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Encyclopedia > Carcinoma
Carcinoma
Classification & external resources
OMIM 8010/3
MeSH D002277

In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. It is malignant by definition: carcinomas invade surrounding tissues and organs, and may spread to lymph nodes and distal sites (metastasis). Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a pre-malignant condition, in which cytological signs of malignancy are present, but there is no histological evidence of invasion through the epithelial basement membrane. The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ...

Contents

Classification of carcinoma

Carcinoma, like all neoplasia, is classified by its histopathological appearance. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, two common descriptive terms for tumours, reflect the fact that these cells may have glandular or squamous cell appearances respectively. Severely anaplastic tumours might be so undifferentiated that they do not have a distinct histological appearance (undifferentiated carcinoma). The pathological mechanisms and forms taken by tissue during degeneration into a neoplasm and its subsequent activity. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ...


Sometimes a tumour is referred to by the presumptive organ of the primary (eg carcinoma of the prostate) or the putative cell of origin (hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma). Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ...


Types of carcinoma by ICD-O Code

(8010-8790) Epithelial In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ...

In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... Squamous cells are basically types of cells which can be identified histologically by the fact that they look flattened and thin under a microscope. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ... The basal cell layer is also called the Stratum Germinativum or Stratum Basale and is the innermost layer of the epidermis. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Papilloma refers to a benign epithelial tumor. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Adenoma refers to a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Human submaxillary gland. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... An adenoma is a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Linitis plastica is seen in diffuse gastric carcinoma. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... An insulinoma is a tumour of the pancreas derived from the beta cells which while retaining the ability to synthesize and secrete insulin is autonomous of the normal feedback mechanisms. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in up to a 1000-fold overproduction of the hormone glucagon. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... A VIPoma is an endocrine tumor, usually originating in the pancreas, which produces a vasoactive intestinal peptide and is believed to cause profound cardiovascular and electrolyte changes with vasodilatory hypotension, watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dehydration. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... // [edit] Introduction Cholangiocarcinoma is an adenocarcinoma of the biliary duct system. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Adenoid cystic cancer (AdCC) is a very rare type of cancer that can exist in many different body sites. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Picture of a carcinoid tumour that encroaches into lumen of the small bowel. ... Look up appendix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... An oncocytoma is a tumor made up of oncocytes, which are a special kind of cells. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... A Hurthle cell is a large cell often associated with follicular thyroid cancer. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Renal cell carcinoma, also known by the eponym Grawitz tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) (or multiple endocrine adenomas, or multiple endocrine adenomatosis -- MEA) consists of three syndromes featuring tumors of endocrine glands, each with its own characteristic pattern. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Endometrioid tumours are part of the surface epithelial-stromal tumour group of ovarian neoplasms (10-20% of which are the endometrioid type). ... In anatomy, adnexa refers to the appendages of an organ. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common type of salivary gland malignancy in children. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... This is an article about cysts in the body. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body (mucous membranes). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Cystadenoma (or cystoma) refers to a type of cystic adenoma. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP, sometimes informally known as jelly belly) is a very rare form of tumor, commonly known as jelly belly due to its production of mucus in the abdominal cavity. ... Medulla in general means the inner part, and derives from the Latin word for marrow. In medicine it is contrasted to the cortex. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes endocrine - it produces several important hormones, namely insulin // Anatomy The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ located posterior to the stomach on the posterior abdominal wall. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Warthins tumor is a type of benign tumor of the salivary glands. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... In medicine (oncology), thymoma is a neoplasm of the thymus. ... ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Sex cord-stromal tumours are a group of sex cord ovarian neoplasms which accounts for 8% of all reported cases. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Thecomas are benign ovarian neoplasms that are sex cord-stromal tumours. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Granulosa cell tumours are part of the sex cord-stromal tumour group of ovarian neoplasms. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The arrhenoblastoma is a rare ovarian stromal neoplasm that secretes testosterone. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours are part of the sex cord-stromal tumour group of ovarian neoplasms. ... A paraganglioma is a rare neoplasm that can be found in the head and neck region and other less common areas. ... A glomus tumor is a rare neoplasm usually found in the skin of the extremities. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... A paraganglioma is a rare neoplasm that can be found in the head and neck region and other less common areas. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... A phaeochromocytoma (pheochromocytoma in the US) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands originating in the chromaffin cells, which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine in the US). ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... A glomus tumor is a rare neoplasm usually found in the skin of the extremities. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Birthmark. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumour of melanocytes. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... A mole or melanocytic naevus is a small spot of darkened pigment on the skin, which forms where there is a high concentration of melanin. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma). ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Nodular melanoma (NM) is the most aggressive form of melanoma. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... A dysplastic nevus, (or naevus; pl. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Lentigo maligna is a melanoma in situ, meaning it consists of malignant cells but does not show invasive growth. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) is the most common form of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasians. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Acral lentiginous melanoma is a kind of skin melanoma. ...

Types of lung carcinoma

  • Adenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor originating in the epithelial cells of glandular tissue and forming glandular structures. This is common in the lung (forming 30-40% of all lung carcinomas). It is found peripherally, arising from goblet cells or type II pneumocytes.
  • Large cell undifferentiated carcinomas account for 10-15% of lung neoplasms. These are aggressive and difficult to recognise due to the undifferentiated nature. These are most commonly central in the lung.
  • Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma

Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... Goblet cells are glandular simple columnar epithelial cells whose sole function is to secrete mucus. ... The alveoli are lined with two types of cell, the Type I and Type II pneumocytes. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ... Squamous means covered with or formed of scales; scaly. ... Anatomic nomenclature for a depression or pit at the part of an organ where vessels and nerves enter. ... Small cell carcinoma is a type of carcinoma usually associated with the lung, though it can be associated with other topographies, such as in cervical cancer. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ...

Staging and grading

The staging of cancers is the extent of spread of the neoplasm. Grading is the system used to record the tumors degree of differentiation from the parent tissue. High grade shows little differentiation and the prognosis is therefore poor.


Carcinomas, like all cancers, are staged according to the extent of disease. The UICC/AJCC TNM system is often used, however for some common tumors, classic staging methods (such as the Dukes classification for colon cancer) are still used. TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is the system developed and maintained by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) to maintain consensus on one globally recognised standard for categorising cancer. ...


See also

Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the connective or supportive tissue (bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels) and soft tissue. ... Although hematological malignancies are a form of cancer, they are generally treated by specialists in hematology, although in many hospitals oncology specialists also manage these diseases. ... Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Papilloma refers to a benign epithelial tumor. ... Small cell carcinoma is a type of carcinoma usually associated with the lung, though it can be associated with other topographies, such as in cervical cancer. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ... Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. ... Transitional cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in the kidney, bladder or ureter. ... An adenoma is a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... Linitis plastica is seen in diffuse gastric carcinoma. ... An insulinoma is a tumour of the pancreas derived from the beta cells which while retaining the ability to synthesize and secrete insulin is autonomous of the normal feedback mechanisms. ... A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in up to a 1000-fold overproduction of the hormone glucagon. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... A VIPoma is an endocrine tumor, usually originating in the pancreas, which produces a vasoactive intestinal peptide and is believed to cause profound cardiovascular and electrolyte changes with vasodilatory hypotension, watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dehydration. ... // [edit] Introduction Cholangiocarcinoma is an adenocarcinoma of the biliary duct system. ... Hepatocellular adenoma or Hepadenoma is an uncommon benign liver tumour which is associated with the use of oral contraceptive pills with a high oestrogen content. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... Adenoid cystic cancer (AdCC) is a very rare type of cancer that can exist in many different body sites. ... A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin. ... An oncocytoma is a tumor made up of oncocytes, which are a special kind of cells. ... A Hurthle cell is a large cell often associated with follicular thyroid cancer. ... Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) (or multiple endocrine adenomas, or multiple endocrine adenomatosis -- MEA) consists of three syndromes featuring tumors of endocrine glands, each with its own characteristic pattern. ... Endometrioid tumors are part of the surface epithelial tumor group of ovarian neoplasms (10-20% of which are the endometrioid type). ... Cystadenoma (or cystoma) refers to a type of cystic adenoma. ... Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP, sometimes informally known as jelly belly) is a very rare form of tumor, commonly known as jelly belly due to its production of mucus in the abdominal cavity. ... Pagets disease of the breast, also known as Pagets disease of the nipple, is a condition that outwardly may have the appearance of eczema - with skin changes involving the nipple of the breast. ... Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD), also Extramammary Paget disease, is a usually non-invasive adenocarcinoma of the skin outside of the mammary gland and includes Pagets disease of the vulva and Pagets disease of the penis. ... Acinic cell carcinoma is a tumor most commonly found in the parotid gland. ... Warthins tumor is a type of benign tumor of the salivary glands. ... Sex cord-stromal tumours are a group of sex cord ovarian neoplasms which accounts for 8% of all reported cases. ... Thecomas are benign ovarian neoplasms that are sex cord-stromal tumours. ... Granulosa cell tumours are part of the sex cord-stromal tumour group of ovarian neoplasms. ... The arrhenoblastoma is a rare ovarian stromal neoplasm that secretes testosterone. ... Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours are part of the sex cord-stromal tumour group of ovarian neoplasms. ... A paraganglioma is a rare neoplasm that can be found in the head and neck region and other less common areas. ... A phaeochromocytoma (pheochromocytoma in the US) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands originating in the chromaffin cells, which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine in the US). ... A glomus tumor is a rare neoplasm usually found in the skin of the extremities. ... Nodular melanoma (NM) is the most aggressive form of melanoma. ... A dysplastic nevus, (or naevus; pl. ... Lentigo maligna is a melanoma in situ, meaning it consists of malignant cells but does not show invasive growth. ... Superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) is the most common form of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasians. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nikon MicroscopyU: Human Pathology Digital Image Gallery - Oat Cell Carcinoma (577 words)
Oat cell carcinoma, also known as small cell carcinoma, is a type of lung cancer that is characterized by small, oat-shaped malignant cells.
Oat cell carcinoma is extremely aggressive and, in the majority of cases, by the time a diagnosis is made, the cancer has already metastasized to other parts of the body.
Due to the high metastatic rate of oat cell carcinomas, the cancer is rarely well suited for treatment by surgery, though in some limited stage cases of the cancer in which the lymph nodes are not involved it may be recommended.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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