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Encyclopedia > Cardiac arrhythmia
Cardiac arrhythmia
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 I47. - I49.
ICD-9 427
DiseasesDB 15206
MedlinePlus 001101
MeSH D001145

Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // I00-I99 - Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I02) Acute rheumatic fever (I00) Rheumatic fever without mention of heart involvement (I01) Rheumatic fever with heart involvement (I02) Rheumatic chorea (I05-I09) Chronic rheumatic heart diseases (I05) Rheumatic mitral valve diseases (I050) Mitral stenosis (I051) Rheumatic mitral insufficiency (I06) Rheumatic aortic... // I00-I99 - Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I02) Acute rheumatic fever (I00) Rheumatic fever without mention of heart involvement (I01) Rheumatic fever with heart involvement (I02) Rheumatic chorea (I05-I09) Chronic rheumatic heart diseases (I05) Rheumatic mitral valve diseases (I050) Mitral stenosis (I051) Rheumatic mitral insufficiency (I06) Rheumatic aortic... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ...


Some arrhythmiae are life-threatening medical emergencies that can cause cardiac arrest and sudden death. Others cause aggravating symptoms, such as an awareness of a different heart beat, or palpitation, which can be annoying. Some are quite small and normal. Sinus arrhythmia is the mild acceleration followed by slowing of the normal rhythm that occurs with breathing. In adults the normal resting heart rate ranges from 60 beats per minute to 100 beats per minute. The normal heart beat is controlled by a small area in the upper chamber of the heart called the sinoatrial node or sinus node. The sinus node contains specialized cells that have spontaneous electrical activity that starts each normal heart beat. A medical emergency is an injury or illness that poses an immediate threat to a persons health or life which requires help from a doctor or hospital. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The sinoatrial node (abbreviated SA node, also called the sinus node) is the impulse generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart. ...

Contents

Faster and slower arrythmias

A heart rate faster than 100 beats/minute is considered a tachycardia. This number varies with age, as the heartbeat of a younger person is naturally faster than that of an older person's. With exercise the sinus node increases its rate of electrical activity to accelerate the heart rate. The normal fast rate that develops is called sinus tachycardia. Arrhythmiae that are due to fast, abnormal electrical activity can cause tachycardias that are dangerous. If the ventricles of the heart experience one of these tachycardias for a long period of time, there can be deleterious effects. Individuals may sense a tachycardia as a pounding sensation of the heart, known as palpitations. If a tachycardia lowers blood pressure it may cause lightheadedness or dizziness, or even fainting (syncope). If the tachycardia is too fast, the pump function of the heart is impeded, which may lead to a sudden death. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber) and pumps it out of the heart. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Central Ischaemic Response be merged into this article or section. ... A cardiac arrest, also known as cardiorespiratory arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest, is the abrupt cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the heart to contract effectively during systole. ...


Most tachycardias are not dangerous. Anything that increases adrenaline or its effects on the heart will increase the heart rate and potentially cause palpitations or tachycardias. Causes include stress, ingested or injected substances (ie: caffeine, alcohol—see Holiday heart syndrome), and an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). Individuals who have a tachycardia are often advised to limit or remove exposure to any causative agent. However, these causative agents are not the only contributors to tachycardias and their prevalence has not been evaluated statistically. Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Holiday Heart Syndrome is a consequence of binge drinking. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ...


A slow rhythm, known as bradycardia (less than 60 beats/min), is usually not life threatening, but may cause symptoms. When it causes symptoms implantation of a permanent pacemaker may be needed. Either dysrhythmia requires medical attention to evaluate the risks associated with the arrhythmia. Bradycardia, as applied to adult medicine, is defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min. ... A pacemaker A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device designed to regulate the beating of the heart. ...


Fibrillation

A serious variety of arrhythmia is known as fibrillation. The muscle cells of the heart normally function together, creating a single contraction when stimulated. Fibrillation occurs when the heart muscle begins a quivering motion due to a disunity in contractile cell function. Fibrillation can affect the atrium (atrial fibrillation) or the ventricle (ventricular fibrillation); ventricular fibrillation is imminently life-threatening. Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a cardiac condition which consists of a lack of coordination of the contraction of the muscle tissue of the large chambers of the heart that eventually leads to the heart stopping altogether. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Greys Anatomy. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Atrial fibrillation (AF or afib) is an abnormal heart rhythm (cardiac arrhythmia) which involves the two small, upper heart chambers (the atria). ... Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a cardiac condition which consists of a lack of coordination of the contraction of the muscle tissue of the large chambers of the heart that eventually leads to the heart stopping altogether. ...


Atrial fibrillation is the quivering, chaotic motion in the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. Atrial fibrillation is often due to serious underlying medical conditions, and should be evaluated by a physician. It is not typically a medical emergency. In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) refers to a chamber or space. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ...


Ventricular fibrillation occurs in the ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart; it is always a medical emergency. If left untreated, ventricular fibrillation (VF, or V-fib) can lead to death within minutes. When a heart goes into V-fib, effective pumping of the blood stops. V-fib is considered a form of cardiac arrest, and an individual suffering from it will not survive unless cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation are provided immediately. In the heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. ... Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a cardiac condition which consists of a lack of coordination of the contraction of the muscle tissue of the large chambers of the heart that eventually leads to the heart stopping altogether. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: First Aid/CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency first aid procedure for a victim of cardiac arrest. ... Typical view of the defibrillator operator. ...


CPR can prolong the survival of the brain in the lack of a normal pulse, but defibrillation is the intervention which is most likely to restore a more healthy heart rhythm. It does this by applying an electric shock to the heart, after which sometimes the heart will revert to a rhythm that can once again pump blood. In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ...


Almost every person goes into ventricular fibrillation in the last few minutes of life as the heart muscle reacts to diminished oxygen or general blood flow, trauma, irritants, or depression of electrical impulses themselves from the brain.


Origin of impulse

When an electrical impulse begins in any part of the heart, it will spread throughout the myocardium and cause a contraction; see Electrical conduction system of the heart. Abnormal impulses can begin by one of two mechanisms: automaticity or reentry. Myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart. ... The normal electrical conduction in the heart allows the impulse that is generated by the sinoatrial node (SA node) of the heart to be propagated to (and stimulate) the myocardium (Cardiac muscle). ...


Automaticity

Automaticity refers to a cardiac muscle cell firing off an impulse on its own. Every cardiac cell has this potential: if it does not receive any impulses from elsewhere, its internal "pacemaker" will fire off an impulse after a certain amount of time. A single specialized location in the atrium, the sinoatrial node, has a higher automaticity (a faster pacemaker) than the rest of the heart, and therefore is usually the one to start the heartbeat. The sinoatrial node (abbreviated SA node, also called the sinus node) is the impulse generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart. ...


Any part of the heart that initiates an impulse without waiting for the sinoatrial node is called an ectopic focus, and is by definition a pathological phenomenon. This may cause a single premature beat now and then, or, if the ectopic focus fires more often than the sinoatrial node, it can produce a sustained abnormal rhythm. Rhythms produced by an ectopic focus in the atria, or by the atrioventricular node, are the least dangerous dysrhythmias; but they can still produce a decrease in the heart's pumping efficiency, because the signal reaches the various parts of the heart muscle with slightly different timing than usual and causes a poorly coordinated contraction. Cardiac ectopy is a disturbance of the electrical conduction system of the heart, in which beats arise from the wrong part of the heart muscle. ... The atrioventricular node (abbreviated AV node) is an area of specialized tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. ...


Conditions that increase automaticity include sympathetic nervous system stimulation and hypoxia. The resulting heart rhythm depends on where the first signal begins: if it is the sinoatrial node, the rhythm remains normal but rapid; if it is an ectopic focus, many types of dysrhythmia can result. Grays FIG. 838– The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ...


Re-entry

Re-entry dysrhythmias occur when an electrical impulse travels in a circle within the heart, rather than moving outward and then stopping. Every cardiac cell is able to transmit impulses in every direction, but will only do so once within a short period of time. Normally the impulse spreads through the heart quickly enough that each cell will only respond once, but if conduction is abnormally slow in some areas, part of the impulse will arrive late and will be treated as a new impulse, which can then spread backward. Depending on the timing, this can produce a sustained abnormal rhythm, such as atrial flutter, a self-limiting burst of supraventricular tachycardia, or the dangerous ventricular tachycardia. Atrial flutter is an abnormal fast heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of the heart. ... A supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid rhythm of the heart in which the origin of the electrical signal is either the atria or the AV node. ... Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a fast rhythm that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart. ...


By analogy, imagine a room full of people all given these instructions: "If you see anyone starting to stand up, then stand up for three seconds and sit back down." If the people are quick enough to respond, the first person to stand will trigger a single wave which will then die out; but if there are stragglers on one side of the room, people who have already sat down will see them and start a second wave, and so on.


Diagnosis

Cardiac dysrhythmias are often first detected by simple but nonspecific means: auscultation of the heartbeat with a stethoscope, or feeling for peripheral pulses. These cannot usually diagnose specific dysrhythmias, but can give a general indication of the heart rate and whether it is regular or irregular. Not all the electrical impulses of the heart produce audible or palpable beats; in many cardiac arrhythmiae, the premature or abnormal beats do not produce an effective pumping action and are experienced as "skipped" beats. Auscultation is the technical term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope. ... Stethoscope The stethoscope (Greek στηθοσκόπιο, of στήθος, stéthos - chest and σκοπή, skopé - examination) is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening, to internal sounds in a human or animal body. ... For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ...


The simplest specific diagnostic test for assessment of heart rhythm is the electrocardiogram (abbreviated ECG or EKG). A Holter monitor is an EKG recorded over a 24-hour period, to detect dysrhythmias that may happen briefly and unpredictably throughout the day. “QRS” redirects here. ... Holter monitor In medicine, a Holter monitor (also called an ambulatory electrocardiography device), named after its inventor, Dr. Norman J. Holter, is a portable device for continuously monitoring the electrical activity of the heart for 24 hours or more. ...


SADS

SADS, or sudden arrhythmia death syndrome, is a term used to describe sudden death due to cardiac arrest brought on by an arrhythmia. The most common cause of sudden death in the US is coronary artery disease. Approximately 300,000 people die suddenly of this cause every year in the US. SADS can also occur from other causes. Also, there are many inherited conditions and heart diseases that can affect young people that can cause sudden death. Many of these victims have no symptoms before dying suddenly. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Causes of SADS in young people are long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia ("arrythmia"-causing, "right ventricle"-involving, pre-cancerous malformation(bad-growth)). The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heart disease in which there is an abnormally long delay between the electrical excitation (or depolarization) and relaxation (repolarization) of the ventricles of the heart. ... The Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease that is manifest by abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. ... Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited heart disorder caused by a mutation in voltage gated ion channels and resulting in arrhythmias. ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM, is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is hypertrophied (thickened) without any obvious cause. ... Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD, also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or ARVC) is a type of nonischemic cardiomyopathy that involves primarily the right ventricle. ...


List of common cardiac arrhythmias

pac This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This atrial arrhythmia occurs when the natural cardiac pacemaker site shifts between the SA node, the atria, and/or the AV node. ... Multifocal atrial tachycardia is a cardiac arrhythmia, specifically a type of supraventricular tachycardia. ... A supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid rhythm of the heart in which the origin of the electrical signal is either the atria or the AV node. ... Atrial flutter is an abnormal fast heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of the heart. ... Atrial fibrillation (AF or afib) is an abnormal heart rhythm (cardiac arrhythmia) which involves the two small, upper heart chambers (the atria). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The rate of cardiac contraction is determined by the intrinsic rate of depolarisation of the cardiac cells. ... Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a fast rhythm that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart. ... Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a cardiac condition which consists of a lack of coordination of the contraction of the muscle tissue of the large chambers of the heart that eventually leads to the heart stopping altogether. ... Tachycardia is an abnormally rapid beating of the heart, defined as a resting heart rate of over 100 beats per minute. ... AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of reentrant tachycardia (fast rhythm) of the heart. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a syndrome of pre-excitation of the ventricles of the heart due to an accessory pathway known as the Bundle of Kent. ... Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome (LGL) is a syndrome of pre-excitation of the ventricles due to an accessory pathway providing an abnormal electrical communication from the atria to the ventricles. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The atrioventricular node (abbreviated AV node) is an area of specialized tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. ... First degree heart block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Second degree heart block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Second degree heart block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Second degree heart block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Second degree heart block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Second degree heart block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Second degree heart block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Third degree heart block, also known as complete heart block or third degree AV block, is a defect of the electrical system of the heart, in which the impulse generated in the atria (typically the SA node on top of the right atrium) does not propagate to the ventricles. ... Third degree heart block, also known as complete heart block, is a disease of the electrical system of the heart, in which the impulse generated in the top half of the heart (typically the SA node in the right atrium) does not propagate to the left or right ventricles. ...

Antiarrhythmic therapies

There are many classes of antiarrhythmic medications and many individual drugs within these classes. See the article on antiarrhythmic agents. Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. ...


Dysrhythmias may also be treated electrically. Cardioversion is the application of electrical current across the chest wall to the heart and it is used for treatment of supraventricular or pulsed ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation differs in that it is used for ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia, and more electricity is delivered with defibrillation than with cardioversion. In cardioversion, the recipient is either sedated or lightly anesthetized for the procedure. In defibrillation, the recipient has lost consciousness so there is no need for sedation. Through electricity or drug therapy, cardioversion converts heart arrhythmias to normal rhythms. ... Typical view of the defibrillator operator. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ...


Electrical treatment of dysrhythmia includes cardiac pacing. Temporary pacing may be done for very slow heartbeats, or bradycardia, from drug overdose or myocardial infarction. A pacemaker may be placed in situations where the bradycardia is not expected to recover. A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device designed to regulate the beating of the heart. ... Bradycardia, as applied to adult medicine, is defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min. ... A drug overdose occurs when a drug is ingested in quantities and/or concentrations large enough to overwhelm the homeostasis of a living organism, causing severe illness or death. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... A pacemaker A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device designed to regulate the beating of the heart. ...


Atrial fibrillation can also be treated through a procedure, e.g. pulmonary vein isolation. This is performed by a cardiologist who specializes in electrophysiology and is done percutaneously with catheters. Alternatively, a maze procedure can be performed through cardiothoracic surgery. In surgery, percutaneous pertains to any medical procedure where access to inner organs or other tissue is done via needle-puncture of the skin, rather than by using an open approach where inner organs or tissue are exposed (typically with the use of a scalpel). ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that a health professional may insert into part of the body. ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery or cardiovascular surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax, i. ...


Fatty acids

Fatty acids play an important role in the life and death of cardiac cells because they are essential fuels for mechanical and electrical activities of the heart. [1] [2] [3] [4] In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ...


References

  1. ^ External blockade...by polyunsaturated fatty acids. pubmed. Retrieved on 2007-01-18. - see page 1 of this link
  2. ^ Antiarrythmic effects of omega-3 fatty acids. pubmed. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  3. ^ Alpha-linolenic acid, cardiovascular disease and sudden death. pubmed. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  4. ^ Omega-3 and health. pubmed. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. ... A pacemaker A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device designed to regulate the beating of the heart. ... The normal electrical conduction in the heart allows the impulse that is generated by the sinoatrial node (SA node) of the heart to be propagated to (and stimulate) the myocardium (Cardiac muscle). ... ICD An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), also known as an automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD), is a small battery powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Heart Arrhythmia : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. (4755 words)
Doctors who are planning to prescribe anti arrhythmia medicines to their patients for mild cases of arrhythmia should first consider recommending their patients eat cold water fish almost every day and perhaps add one to four fish oil capsules to their daily supplement regimen.
The arrhythmia induced by adrenalin in rabbits was antagonized by Daidzein and it could obviously inhibit the action potential amplitude of isolated sciatic nerves in toads.
In the anaesthetized rat, the RST extract reduced arrhythmia and infarct size induced by myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion; the effects were similar to those of tetrandrine and verapamil.
cardiac arrhythmia: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1633 words)
Cardiac arrhythmia is a group of conditions in which the muscle contraction of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal.
Cardiac dysrhythmias are often first detected by simple but nonspecific means: auscultation of the heartbeat with a stethoscope, or feeling for peripheral pulses.
SADS, or sudden arrhythmia death syndrome, is a term used to describe sudden death due to cardiac arrest brought on by an arrhythmia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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