice someone in holy orders. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... The Church of France is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x741, 86 KB) Description: Vestments of a cardinal: red cassock, rochet trimmed with lace, red chimere, apostolical cross. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ...


Consecrated as a bishop in 1607, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Church and the state, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Jules Cardinal Mazarin. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ...


The Cardinal de Richelieu was often known by the title of the King's "Chief Minister" or "First Minister". As a result, he is sometimes considered to be the world's first Prime Minister, in the modern sense of the term. He sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state. His chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in attempting to achieve this goal. His tenure was marked by the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... For other uses, see Austria (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Combatants Sweden (from 1630)  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (1625-1629) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Denmark-Norway (1643-1645) Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


As an advocate for Samuel de Champlain and of the retention of Québec, he founded the Compagnie des Cent-Associés and saw the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye return Québec to French rule under Champlain, after the settlement had been captured by the Kirkes in 1629. This in part allowed the colony to eventually develop into the heartland of Francophone culture in North America. Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... During the 1960s, a terrorist group known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices. ... The Company of One Hundred Associates was a business enterprise created at a time when all territories explored by the French and seized as a part of the French colonial empire were the property of the King of France. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on March 29, 1632. ... Sir David Kirke (ca. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Richelieu was also famous for his patronage of the arts; most notably, he founded the Académie française, the learned society responsible for matters pertaining to the French language. Richelieu is also known by the sobriquet l'Éminence rouge ("the Red Eminence"), from the red shade of a cardinal's vestments and the style "eminence" as a cardinal. He is also a leading character in The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas, père and its subsequent film adaptations. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... A learned society is a society that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... A sobriquet is a nickname or a fancy name, usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a pseudonym assumed as a disguise, but a nickname which is familiar enough such that it can be used in place of a real name without the need of explanation. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Methodists, Lutheran and Anglican Churches. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Three Musketeers (disambiguation). ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... The Three Musketeers, a novel by Alexandre Dumas, père has been filmed many times. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Paris, Richelieu was the fourth of five children and the last of three sons. His family, although belonging only to the lesser nobility of Poitou, was somewhat prominent: his father, François du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, was a soldier and courtier who served as the Grand Provost of France; his mother, Susanne de La Porte, was the daughter of a famous jurist. When he was five years old, his father died fighting in the French Wars of Religion, leaving the family in debt; with the aid of royal grants, however, the family was able to avoid financial difficulties. At the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. Thereafter, he began to train for a military career. This article is about the capital of France. ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... Look up provost in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... The College of Navarre was founded by Johanna, queen of Navarre, 1304, who provided for 3 departments, the arts with 20 students, philosophy with 30 and theology with 20 students. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


King Henry III had rewarded Richelieu's father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon. The family appropriated most of the revenues of the bishopric for private use; they were, however, challenged by clergymen who desired the funds for ecclesiastical purposes. In order to protect the important source of revenue, Richelieu's mother proposed to make her second son, Alphonse, the bishop of Luçon. Alphonse, who had no desire to become a bishop, instead became a Carthusian. Thus, it became necessary that the younger Richelieu join the clergy. He was not at all averse to the prospect of becoming a bishop; he was a frail and sickly child who preferred to pursue academic interests. Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... The French Catholic diocese of Luçon (ancient Lucionensis) embraces the department of Vendée. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... Alphonse-Louis du Plessis de Richelieu (1582-1653) was a French Carthusian, bishop and Cardinal. ... Coat of arms of the Carthusian order Monasterio de la Cartuja, a former Carthusian monastery in Seville The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. ...


In 1606, King Henry IV nominated Richelieu to become Bishop of Luçon. As Richelieu had not yet reached the official minimum age, it was necessary that he journey to Rome to obtain a special dispensation from the Pope. The agreement of the Pope having been secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April 1607. Soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformer; he became the first bishop in France to implement the institutional reforms prescribed by the Council of Trent between 1545 and 1563. Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Look up reform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


At about this time, Richelieu became a friend of François Leclerc du Tremblay (better known as "Père Joseph" or "Father Joseph"), a Capuchin friar, who would later become a close confidant. Because of his closeness to Richelieu, and the grey colour of his robes, Father Joseph was also nicknamed l'Éminence grise ("the Grey Eminence"). Later, Richelieu often used him as an agent during diplomatic negotiations. François Leclerc du Tremblay (1577 – 1638), also known as the Père Joseph, was a French Capuchin friar, confidant and agent of Cardinal Richelieu. ... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, the chief and only permanent offshoot of the Franciscans. ... An éminence grise (French for grey eminence), is a powerful advisor or decision-maker who operates secretly or otherwise unofficially. ... This article is about negotiations. ...


Rise to power

The young King Louis XIII was only a figurehead during his early reign; power actually rested with his mother, Marie de Médicis.
The young King Louis XIII was only a figurehead during his early reign; power actually rested with his mother, Marie de Médicis.

In 1614, the clergymen of Poitou elected Richelieu as one of their representatives to the States-General. There, he was a vigorous advocate of the Church, arguing that it should be exempt from taxes and that bishops should have more political power. He was the most prominent clergyman to support the adoption of the decrees of the Council of Trent throughout France; the Third Estate (commoners) was his chief opponent in this endeavour. At the end of the assembly, the First Estate (the clergy) chose him to deliver the address enumerating its petitions and decisions. Soon after the dissolution of the States-General, Richelieu entered the service of King Louis XIII's wife, Anne of Austria, as her almoner. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... In France under the Ancien Regime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: états généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... A tax exemption is an exemption to the tax law of a state or nation in which part of the taxes that would normally be collected from an individual or an organization are instead forgone. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term First Estate (Fr. ... Anne of Austria Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ... Almoner (from the Greek eelmosyna alms via Latin Almosunartius and French, known in English since circa 1300) is a chaplain or church officer who originally was in charge of distributing charity. ...


Richelieu advanced politically by faithfully serving Concino Concini, the most powerful minister in the kingdom. In 1616, Richelieu was made Secretary of State, and was given responsibility for foreign affairs. Like Concini, the Bishop was one of the closest advisors of Louis XIII's mother, Marie de Médicis. The Queen had become Regent of France when the nine-year old Louis ascended the throne; although her son reached the legal age of majority in 1614, she remained the effective ruler of the realm. However, her policies, and those of Concini, proved unpopular with many in France. As a result, both Marie and Concini became the targets of intrigues at court; their most powerful enemy was Charles de Luynes. In April 1617, in a plot arranged by Luynes, King Louis XIII ordered that Concini be arrested, and killed should he resist; Concini was consequently assassinated, and Marie de Médicis overthrown. His patron having died, Richelieu also lost power; he was dismissed as Secretary of State, and was removed from the court. In 1618, the King, still suspicious of the Bishop of Luçon, banished him to Avignon. There, Richelieu spent most of his time writing; he composed a catechism entitled L'Instruction du chrétien. Concino Concini, Count della Penna, Marquis and Maréchal dAncre (Florence, 1575 - Paris, 24 april 1617), was an Italian politician, best known for being a minister of Louis XIII of France. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... Luynes by Moncornet Charles dAlbert, duc de Luynes (1578 - December 15, 1621), was constable of France and the first duke of Luynes. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Codex Manesse, fol. ...


In 1619, Marie de Médicis escaped from her confinement in the Château de Blois, becoming the titular leader of an aristocratic rebellion. The King and the duc de Luynes recalled Richelieu, believing that he would be able to reason with the Queen. Richelieu was successful in this endeavour, mediating between her and her son. Complex negotiations bore fruit when the Treaty of Angoulême was ratified; Marie de Médicis was given complete freedom, but would remain at peace with the King. The Queen was also restored to the royal council. The rear of the Château de Blois Staircase in the Château de Blois The Royal Château de Blois is located in the Loir-et-Cher département in the Loire Valley, in France. ... The Treaty of Angoulême was signed on August 10, 1619 between Queen Marie de Medici and her son, King Louis XIII of France in Angoulême, France. ...


After the death of the King's favourite, the duc de Luynes, in 1621, Richelieu began to rise to power quickly. Next year, the King nominated Richelieu for a cardinalate, which Pope Gregory XV accordingly granted on 19 April 1622. Crises in France, including a rebellion of the Huguenots, rendered Richelieu a nearly indispensable advisor to the King. After he was appointed to the royal council of ministers in April 1624, he intrigued against the chief minister, Charles, duc de La Vieuville. In August of the same year, La Vieuville was arrested on charges of corruption, and Cardinal Richelieu took his place as the King's principal minister. Look up Favorite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Pope Gregory XV with his Cardinal Nephew of unprecedented income and authority, Ludovico Ludovisi, known as il cardinale padrone. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ...


Chief minister

Cardinal Richelieu's policy involved two primary goals: centralization of power in France and opposition to the Habsburg dynasty (which ruled in both Austria and Spain). Shortly after he became Louis' principal minister, he was faced with a crisis in the Valtellina, a valley in Lombardy (northern Italy). In order to counter Spanish designs on the territory, Richelieu supported the Protestant Swiss canton of Grisons, which also claimed the strategically important valley. The Cardinal deployed troops to Valtellina, from which the Pope's garrisons were driven out. Richelieu's decision to support a Protestant canton against the Pope won him many enemies in predominantly Catholic France. A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... A view of Valtellina The church of Tresivio Valtellina (German Veltlin) is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... Grisons or Graubünden (German: Graubünden; Italian: Grigioni; Romansh: Grischun) is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland. ...

Henri Motte's stylised depiction of Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle.
Henri Motte's stylised depiction of Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle.

In order to further consolidate power in France, Richelieu sought to suppress the influence of the feudal nobility. In 1626, he abolished the position of Constable of France and he ordered all fortified castles to be razed, excepting only those needed to defend against invaders. Thus, he stripped the princes, dukes, and lesser aristocrats of important defences that could have been used against the King's armies during rebellions. As a result, Richelieu was hated by most of the nobility. Richelieu at the siege of La Rochelle. ... Richelieu at the siege of La Rochelle. ... Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle, Henri Motte, 1881. ... Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle, Henri Motte, 1881. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... The Constable of France (French connétable de France, from Latin comes stabulari for count of the stables), as the First Officer of the Crown, was one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor) and Commander in Chief of...


Another obstacle to the centralization of power was religious division in France. The Huguenots, one of the largest political and religious factions in the country, controlled a significant military force, and were in rebellion. Moreover, the King of England, Charles I, declared war on France in an attempt to aid the Huguenot faction. In 1627, Richelieu ordered the army to besiege the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle; the Cardinal personally commanded the besieging troops. English troops under the Duke of Buckingham led an expedition to help the citizens of La Rochelle, but failed abysmally. The city, however, remained firm for over a year before capitulating in 1628. From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle, Henri Motte, 1881. ... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ...


Although the Huguenots suffered a major defeat at La Rochelle, they continued to fight, led by Henri, duc de Rohan. Protestant forces, however, were defeated in 1629; Rohan submitted to the terms of the Peace of Alais. As a result, religious toleration for Protestants, which had first been granted by the Edict of Nantes in 1598, was permitted to continue; however, the Cardinal abolished their political rights and protections. Rohan was not executed (as were leaders of rebellions later in Richelieu's tenure); in fact, he later became a commanding officer in the French army. Henri II, viscount of Rohan (1579–April 13, 1638), later duke of Rohan, French soldier, writer and leader of the Huguenots, was born at the château of Blain, in Brittany. ... The Peace of Alais, sometimes called the Edict of Alès, was issued by King Louis XIII on 28 June, 1629. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

On the "Day of the Dupes" in 1630, it appeared that Marie de Médicis had secured Richelieu's dismissal. Richelieu, however, survived the scheme, and Marie was exiled as a result.
On the "Day of the Dupes" in 1630, it appeared that Marie de Médicis had secured Richelieu's dismissal. Richelieu, however, survived the scheme, and Marie was exiled as a result.

Habsburg Spain exploited the French conflict with the Huguenots to extend its influence in northern Italy. It funded the Huguenot rebels in order to keep the French army occupied, meanwhile expanding its Italian dominions. Richelieu, however, responded aggressively; after La Rochelle capitulated, he personally led the French army to northern Italy to restrain Spain. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (666x880, 77 KB) Description: Maria de Medici, queen of France, wife of Henry IV Painter: Peter Paul Rubens Date: 1621/1625 Location: Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (666x880, 77 KB) Description: Maria de Medici, queen of France, wife of Henry IV Painter: Peter Paul Rubens Date: 1621/1625 Location: Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain Source: http://www. ...


In the next year, Richelieu's position was seriously threatened by his former patron, Marie de Médicis. Marie believed that the Cardinal had robbed her of her political influence; thus, she demanded that her son dismiss the chief minister. Louis XIII was not, at first, averse to such a course of action, as he personally disliked Richelieu. The persuasive statesman convinced his master of the wisdom in his plans, however. On November 11, 1630, Marie de Médicis and the King's brother, Gaston, duc d'Orléans, secured the King's agreement for the dismissal. Richelieu, however, was aware of the plan, and quickly convinced the King to repent. This day, known as the Day of the Dupes, was the only one on which Louis XIII took a step toward dismissing his minister. Thereafter, the King was unwavering in his political support for him; the courtier was created duc de Richelieu and was made a Peer of France. is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Gaston Jean-Baptiste, duc dOrléans (April 25, 1608 - February 2, 1660), third son of the French king Henry IV, and his wife Marie de Medici, was born at Fontainebleau. ... Day of Dupes is the name given to the day in November of 1630 on which the enemies of Cardinal Richelieu believed that they had succeeded in persuading Louis XIII, King of France, to dismiss Richelieu from power. ... Richelieu can refer to: People Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal and Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), French Cardinal, Duke, and politician, who served as Louis XIIIs chief minister Louis François Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (1696-1788), marshal of France, grandnephew of the cardinal Emmanuel-Armand de... The Peerage of France (French: ) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. ...


Meanwhile, Marie de Médicis was exiled to Compiègne. Both Marie and the duc d'Orléans continued to conspire against Richelieu, but their schemes came to nothing. The nobility, also, remained powerless. The only important rising was that of Henri, duc de Montmorency in 1632; Richelieu, ruthless in suppressing opposition, ordered the duke's execution. Richelieu's harsh measures were designed to intimidate his enemies. He also ensured his political security by establishing a large network of spies in France as well as in other European countries. Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Henri II de Montmorency (1595 - October 30, 1632), son of duke Henry I, succeeded to the title in 1614, having previously been made grand admiral. ... SPY may refer to: SPY (spiders), ticker symbol for Standard & Poors Depository Receipts SPY (magazine), a satirical monthly, trademarked all-caps SPY (Ivory Coast), airport code for San Pédro, Côte dIvoire SPY (Ship Planning Yard), a U.S. Navy acronym SPY, short for MOWAG SPY, a...


Thirty Years' War

Before Richelieu's ascent to power, most of Europe had become involved in the Thirty Years' War. In 1629, the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor humbled many of his Protestant opponents in Germany, thereby greatly increasing his power. Richelieu, alarmed by the Emperor Ferdinand II's influence, incited Sweden to attack. He also agreed to aid the Swedish with financial subsidies. France was not openly at war with the Empire, so aid was given secretly. In the meantime, France and Spain continued to remain hostile over the latter kingdom's ambitions in northern Italy. At that time Northern Italy was a major strategic asset in Europe's balance of powers, being a terrestrial link between the Habsburg's two branches in Germany and Spain. Had the imperial armies dominated this region, France's very existence would have been endangered, being circled by Habsburg territories. Spain was then aspiring to become a "universal monarchy", with support from the Pope. When, in 1630, French ambassadors in Regensburg agreed to make peace with Habsburg Spain, Richelieu refused to uphold them. The agreement would have prohibited French interference in the hostilities in Germany. Thus, Richelieu advised Louis XIII to refuse to ratify the treaty. Combatants Sweden (from 1630)  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (1625-1629) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Denmark-Norway (1643-1645) Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ...


Because he openly aligned France with Protestant powers, Richelieu was denounced by many as a traitor to the Roman Catholic Church. Military hostilities, at first, were disastrous for the French, with many victories going to Spain and the Empire. Neither side, however, could obtain a decisive advantage, and the conflict lingered on until after Richelieu's death.


Military expenses put a considerable strain on the King's revenues. In response, Richelieu raised the gabelle (a tax on salt) and the taille (a tax on land). The taille was enforced to provide funds to raise armies and wage war. The clergy, nobility, and high bourgeoisie were either exempt or could easily avoid payment, so the burden fell on the poorest segment of the nation. To collect taxes more efficiently, and to keep corruption to a minimum, Richelieu bypassed local tax officials, replacing them with intendants — officials in the direct service of the Crown. Richelieu's financial scheme, however, caused unrest among the peasants; there were several uprisings between 1636 and 1639. Richelieu crushed the revolts violently, and dealt with the rebels harshly. The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... Land in economics comprises all naturally occurring resources whose supply is inherently fixed (i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ...


Last years

Towards the end of his life, Richelieu alienated many people, including Pope Urban VIII. Richelieu was displeased by the Pope's refusal to name him the papal legate in France; in turn, the Pope did not approve of the administration of the French church, or of French foreign policy. However, the conflict was largely healed when the Pope granted a cardinalate to Jules Mazarin, one of Richelieu's foremost political allies, in 1641. Despite troubled relations with the Roman Catholic Church, Richelieu did not support the complete repudiation of papal authority in France, as was advocated by the Gallicanists. Pope Urban VIII (April 1568 – July 29, 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was Pope from 1623 to 1644. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ... Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority—often represented by the monarchs authority or the States authority—over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Roman Popes. ...

Jules Cardinal Mazarin succeeded Richelieu in office.
Jules Cardinal Mazarin succeeded Richelieu in office.

As he neared his death, Richelieu faced a plot that threatened to remove him from power. The cardinal had introduced a young man named Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, marquis de Cinq-Mars to Louis XIII's court. The Cardinal had been a friend of Cinq-Mars' father. More importantly, Richelieu hoped that Cinq-Mars would become Louis' favourite, so that he could indirectly exercise greater influence over the monarch's decisions. Cinq-Mars had become the royal favourite by 1639, but, contrary to Cardinal Richelieu's belief, he was not easy to control. The young marquis realised that Richelieu would not permit him to gain political power. In 1641, he participated in the comte de Soissons' failed conspiracy against Richelieu, but was not discovered. Next year, he schemed with leading nobles (including the King's brother, the duc d'Orléans) to raise a rebellion; he also signed a secret agreement with the King of Spain, who promised to aid the rebels. Richelieu's spy service, however, discovered the plot, and the Cardinal received a copy of the treaty. Cinq-Mars was promptly arrested and executed; although Louis approved the use of capital punishment, he grew more distant from Richelieu as a result. Portrait of Cardinal Mazarin by Pierre Louis Bouchart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Portrait of Cardinal Mazarin by Pierre Louis Bouchart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis de Cinq-Mars (1620 - September 12, 1642) was a favourite of King Louis XIII of France who led the last and most nearly successful of the many conspiracies against the kings powerful first minister, the Cardinal Richelieu. ... Louis de Bourbon, comte de Soissons (1604-1641) was the son of Charles de Bourbon, comte de Soissons and Anne de Montafié. He was the 2nd cousin of King Louis XIII of France. ...


In the same year, however, Richelieu's health was already failing. He suffered greatly from eye strain and headaches, among other ailments. As he felt his death approaching, he named as his successor one of his most faithful followers, Jules Cardinal Mazarin. Although Mazarin was originally a representative of the Holy See, he had left the Pope's service to join that of the King of France. Mazarin succeeded Richelieu when the latter died. Richelieu is interred at the church of the Sorbonne. Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually...


After hearing of his death, Pope Urban reportedly said that "If God exists, Cardinal Richelieu will have to answer for many things. If not..., then yes, he will have done well in life" ("Si Dieu existe, le cardinal de Richelieu devra répondre de beaucoup de choses. Sinon [...] ma foi, il aura bien réussi dans la vie"). This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Arts and culture

Cardinal de Richelieu
Cardinal de Richelieu

Richelieu was a famous patron of the arts. Himself an author of various religious and political works (most notably his Political Testament), he funded the literary careers of many writers. He was a lover of the theatre, which was not considered a respectable art form during that era. Among the individuals he patronised was the famous playwright Pierre Corneille. Richelieu was also the founder and patron of the Académie française, the pre-eminent French literary society. The institution had previously been in informal existence; in 1635, however, Cardinal Richelieu obtained official letters patent for the body. The Académie française includes forty members, promotes French literature, and continues to be the official authority on the French language. Richelieu served as the Académie's "protector"; since 1672, that role has been fulfilled by the French head of state. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 780 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2052 × 1578 pixel, file size: 917 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) old portrait of Armand Jean du Plessis Cardinal de Richelieu +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 780 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2052 × 1578 pixel, file size: 917 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) old portrait of Armand Jean du Plessis Cardinal de Richelieu +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Pierre Corneille (June 6, 1606–October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian tragedian who was one of the three great 17th Century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as...


In 1622, Richelieu was elected the proviseur or principal of the Sorbonne. He presided over the renovation of the college's buildings, and over the construction of its famous chapel, where he is now entombed. As he was Bishop of Luçon, his statue stands outside the Luçon cathedral. The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ...


Richelieu oversaw the construction of his own palace in Paris, the Palais-Cardinal. The palace, renamed the Palais Royal after Richelieu's death, now houses the French Constitutional Council, the Ministry of Culture, and the Conseil d'État. The architect of the Palais-Cardinal, Jacques Lemercier, also received a commission to build a château and a surrounding town in Indre-et-Loire; the project culminated in the construction of the Château Richelieu and the town of Richelieu. To the château, he added one of the largest art collections in Europe. Most notably, he owned Slaves (sculptures by the Italian Michelangelo Buonarroti), as well as paintings by Peter Paul Rubens, Nicolas Poussin and Titian. Gardens of the Palais-Royal: The illustration, from an 1863 guide to Paris, enlarges the apparent scale. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... Jacques Lemercier (c. ... Indre-et-Loire is a département in west-central France named after the Indre and the Loire rivers. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... “Poussin” redirects here. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

Richelieu's tenure was a crucial period of reform for France. Earlier, the nation's political structure was largely feudal, with powerful nobles and a wide variety of laws in different regions. Parts of the nobility periodically conspired against the King, raised private armies, and allied themselves with foreign powers. This system gave way to centralized power under Richelieu. Local and even religious interests were subordinated to those of the whole nation, and of the embodiment of the nation — the King. Equally critical for France was Richelieu's foreign policy, which helped restrain Habsburg influence in Europe. Richelieu did not survive until the end of the Thirty Years' War. However, the conflict ended in 1648, with France emerging in a far better position than any other power, and the Holy Roman Empire entering a period of decline. This article is about the medieval empire. ...


Richelieu's successes were extremely important to Louis XIII's successor, King Louis XIV. He continued Richelieu's work of creating an absolute monarchy; in the same vein as the Cardinal, he enacted policies that further suppressed the once-mighty aristocracy, and utterly destroyed all remnants of Huguenot political power with the Edict of Fontainebleau. Moreover, Louis took advantage of his nation's success during the Thirty Years' War to establish French hegemony in continental Europe. Thus, Richelieu's policies were the requisite prelude to Louis XIV becoming the most powerful monarch, and France the most powerful nation, in all of Europe during the late seventeenth century. Louis XIV redirects here. ... The term absolutism can mean: A belief in absolute truth moral absolutism, the belief that there is some absolute standard of right and wrong political absolutism, a political system where one person holds absolute power, also called apolytarchy from Gr. ... The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, best known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which had granted to the Huguenots the right to worship their religion without persecution from the state. ... Hegemony (pronounced [])[1] (Greek: ) is a concept that has been used to describe the existence of dominance of one social group over another, such that the ruling group -- referred to as a hegemon -- acquires some degree of consent from the subordinate, as opposed to dominance purely by force. ...


Richelieu is also notable for the authoritarian measures he employed to maintain power. He censored the press, established a large network of internal spies, forbade the discussion of political matters in public assemblies such as the Parlement de Paris (a court of justice), and had those who dared to conspire against him prosecuted and executed. The Canadian historian and philosopher John Ralston Saul has referred to Richelieu as the "father of the modern nation-state, modern centralised power [and] the modern secret service." The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... Image:Bigphotojonralstonsaulcc. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ...


Richelieu's motives are the focus of much debate among historians; some see him as a patriotic supporter of the monarchy, while others view him as a power-hungry cynic. (Voltaire even argued that Richelieu started wars to make himself indispensable to the King.[citation needed]) The latter image gained further currency due to Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers, of which Richelieu is a major character and one of the main villains. The novel, and subsequent film adaptations, depicts Richelieu as a power-hungry, unscrupulous, and avaricious minister. For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Three Musketeers (disambiguation). ...


Despite such arguments, Richelieu remains an honoured personality in France, particularly for his stubborn refusal to let courtly intrigues and foreign interests dominate the government. He has given his name to a battleship and a battleship class. The French government planned to use his name for an aircraft carrier but the ship was finally named after Charles de Gaulle. The Richelieu was a French battleship of World War II named for the seventeenth century statesman Cardinal Richelieu. ... The Jean Bart was a French battleship of World War II named for the seventeenth century seaman and corsair Jean Bart. ... The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ...


His legacy is also important for the world at large; his ideas of a strong nation-state and aggressive foreign policy helped create the modern system of international politics. The notions of national sovereignty and international law can be traced, at least in part, to Richelieu's policies and theories, especially as enunciated in the Treaty of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years' War. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... Combatants Sweden (from 1630)  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (1625-1629) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Denmark-Norway (1643-1645) Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of...


One aspect of his legacy which has remained less renowned is his involvement with Samuel de Champlain, and his fledgling colony along the St. Lawrence River. The retention and promotion of Québec under Richelieu allowed it — and through the settlement's strategic location, the St-Lawrence - Great Lakes gateway into the North American interior — to develop into a French empire in North America—parts of which would eventually become modern Canada and Louisiana. North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Tomb

During the French Revolution, Richelieu's body was removed from its tomb for reburial elsewhere, and the mummified front of his head, having been removed and replaced during the original embalming process, was stolen. It ended up in the possession of Nicholas Armez of Brittany by 1796, and he occasionally exhibited the well-preserved face. His nephew, Louis-Philippe Armez, inherited it and also occasionally exhibited it and lent it out for study. In 1866, Napoleon III persuaded Armez to return the face to the government for reinterrment with the rest of Richelieu's body (Murphy, 1995). The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ...


Honours

Many sites and landmarks were named to honor Cardinal Richelieu. They include:

Indre-et-Loire is a département in west-central France named after the Indre and the Loire rivers. ... Shawinigan is a city in the Province of Quebec, Canada on the Saint-Maurice River. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Richelieu is a provincial electoral riding in the province of Quebec, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Richelieu River in Quebec, Canada flows about 130 km north to drain Lake Champlain into the St. ... Map (2001) of the Regional County Municipalities making up Montérégie Montérégie is an administrative region in the southwestern corner of Quebec. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... “Métro” redirects here. ... List of stations of the Paris Métro Richelieu - Drouot is a station of the Paris Métro. ...

References

  • Belloc, Hilaire (1929). Richelieu: A Study. London: J. B. Lippincott. 
  • Burckhardt, Carl J. (1967). Richelieu and His Age (3 volumes), trans. Bernard Hoy, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 
  • Church, William F. (1972). Richelieu and Reason of State. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 
  • Kissinger, Henry (1997). Diplomatie. s.l.: Fayard. 
  • Levi, Anthony (2000). Cardinal Richelieu and the Making of France. New York: Carroll and Graf. 
  • Lodge, Sir Richard (1896). Richelieu. London: Macmillan. 
  • Murphy, Edwin (1995). After the Funeral: The Posthumous Adventures of Famous Corpses. New York: Barnes and Noble Books. 
  • Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal et Duc de (1964). The Political Testament of Cardinal Richelieu, trans. Henry Bertram Hill, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 

Harcourt Trade Publishers is a U.S. publishing firm, and one of the worlds largest publishers of textbooks. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The University of Wisconsin Press (or UW Press), founded in 1936, is a university press that is part of the Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ...

See also

An illustration of Cardinal Richelieu holding a sword, by H. A. Ogden, 1892, from The Works of Edward Bulwer Lytton The pen is mightier than the sword is an adage coined by Edward Bulwer-Lytton in 1839 for his play Richelieu; Or the Conspiracy. ...

Portrayals in fiction and film

Nigel De Brulier (b. ... This article is about a silent film. ... The Man in the Iron Mask is a 1939 film adaption of the last section of the novel The Vicomte de Bragelonne by Alexandre Dumas, which is itself based on the French legend of The Man in the Iron Mask. ... For other uses, see The Three Musketeers (disambiguation). ... George Arliss (10 April 1868- 5 February 1946) was a British actor. ... Vincent Leonard Price Jr. ... There is a disambiguation page at Cyrano de Bergerac (movie). ... Christopher Logue (born Portsmouth, 1926) is an English poet associated with the British Poetry Revival. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wheelchair seating in a theater. ... Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an American film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... The Three Musketeers is a 1973 film based on the novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... The Four Musketeers is the title of a 1974 Richard Lester film, which follows upon his film of the previous year, The Three Musketeers, and covers the second half of Dumass novel. ... DArtagnan and Three Musketeers DArtagnan and Three Musketeers (ДАртаньян и три мушкетёра) is a three-part Soviet television miniseries musical, first aired in 1978. ... Dogtanian and the Three Muskehounds is a cartoon version of the classic Alexandre Dumas story of DArtagnan and The Three Musketeers. ... Kerrigan Mahan (born January 27, 1955 in Encino, CA) is a voice actor who is also known as Ryan OFlannigan. ... Three Musketeers ) is an anime television series adaption of Alexandre Dumass novel The Three Musketeers. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... The Island of the Day Before is a novel by Umberto Eco. ... “Date line” redirects here. ... Timothy James Curry (born April 19, 1946) is an English actor, singer and composer, perhaps best known for his role as mad scientist Dr. Frank-N-Furter in The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975). ... [[--69. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... Stephen Rea (born October 31, 1946) is an Irish actor. ... The Musketeer is a Peter Hyams film based on Alexandre Dumas classic novel The Three Musketeers, starring Catherine Deneuve, Tim Roth, Mena Suvari, Stephen Rea, Nick Moran, Bill Treacher and Justin Chambers. ... Peter Keleghan is a Canadian television actor, who has played roles in many of Canadas most popular comedy series. ... Slings and Arrows is a Canadian TV series set at the fictional New Burbage Festival, a troubled Shakespearean festival similar to the real-world Stratford Festival. ... Main articles: 1632 series and The Grantville Gazettes 1632 is the initial novel in the best selling alternate history genre 1632 book series set in the Holy Roman Empire by historian, writer and editor Eric Flint. ... Eric Flint (born California, USA, 1947) is an American science fiction and fantasy author and editor. ... This article is about the television series. ... Michael Edward Palin, CBE (born 5 May 1943) is an English comedian, actor, writer and television presenter best known for being one of the members of the comedy group Monty Python and for his travel documentaries. ... This article is about the television series. ... The Church and the Crown is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Richelieu - the story of his political career and his personal qualities (3329 words)
Richelieu followed the traditional logic of absolute monarchy and reinforced the system of penetration into the provincial administrative structure by creating officers answerable to the Crown, who would duplicate and gradually absorb the function of revenue-raising, defense, police and the courts.
Richelieu had to struggle during his whole career in order to gain control over the judicial system and finally succeeded when an ordinance was issued in 1641 which forbade the Parlement in future to occupy itself with political concerns.
Richelieu who "gloried in the majesty of Louis XIII" persisted in explaining the continuing danger from the nobility and stated the according measures that need to be taken (Church, 198).
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