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Encyclopedia > Carcinogen
Look up carcinogen in
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The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System.

The term carcinogen refers to any substance, radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of cancer or in the facilitation of its propagation. This may be due to genomic instability or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of carcinogens are inhaled asbestos and tobacco smoke. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links GHS_carcinogen_sign. ... Image File history File links GHS_carcinogen_sign. ... The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals or GHS is an internationally agreed upon system set to replace the various different classification and labeling standards used in different countries. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created radiation particle within the nucleus, or else to an atomic electron (see internal conversion) . The radionuclide, in this process, undergoes radioactive decay... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Cancer is a disease where damaged cells of the patient's body do not undergo programmed cell death, but their growth is no longer controlled and their metabolism is altered. Carcinogens may increase the risk of getting cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which interferes with biological processes, and induces the uncontrolled, malignant division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Usually DNA damage, if too severe to repair, leads to programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway is damaged, then the cell cannot prevent itself from becoming a cancer cell. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. ...


There are many natural carcinogens. Aflatoxin B1, which is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus growing on stored grains, nuts and peanut butter, is an example of a potent, naturally-occurring microbial carcinogen. Certain viruses such as Hepatitis B and human papilloma viruses have been found to cause cancer in humans. The first one shown to cause cancer in animals is Rous sarcoma virus, discovered in 1910 by Peyton Rous. Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Species Aspergillus caesiellus Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus carneus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus deflectus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus glaucus Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus parasiticus Aspergillus penicilloides Aspergillus restrictus Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sydowi Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus ustus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 filamentous fungi... Grain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... Peanut butter in a jar. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... “HBV” redirects here. ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus which affects humans. ... Rous sarcoma virus is a retrovirus; a class VI enveloped virus with a positive sense RNA genome having a DNA intermediate. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Francis Peyton Rous (October 5, 1879, Baltimore - February 16, 1970, New York City) was an American pathologist whose discovery of cancer-inducing viruses earned him a share of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1966. ...


Benzene, kepone, EDB, asbestos, and the waste rock of oil shale mining have all been classified as carcinogenic.[citation needed] As far back as the 1930s, industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzopyrene, tobacco-specific nitrosamines such as nitrosonornicotine, and reactive aldehydes such as formaldehyde — which is also a hazard in embalming and making plastics. Vinyl chloride, from which PVC is manufactured, is a carcinogen and thus a hazard in PVC production. For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Kepone (also known as Chlordecone) was a carcinogenic pesticide related to mirex. ... 1,2-Dibromoethane is a manufactured chemical. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Benzo[a]pyrene, C20H12, is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is mutagenic and highly carcinogenic. ... Structure of the nitrosamino group Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, some of which are carcinogenic. ... An aldehyde. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point -53 °C Related Compounds Related aldehydes acetaldehyde benzaldehyde Related compounds ketones carboxylic acids Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Formaldehyde (methanal) is the chemical compound with the formula... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ...


Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not separately cause cancer, but do so in specific combinations.


After the carcinogen enters the body, the body makes an attempt to eliminate it through a process called biotransformation. The purpose of these reactions is to make the carcinogen more water-soluble so that it can be removed from the body. But these reactions can also convert a less toxic carcinogen into a more toxic one. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ...


DNA is nucleophilic, therefore soluble carbon electrophiles are carcinogenic, because DNA attacks them. For example, some alkenes are toxicated by human enzymes to produce an electrophilic epoxide. DNA attacks the epoxide, and is bound permanently to it. This is the mechanism behind the carcinogenity of benzopyrene in tobacco smoke, other aromatics, aflatoxin and mustard gas. In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover) is a reagent which is attracted to centres of positive charge. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Toxication is the process of drug metabolism in which the metabolite of a compound is more toxic than the parent drug or chemical. ... In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. ... Benzo[a]pyrene, C20H12, is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is mutagenic and highly carcinogenic. ...

Contents

Radiation

CERCLA identifies all radionuclides as carcinogens, although the nature of the emitted radiation (alpha, beta, or gamma, and the energy), its consequent capacity to cause ionization in tissues, and the magnitude of radiation exposure, determine the potential hazard. Carcinogenity of radiation depends of the type of radiation, type of exposure and penetration. For example, alpha radiation has low penetration and is not a hazard outside the body, but are carcinogenic when inhaled or ingested. Checking the status of a cleanup site CERCLA is an acronym for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675 (commonly known as the Superfund), which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11, 1980 in response to the Love Canal... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created radiation particle within the nucleus, or else to an atomic electron (see internal conversion) . The radionuclide, in this process, undergoes radioactive decay... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Ionization is the physical process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by changing the difference between the number of protons and electrons. ...


For example, Thorotrast, a (incidentally-radioactive) suspension previously used as a contrast medium in x-ray diagnostics, is a potent human carcinogen known because of its retention within various organs and persistent emission of alpha particles. Marie Curie, one of the pioneers of radioactivity, died of cancer caused by radiation exposure during her experiments. Thorotrast bottle. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ... Radiocontrast agents (or simply contrast agents) are compounds used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in an X-ray image. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ...


Not all types of electromagnetic radiation are carcinogenic. Low-energy waves on the electromagnetic spectrum are generally not, including radio waves, microwave radiation, infrared radiation, and visible light. Higher-energy radiation, including ultraviolet radiation (present in sunlight), x-rays, and gamma radiation, generally is carcinogenic, if received in sufficient doses. Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Radio waves are electromagnetic waves occurring on the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Microwave Slang for small waves, like at a beach, often used by surfers. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... An X-ray picture (radiograph), taken by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1896, of his wife, Anna Bertha Ludwigs[1] hand X-rays (or Röntgen rays) are a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 0. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ...


Substances or foods irradiated with electrons or electromagnetic radiation (such as microwave, X-ray or gamma) are not carcinogenic. No "radiation" remains, just like no light remains in a lens. (In contrast, non-electromagnetic neutron radiation produced inside nuclear reactors can make substances radioactive.) Neutron radiation consists of free neutrons. ...


Carcinogens in prepared food

Cooking food at high temperatures, for example broiling or barbecuing meats, can lead to the formation of minute quantities of many potent carcinogens that are comparable to those found in cigarette smoke (i.e., benzopyrene).[1] Charring of food resembles coking and tobacco pyrolysis, and produces similar carcinogens. There are several carcinogenic pyrolysis products, such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, which are converted by human enzymes into epoxides, which attach permanently to DNA. Pre-cooking meats in a microwave oven for 2-3 minutes before broiling shortens the time on the hot pan, which can help minimize the formation of these carcinogens. Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Broiling Broiling is a process of cooking food with high heat with the heat applied directly to the food, most commonly from above. ... A member of the Airpork Crew barbecue team prepares pork shoulder at the Memphis in May World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest. ... Benzo[a]pyrene, C20H12, is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is mutagenic and highly carcinogenic. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms. ... Microwave oven A microwave oven, or microwave, is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. ...


Reports from the Food Standards Agency have found that the known animal carcinogen Acrylamide. is generated in fried or overheated carbohydrate foods (such as french fries and potato chips). Studies are underway at the FDA and European regulatory agencies to assess its potential risk to humans. The charred residue on barbecued meats has been identified as a carcinogen, along with many other tars. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... French fried potatoes, commonly known as French fries or fries (North America) or chips (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth) are pieces of potato that have been chopped into batons and deep fried. ... Saratoga chips Potato chips (British English or Hiberno-English: crisps) are slim slices of potatoes deep fried or baked until crisp. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A barbecue in a public park in Australia A barbecue on a trailer at a block party in Kansas City Pans on the top shelf hold hamburgers and hot dogs that were grilled earlier when the coals were hot. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ...


Nevertheless, the fact that the food contains minute quantities does not necessarily mean that there is a significant hazard. The gastrointestinal tract sheds its outer layer continuously to protect itself from carcinomas, and has a high activity of detoxifying enzymes. The lungs are not protected in this manner, therefore smoking is much more hazardous.[citations needed] In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ...


Classification of carcinogens

Carcinogens can be classified as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. Genotoxins cause irreversible genetic damage or mutations by binding to DNA. Genotoxins include chemical agents like N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea (MNU) or non-chemical agents such as ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation. Certain viruses can also act as carcinogens by interacting with DNA. A genotoxin is a substance that is capable of altering DNA. Categories: Stub ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Skeletal formula of N-nitroso-N-methylurea, MNU N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (CAS No. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ...


Nongenotoxins do not directly affect DNA but act in other ways to promote growth. These include hormones and some organic compounds.[2]


IARC classification of carcinogens

  • Group 1: the agent (mixture) is definitely carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans.
  • Group 2A: the agent (mixture) is probably carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans.
  • Group 2B: the agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans.
  • Group 3: the agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
  • Group 4: the agent (mixture) is probably not carcinogenic to humans.

Further details can be found in the IARC Monographs. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. ... Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 2A: The agent (mixture) is probably carcinogenic to humans. ... Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 2B: The agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans. ... Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 3: The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. ... Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 4: The agent (mixture) is probably not carcinogenic to humans. ...


Procarcinogen

A procarcinogen is a precursor to a carcinogen. One example is nitrites, for example when taken in by the diet. They are not carcinogenic themselves, but turn into nitrosamines in the body, which are carcinogenic.[3] A precursor is something that existed before and was incorporated into something that came later. ... In inorganic chemistry nitrites are salts of nitrous acid HNO2. ... Nitrosamines are carcinogenous chemical compounds of the chemical structure R2N-N=O. Nitrosamines are produced from nitrites and amines. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Wei Zheng, Deborah R Gustafson, Rashmi Sinha, James R Cerhan, et al. "Well-done meat intake and the risk of breast cancer." Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Oxford: Nov 18, 1998.Vol. 90, Iss. 22; pg. 1724, 6 pgs.
  2. ^ "The Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer: A guide to Cancer and its Treatments, Second Edition. Page no. 137". 
  3. ^ Web definitions for Procarcinogen

See also

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... Warburgs hypothesis (sometimes confused with the unrelated Warburg effect) was postulated by the scientist Otto Heinrich Warburg in 1924. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Carcinogen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (670 words)
Carcinogens are also often, but not necessarily, mutagens or teratogens.
Carcinogens may cause cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which interferes with normal biological processes.
CERCLA identifies all radionuclides as carcinogens, although the nature of the emitted radiation (alpha, beta, or gamma, and the energy), its consequent capacity to cause ionization in tissues, and the magnitude of radiation exposure, determine the potential hazard.
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Emissions of dioxin TCDD, a carcinogen and the most toxic of the 75 chemicals in the dioxin family, rose from 0.000153 pounds to.00293 pounds, a nearly 2,000...
The slick of the carcinogen benzene arrived at the outskirts of Harbin, capital of China's northeastern Heilongjiang province, early this morning, the local...
Bleaching paper with chlorine produces a carcinogen called dioxin, which is harmful to the environment and can remain in water and soil for as long as 50 years...
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