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Encyclopedia > Carcharodon


Great White Shark
Conservation status: Vulnerable

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Lamniformes
Family: Lamnidae
Genus: Carcharodon
Species: carcharias
Binomial name
Carcharodon carcharias
(Linnaeus, 1758)

The Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias), also known as White Pointer, White Shark or Amaletz, is an exceptionally large lamniform shark found in coastal surface waters in all major oceans. Reaching lengths of 7.2 metres (23 ft 7 in) and weights of 3,400 kilograms (7,500 pounds), the Great White is the world's largest predatory fish. They are the only known surviving species of their genus, Carcharodon.


Great Whites have excellent eyesight and can see in color, and have highly_developed behaviors which are only now being researched. Their reputation as ferocious predators is well_earned, yet they are not (as once was believed) indiscriminate 'eating machines.' Great White sharks primarily eat fishes and pinnipeds such as seals and sea lions. The only animals known to attack them are other Great Whites, Sperm Whales, humans and orcas.

Contents

Attacks on humans

While the Great White has been responsible for many fatalities in humans, it doesn't target humans as prey. Many incidents seem to be caused by the animals 'test-biting' out of curiosity, as they are known to do with buoys, flotsam, and other unfamiliar objects -- grabbing a human or a surfboard with their mouth, their only tactile organ, in order to determine what kind of object it might be. Other incidents seem to be cases of mistaken identity, in which a shark ambushes a bather or surfer, usually from below, believing the silhouette it sees on the surface is a seal. Humans, in any case, aren't good for Great White sharks to eat, because the sharks' digestion is too slow to cope with the human body's high ratio of bone to muscle and fat. Accordingly, in nearly all recorded attacks, Great Whites have broken off contact after the first bite. Fatalities are caused by loss of blood from the initial injury. Most attacks also occur in waters with low visibility, or in other cases in which the shark's senses are impaired.


Many "shark repellents" have been tested, some using smell, others using protective clothing, but to date the most effective is an electronic beacon worn by the diver/surfer that emits a high frequency signal disturbing to the shark's elecromagnetic sensors.


Great Whites, like many other sharks, have rows of teeth behind the main ones, allowing any that break off to be replaced rapidly. Their teeth are unattached to the jaw and are retractable, like a cat's claws, moving into place when the jaw is opened. This arrangement also seems to give their teeth high tactile sensitivity.

A diagram of the Great White Shark

Occurance in fiction

The Great White achieved high notoriety with Steven Spielberg's blockbuster movie, Jaws, in 1975 (based on the best_selling novel by Peter Benchley).


Conservation status

It is unclear how much the film Jaws, and a consummate increase in fishing for Great Whites, had to do with the decline of Great White populations from the 1970s to the present. No accurate numbers on population are available, but populations have clearly declined to a point at which the Great White is now considered endangered. Their reproduction is slow, with sexual maturity occurring at about nine years of age, such that populations can take a long time to rise. Great Whites are ovoviviparous, the eggs developing in the female's uterus, hatching there and continuing to develop until they are born, at which point they are perfectly capable predators. The young are about 1.5 metres (5 ft) long when born. Next to nothing, however, is known about how and where the Great White mates.


The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (Cites) has put the Great White Shark on its 'Appendix II' list of endangered species. The shark is targeted by fishermen for its jaws, teeth, and fins, and as a game fish.


Related species

These sharks have an extinct relative, the Megalodon (Carcharodon megalodon), which could possibly have reached sizes of 18 metres (59 ft) or more, and is currently known only from its teeth. Megalodon is thought to have been similar to the White Shark, but substantially larger. From time to time it is suggested that Megalodon might still exist, and teeth have in fact been found from as recently as 10,000-12,000 years ago. However, while Megalodon fossils are widespread and plentiful, no evidence has surfaced that the species is anything but extinct.


External link

  • MarineBio: Great White shark, Carcharodon carcharias (http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=38)


Shark articles
Angel | Basking | Blacktip Reef | Blue | Bull | Carpet | Cat | Cookiecutter | Freshwater | Frilled | Goblin | Gray Reef | Grey Nurse | Great White | Hammerhead | Mako | Megamouth | Nurse | Oceanic Whitetip | Porbeagle | Requiem | River | Sandbar | Saw | Silky | Sleeper | Smooth dogfish | Thresher | Tiger | Whale (shark) | Whitetip reef | Zebra / Leopard
Extinct shark species
Megalodon | Cladoselache | Squalicorax

(Note: This template is incomplete. More links will be added as more shark articles are created on Wikipedia)




  Results from FactBites:
 
Shark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3684 words)
However, some species, including the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias do not have this membrane, but instead roll their eyes backwards to protect them.
The Lamniformes include the extinct megalodon (Carcharodon megalodon), which like all extinct sharks is only known from its teeth (the only bone found in these cartilaginous fishes, and therefore the only fossils produced).
A reproduction of the jaw was based on some of the largest teeth (up to almost 17 cm (7 inches) in length) and suggested a fish that could grow 25 metres (80 feet) long to 30.5 metres (100 feet).
Megalodon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1535 words)
The Megalodon (Carcharodon megalodon, from ancient Greek, megas + don, literally "great tooth") was a giant prehistoric shark that probably lived between about 5 to 1.6 million years ago.
The older view (more favored by marine biologists) is that the Megalodon should be classified in the Carcharodon genus with the great white shark--though this has generated debate as to whether Megalodon is a direct ancestor of the great white or whether the two species share a common ancestor.
There is a theory that the adult Carcharodon megalodon fed largely on whales and went extinct as the polar seas became too cold for sharks, allowing whales to swim out of reach of sharks during summer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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