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Encyclopedia > Carboniferous
Carboniferous period
359.2 - 299 million years ago
C
Atmospheric O2 content
ca. 32.5 Vol %[1]
(163 % of modern level)
Atmospheric CO2 content
ca. 800 ppm[2]
(3 times pre-industrial level)
Mean surface temperature
ca. 14°C [3]
(0°C above modern level)
Key events in the Carboniferous
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Palæozoic
An approximate timescale of key Carboniferous events.
Axis scale: millions of years ago.

The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359.2 ± 2.5 Ma (million years ago), to the beginning of the Permian period, about 299.0 ± 0.8 Ma (ICS, 2004)[4]. The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago). ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... The Tournasian Age is one of the three ages in the Mississippian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period. ... The Viséan Age is the middle of three ages in the Mississippian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period. ... The Serpukhovian Age is the last of three ages in the Mississippian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Moscovian is an epoch of the Pennsylvanian Time Period. ... The Kasimovian Age is the third of four ages in the Pennsylvanian Epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... The Gzhelian Age is the last of four ages in the Pennsylvanian Epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... “Mississippian” redirects here. ... The Pennsylvanian is an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 325 Ma to 299 Ma (million years ago). ... In geology, a period or age is a time span of many millions of years that are assumed to have had similar characteristics. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The International Commission on Stratigraphy concerns itself with stratigraphy on a global scale. ...


The Carboniferous was a time of glaciation, low sea level and mountain building; a minor marine extinction event occurred in the middle of the period.

Contents

Subdivisions

The Carboniferous is usually broken into Pennsylvanian (later) and Mississippian (earlier) Epochs. The Faunal stages from youngest to oldest, together with some of their subdivisions, are: Faunal stages are a subdivision of geologic time used primarily by paleontologists who study fossils rather than by geologists who study rock formations. ...


Late Pennsylvanian: Gzhelian (most recent)

  • Noginskian/Virgilian(pars)

Late Pennsylvanian: Kasimovian

  • Klazminskian
  • Dorogomilovksian/Virgilian(pars)
  • Chamovnicheskian/Cantabrian/Missourian
  • Krevyakinskian/Cantabrian/Missourian

Middle Pennsylvanian: Moscovian

  • Myachkovskian/Bolsovian/Desmoinesian
  • Podolskian/Desmoinesian
  • Kashirskian/Atokan
  • Vereiskian/Bolsovian/Atokan

Early Pennsylvanian: Bashkirian/Morrowan

  • Melekesskian/Duckmantian
  • Cheremshanskian/Langsettian
  • Yeadonian
  • Marsdenian
  • Kinderscoutian

Late Mississippian: Serpukhovian

  • Alportian
  • Chokierian/Chesterian/Elvirian
  • Arnsbergian/Elvirian
  • Pendleian

Middle Mississippian: Visean

  • Brigantian/St Genevieve/Gasperian/Chesterian
  • Asbian/Meramecian
  • Holkerian/Salem
  • Arundian/Warsaw/Meramecian
  • Chadian/Keokuk/Osagean(pars)/Osage(pars)

Early Mississippian: Tournaisian (oldest)

  • Ivorian/Osagean(pars)/Osage(pars)
  • Hastarian/Kinderhookian/Chouteau

Paleogeography

A global drop in sea level at the end of the Devonian reversed early in the Carboniferous; this created the widespread epicontinental seas and carbonate deposition of the Mississippian.[5] There was also a drop in south polar temperatures; southern Gondwanaland was glaciated throughout the period, though it is uncertain if the ice sheets were a holdover from the Devonian or not.[6] These conditions apparently had little effect in the deep tropics, where lush coal swamps flourished within 30 degrees of the northernmost glaciers.[7] For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ...

Generalized geographic map of the United States in Middle Pennsylvanian time.
Generalized geographic map of the United States in Middle Pennsylvanian time.

A mid-Carboniferous drop in sea-level precipitated a major marine extinction, one that hit crinoids and ammonites especially hard.[8] This sea-level drop and the associated unconformity in North America separate the Mississippian period from the Pennsylvanian period.[9] Image File history File links Generalized geographic map of the United States in Middle Pennsylvanian time. ... Image File history File links Generalized geographic map of the United States in Middle Pennsylvanian time. ... The Pennsylvanian is an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 325 Ma to 299 Ma (million years ago). ... Orders Articulata Cladida (extinct) Flexibilia (extinct) Camerada (extinct) Disparida (extinct) Crinoids, also known as sea lilies or feather-stars, are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata). ... For the extinct mollusc see Ammonite. ... There is a billion year gap in the geologic record where this 500 million year old dolomite unconformably overlays 1. ...


The Carboniferous was a time of active mountain-building, as the supercontinent Pangaea came together. The southern continents remained tied together in the supercontinent Gondwana, which collided with North America-Europe (Laurussia) along the present line of eastern North America. This continental collision resulted in the Hercynian orogeny in Europe, and the Alleghenian orogeny in North America; it also extended the newly-uplifted Appalachians southwestward as the Ouachita Mountains.[10] In the same time frame, much of present eastern Eurasian plate welded itself to Europe along the line of the Ural mountains. Most of the Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangea was now assembled, although North China (which would collide in the Latest Carboniferous), and South China continents were still separated from Laurasia. The Late Carboniferous Pangaea was shaped like an "O". // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... Euramerica (also known as Laurussia) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian by the collision of Laurentia and Baltica. ... The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. ... The Appalachian Orogeny, a result of three separate continental collisions. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Ouachita Mountains The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range located in west central Arkansas and east central Oklahoma. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... South China continent, also known as South China craton (or the South Chinese craton) was an ancient continent (craton) that contained todays South and Southeast China (named after), Indochina, and parts of Southeast Asia (ie. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ...


There were two major oceans in the Carboniferous—Panthalassa and Paleo-Tethys, which was inside the "O" in the Carboniferous Pangaea. Other minor oceans were shrinking and eventually closed - Rheic Ocean (closed by the assembly of South and North America), the small, shallow Ural Ocean (which was closed by the collision of Baltica and Siberia continents, creating the Ural Mountains) and Proto-Tethys Ocean (closed by North China collision with Siberia/Kazakhstania. Panthalassa (Greek for all seas) was the vast ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea during the late Paleozoic era and the early Mesozoic era. ... The Paleo-Tethys Ocean was an ancient Paleozoic ocean. ... The Rheic Ocean was an ocean in the Paleozoic Era that existed between the continent of Baltica (northern Europe) and number of terranes broken up from Gondwana, including the future southern Europe. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... North American redirects here. ... Ural Ocean was a small, ancient ocean that was situated between Siberia and Baltica. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Proto-Tethys Ocean was an ancient ocean that existed from the latest Ediacaran to the Carboniferous. ... The North China Craton is one of the smaller continental cratons of the Earth. ... Siberia (Sometimes called Angara) is the craton located in the heart of the region of Siberia. ... Kazakhstania, also known as the Kazakhstan Block, is a small continental region in the interior of Asia. ...


Climate

The early part of the Carboniferous was mostly warm; in the later part of the Carboniferous, the climate cooled. Glaciations in Gondwana, triggered by Gondwana's southward movement, continued into the Permian and because of the lack of clear markers and breaks, the deposits of this glacial period are often referred to as Permo-Carboniferous in age. Global cooling in general can refer to a cooling of the Earth. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... Permo-Carboniferous is strata deposited between the Carboniferous and Permian periods that are not differentiated because of the presence of transitional fossils, and also where no conspicuous stratigraphic break is present. ...


Rocks and coal

Carboniferous rocks in Europe and eastern North America largely consist of a repeated sequence of limestone, sandstone, shale and coal beds, known as "cyclothems" in the U.S. and "coal measures" in Britain.[11] In North America, the early Carboniferous is largely marine limestone, which accounts for the division of the Carboniferous into two periods in North American schemes. The Carboniferous coal beds provided much of the fuel for power generation during the Industrial Revolution and are still of great economic importance. For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... In geology, cyclothems are alternating stratigraphic sequences of marine and non-marine sediments, interbedded with coal seams. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


The large coal deposits of the Carboniferous primarily owe their existence to two factors. The first of these is the appearance of bark-bearing trees (and in particular the evolution of the bark fiber lignin). The second is the lower sea levels that occurred during the Carboniferous as compared to the Devonian period. This allowed for the development of extensive lowland swamps and forests in North America and Europe. Some hypothesize that large quantities of wood were buried during this period because animals and decomposing bacteria had not yet evolved that could effectively digest the new lignin. Those early plants made extensive use of lignin. They had bark to wood ratios of 8 to 1, and even as high as 20 to 1. This compares to modern values less than 1 to 4. This bark, which must have been used as support as well as protection, probably had 38% to 58% lignin. Lignin is insoluble, too large to pass through cell walls, too heterogeneous for specific enzymes, and toxic, so that few organisms other than Basidiomycetes fungi can degrade it. It can not be oxidized in an atmosphere of less than 5% oxygen. It can linger in soil for thousands of years and inhibits decay of other substances.[12] Probably the reason for its high percentages is protection from insect herbivory in a world containing very effective insect herbivores, but nothing remotely as effective as modern insectivores and probably much fewer poisons than currently. In any case coal measures could easily have made thick deposits on well drained soils as well as swamps. The extensive burial of biologically-produced carbon led to a buildup of surplus oxygen in the atmosphere; estimates place the peak oxygen content as high as 35%, compared to 21% today.[1] This oxygen level probably increased wildfire activity, as well as resulted in insect and amphibian gigantism--creatures whose size is constrained by respiratory systems that are limited in their ability to diffuse oxygen. For other uses, see Bark (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Classes Subdivision Teliomycotina    Urediniomycetes Subdivision Ustilaginomycotina    Ustilaginomycetes Subdivision Hymenomycotina    Homobasidiomycetes - mushrooms The Division Basidiomycota is a large taxon within the Kingdom Fungi that includes those species that produce spores in a club_shaped structure called a basidium. ... Any organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures is an insectivore. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...


In eastern North America, marine beds are more common in the older part of the period than the later part and are almost entirely absent by the late Carboniferous. More diverse geology existed elsewhere, of course. Marine life is especially rich in crinoids and other echinoderms. Brachiopods were abundant. Trilobites became quite uncommon. On land, large and diverse plant populations existed. Land vertebrates included large amphibians. Orders Articulata Cladida (extinct) Flexibilia (extinct) Camerada (extinct) Disparida (extinct) Crinoids, also known as sea lilies or feather-stars, are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata). ... Classes Asteroidea Concentricycloidea Crinoidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoderms (Echinodermata) is a phylum of marine animals found in the ocean at all depths. ... Classes Lingulata Paterinata (extinct) Craniforma Chileata (extinct) Obolellata (extinct) Kutorginata (extinct) Strophomenata (extinct) Rhynchonellata Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) make up one of the major animal phyla, Brachiopoda. ... Orders Agnostida Redlichiida Corynexochida Lichida Nektaspida? Phacopida Proetida Asaphida Harpetida Ptychopariida Trilobites are extinct arthropods in the class Trilobita. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ...


Life

Marine Invertebrates

In the oceans the most important marine invertebrate groups are the foraminifera, corals, bryozoa, brachiopods, ammonoids, and echinoderms (especially crinoids). Orders Allogromiida Carterinida Fusulinida - extinct Globigerinida Involutinida - extinct Lagenida Miliolida Robertinida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida incertae sedis    Xenophyophorea    Reticulomyxa The Foraminifera, or forams for short, are a large group of amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods, fine strands that branch and merge to form a dynamic net. ... Anthozoa is a class within the phylum Cnidaria that contains the sea anemones and corals. ... Classes Stenolaemata Gymnolaemata Phylactolaemata Bryozoans are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... Diversity About 4000 genera Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a nearly extinct, small phylum of benthic invertebrates. ... This article is about the marine animal. ... Subphyla & Classes Homalozoa Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea Homoiostelea Stylophora † Ctenocystoidea Robison & Sprinkle, 1969 Crinozoa Crinoidea Paracrinoidea † Regnéll, 1945 Cystoidea †von Buch, 1846 Asterozoa Ophiuroidea Asteroidea Echinozoa Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiocistioidea Helicoplacoidea † Arkarua † Homalozoa † Pelmatozoa † Edrioasteroidea † Blastozoa † Blastoidea † Eocrinoidea †Jaekel, 1899 † = extinct Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata, from the Greek for spiny skin... Subclasses Articulata (540 species) Cladida (extinct) Flexibilia (extinct) Camerata (extinct) Disparida (extinct) Crinoids, also known as sea lilies or feather-stars, are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata). ...


For the first time foraminifera take a prominent part in the marine faunas. The large spindle-shaped genus Fusulina and its relatives were abundant in what is now Russia, China, Japan, North America; other important genera include Valvulina, Endothyra, Archaediscus, and Saccammina (the latter common in Britain and Belgium). Some Carboniferous genera are still extant.


The microscopic shells of Radiolaria are found in cherts of this age in the Culm of Devonshire and Cornwall, and in Russia, Germany and elsewhere. Possible classes Polycystinea Acantharea Taxopodea Radiolaria are amoeboid protozoa that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into inner and outer portions, called endoplasm and ectoplasm. ... Chert Chert (IPA: ) is a fine-grained silica-rich cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. ... Old stone bridge with pedestrian refuges over River Culm at Culmstock The River Culm flows through Devon, England. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


Sponges are known from spicules and anchor ropes, and include various forms such as the Calcispongea Cotyliscus and Girtycoelia, and the unusual colonial glass sponge Titusvillia. The sponge, in the phylum Porifera, is a very primitive and specialized animal. ... Spicules Spicules are skeletal structures that occur in most sponges. ...


Both reef-building and solitary corals diversify and flourish; these include both rugose (e.g. Canina, Corwenia, Neozaphrentis), heterocorals, and tabulate (e.g. Chaetetes, Chladochonus, Michelinia) forms. For other uses, see Reef (disambiguation). ... Suborders Columnariina† Cystiphyllina† Streptelasmatina† The Rugosa, also called the Tetracoralla, are an extinct order of coral that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian seas. ... The tabulate corals, forming the order Tabulata, are an extinct form of coral. ...


Conularids were well represented by Conularia Conularids is a fossile group, most likely Cnidarians ranging from Cambrian (possibly late Vendian) to the Triassic. ...


Bryozoa are abundant in some regions; the Fenestellids including Fenestella, Polypora, and the remarkable Archimedes, so named because it is in the shape of an Archimedean screw. Classes Stenolaemata Gymnolaemata Phylactolaemata Bryozoans are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... Archimedess screw (also the Archimedean screw) is one of several inventions and discoveries reputed to have been made by Archimedes. ...


Brachiopods are also abundant; they include Productids, some of which (e.g. Gigantoproductus) reached very large (for brachiopods) size and had very thick shells, while others like Chonetes were more conservative in form. Athyridids, Spiriferids, Rhynchonellids, are Terebratulids are also very common. Inarticulate forms include Discina and Crania. Some species and genera had a very wide distribution with only minor variations. Diversity About 4000 genera Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a nearly extinct, small phylum of benthic invertebrates. ... families See text Spiriferida is an order of extinct articulate brachiopod, fossils of which are known for their long hinge-line, which is often the widest part of the shell. ... Superfamilies Pugnacoidea Dimerelloidea Norelloidea Hemithiridoidea Ancistrorhynchoidea† Rhynchotrematoidea† Uncinuloidea† Camarotoechioidea† Rhynchotetradoidea† Lambdarinoidea† Wellerelloidea† Rhynchoporoidea† Stenoscismatoidea† See text for genera. ... Terebratulids are one of the only two living orders of articulate brachiopods, the other being the Rhynchonellida. ...


Annelids such as Spirorbis and Serpulites are common fossils in some horizons. For the characters from System Shock 2, see The Many. ... Spirorbis is a genus of very small (2-5mm) Polychaete worms, usually with a white coiled shell. ...


Among the mollusca, the bivalves continue to increase in numbers and importance. Typical genera include Aviculopecten, Posidonomya, Nucula, Carbonicola, Edmondia, and Modiola Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... Species See text. ...


Conocardium is a common rostroconch. Orders See text The Rostroconchia is a class of extinct mollusks dating from the early Cambrian to the late Permian. ...


Gastropods are also numerous, including the genera Murchisonia, Euomphalus, Naticopsis. Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class...


Nautiloid cephalopods are represented by tightly coiled nautilids, with straight-shelled and curved-shelled forms becoming increasingly rare. Goniatite Ammonoids are common. Orders Palcephalopoda †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida Neocephalopoda (in part) †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Nautiloids are a group of marine mollusks in the subclass Nautiloidea, which all possess an external shell, the best-known example being the modern nautiluses. ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusc class... Species Allonautilus perforatus Allonautilus scrobiculatus Nautilus belauensis Nautilus macromphalus Nautilus pompilius pompilius Nautilus pompilius suluensis Nautilus stenomphalus The nautilus is a marine creature of the class Cephalopoda. ... Families all extinct Goniatites are an extinct group of ammonoid, which are shelled cephalopods related to squids, belemnites, octopi, and cuttlefish, and more distantly to the nautiloids. ... This article is about the marine animal. ...


Trilobites are rare, represented only by the proetid group. Ostracods such as Cythere, Kirkbya, and Beyrichia are abundant. For the robot vacuum cleaner, see Electrolux Trilobite. ... Orders Archaeocopida (extinct) Leperditicopida (extinct) Palaeocopida (extinct) Podocopida Platycopida Myodocopida Introduction Ostracoda is a class of the Crustacea, sometimes known as the seed shrimp because of their appearance. ...


Amongst the echinoderms, the crinoids were the most numerous. Dense submarine thickets of long-stemmed crinoids appear to have flourished in shallow seas, and their remains were consolidated into thick beds of rock. Prominent genera include Cyathocrinus, Woodocrinus, and Actinocrinus. Echinoids such as Archaeocidaris and Palaeechinus were also present. The Blastoids, which included the Pentreinitidae and Codasteridae and superficially resembled crinoids in the possession of long stalks attached to the sea-bed, attain their maximum development at this time. Subphyla & Classes Homalozoa Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea Homoiostelea Stylophora † Ctenocystoidea Robison & Sprinkle, 1969 Crinozoa Crinoidea Paracrinoidea † Regnéll, 1945 Cystoidea †von Buch, 1846 Asterozoa Ophiuroidea Asteroidea Echinozoa Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiocistioidea Helicoplacoidea † Arkarua † Homalozoa † Pelmatozoa † Edrioasteroidea † Blastozoa † Blastoidea † Eocrinoidea †Jaekel, 1899 † = extinct Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata, from the Greek for spiny skin... Subclasses Articulata (540 species) Cladida (extinct) Flexibilia (extinct) Camerata (extinct) Disparida (extinct) Crinoids, also known as sea lilies or feather-stars, are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata). ... Blastoids (Blastoidea) are an extinct type of stemmed echinoderm. ...

Fish

Many fish inhabited the Carboniferous seas; predominantly Elasmobranchs (sharks and their relatives). These included some, like Psammodus, with crushing pavement-like teeth adapted for grinding the shells of brachiopods, crustaceans, and other marine organisms. Other sharks had piercing teeth, such as the Symmoriida; some, the petalodonts, had peculiar cycloid cutting teeth. Most of the sharks were marine, but the Xenacanthida invaded fresh waters of the coal swamps. Among the bony fish, the Palaeonisciformes found in coastal waters also appear to have migrated to rivers. Sarcopterygian fish were also prominent, and one group, the Rhizodonts, reached very large size. Superorders Galeomorpha Batoidea Selachimorpha Elasmobranchii is the subclass of cartilaginous fishes that includes skates, rays and sharks. ... This order contains three extinct famalies: Symmoriidae Falcatidae Stethacanthidae http://palaeo. ... familia Xenacanthidae Xenacanthidae is an order of prehistoric sharks. ... Classes Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Osteichthyes (IPA: ), also called bony fish, are a taxonomic superclass of fish that includes the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe finned fish (Sarcopterygii). ... Palaeonisciformes is an order of ray-finned fishes. ... Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ... genera Barameda Rhizodus Strepsodus Sauripterus Gooloogongia Notorhizodon Screbinodus Rhizodonts (Order Rhizodontida) are an extinct group of predatory lobe-finned fishes. ...


Most species of Carboniferous marine fish have been described largely from teeth, fin spines and dermal ossicles, with smaller freshwater fish preserved whole.


Freshwater fish were abundant, and include the genera Ctenodus, Uronemus, Acanthodes, Cheirodus, and Gyracanthus. Acanthodes is an extinct genus of fish. ...


Plants

Early Carboniferous land plants were very similar to those of the preceding Late Devonian, but new groups also appeared at this time. “Mississippian” redirects here. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ...


The main Early Carboniferous plants were the Equisetales (Horse-tails), Sphenophyllales (vine-like plants), Lycopodiales (Club mosses), Lepidodendrales (scale trees), Filicales (Ferns), Medullosales (informally included in the "seed ferns", an artificial assemblage of a number of early gymnosperm groups) and the Cordaitales. These continued to dominate throughout the period, but during late Carboniferous, several other groups, Cycadophyta (cycads), the Callistophytales (another group of "seed ferns"), and the Voltziales (related to and sometimes included under the conifers), appeared. Species Subgenus Equisetum Equisetum arvense - Field or Common Horsetail Equisetum bogotense - Andean Horsetail Equisetum diffusum - Himalayan Horsetail Equisetum fluviatile - Water Horsetail Equisetum palustre - Marsh Horsetail Equisetum pratense - Shade Horsetail Equisetum sylvaticum - Wood Horsetail Equisetum telmateia - Great Horsetail Subgenus Hippochaete Equisetum giganteum - Giant Horsetail Equisetum myriochaetum - Mexican Giant Horsetail Equisetum hyemale... Families Lycopodiaceae Huperziaceae The Class Lycopodiopsida includes the clubmosses. ... Pteridospermatophyta, also called seed ferns, is an extinct gymnosperm division of the Plantae kingdom. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... The Pennsylvanian is an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 325 Ma to 299 Ma (million years ago). ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants which are characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ...


The Carboniferous lycophytes of the order Lepidodendrales, which are cousins (but not ancestors) of the tiny club-moss of today, were huge trees with trunks 30 meters high and up to 1.5 meters in diameter. These included Lepidodendron (with its fruit cone called Lepidostrobus), Halonia, Lepidophloios and Sigillaria. The roots of several of these forms are known as Stigmaria. Species See text. ... Sigillaria is the name of a genus of primitive trees which flourished in the early carboniferous period. ... Stigmaria are a type of branching tree root found fossil in Carboniferous rocks. ...


The fronds of some Carboniferous ferns are almost identical with those of living species. Probably many species were epiphytic. Fossil ferns and "seed ferns" include Pecopteris, Cyclopteris, Neuropteris, Alethopteris, and Sphenopteris; Megaphyton and Caulopteris were tree ferns.


The Equisetales included the common giant form Calamites, with a trunk diameter of 30 to 60 cm and a height of up to 20 meters. Sphenophyllum was a slender climbing plant with whorls of leaves, which was probably related both to the calamites and the lycopods. Species See text Calamites is a genus of extinct arborescent (tree-like) horsetails to which the modern horsetails (genus Equisetum) are closely related. ...


Cordaites, a tall plant (6 to over 30 meters) with strap-like leaves, was related to the cycads and conifers; the catkin-like inflorescence, which bore yew-like berries, is called Cardiocarpus. These plants were thought to live in swamps and mangroves. True coniferous trees (Walchia, of the order Voltziales) appear later in the Carboniferous, and preferred higher drier ground. Cordaites is an important genus of extinct gymnosperms. ... A male catkin on a willow a male flowering catkin on a willow Catkins, or aments, are slim, cylindrical flower clusters, wind-pollinated (anemophilous) and without petals, that can be found in many plant families, including Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Moraceae, and Salicaceae. ...


Freshwater and Lagoonal Invertebrates

Freshwater Carboniferous invertebrates include various bivalve molluscs that lived in brackish or fresh water, such as Anthracomya, Naiadiles, and Carbonicola; diverse crustaceans such as Bairdia, Carbonia, Estheria, Acanthocaris, Dithyrocaris, and Anthrapalaemon. Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Carbonia is a town in the province of Carbonia-Iglesias, Sardinia, Italy. ...


The Eurypterids were also diverse, and are represented by such genera as Eurypterus, Glyptoscorpius, Anthraconectes, Megarachne (originally misinterpreted as a giant spider) and the specialised very large Hibbertopterus. Many of these were amphibious. Orders †Stylonuroidea Diener, 1924 †Eurypteroidea Burmeister, 1843 The eurypterids (sea scorpion) were the largest known arthropods that ever lived (with the possible exception of the Arthropleurids). ... Orders many, all extinct The eurypterids were the largest known arthropods that ever lived. ... Binomial name Megarachne servinei Megarachne servinei was a small Upper Carboniferous (= Pennsylvanian) eurypterid found near Córdoba, Argentina. ... Hibbertopterus is a genus of giant sea scorpions (class Eurypterida) extinct 250 million years ago, thought to have inhabited the swamps of Scotland. ...


Frequently a temporary return of marine conditions resulted in marine or brackish water genera such as Lingula, Orbiculoidea, and Productus being found in the thin beds known as marine bands. Lingula is a Latin word meaning little tongue and can stand for: The genus Lingula a brachiopod of the class of the Lingulata In anatomy: the Lingula (lung) is one of the segments of the left lung with a tongue-shape. ...


Terrestrial Invertebrates

Fossil remains of air-breathing insects, myriapods and arachnids are known from the late Carboniferous, but so far not from the early Carboniferous. Their diversity when they do appear however show that these arthropods were both well developed and numerous. Their large size can be attributed to the moistness of the environment (mostly swampy fern forests) and the fact that there was a 36% higher oxygen concentration in Earth's atmosphere than today, requiring less effort for respiration and allowing arthropods to grow larger. Among the insect groups are the huge predatory Protodonata (griffinflies), among which was Meganeura, a giant dragonfly and with a wingspan of ca. 75 cm the largest flying insect ever to roam the planet. Further groups are the Syntonopterodea (relatives of present-day mayflies), the abundant and often large sap-sucking Palaeodictyopteroidea, the diverse herbivorous "Protorthoptera", and numerous basal Dictyoptera (ancestors of cockroaches). Many insects have been obtained from the coalfields of Saarbruck and Commentry, and from the hollow trunks of fossil trees in Nova Scotia. Some British coalfields have yielded good specimens: Archaeoptitus, from the Derbyshire coalfield, had a spread of wing extending to more than 35 cm; some specimens (Brodia) still exhibit traces of brilliant wing colors. In the Nova Scotian tree trunks land snails (Archaeozonites, Dendropupa) have been found. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Classes Chilopoda - Centipedes Diplopoda - Millipedes Pauropoda - Pauropods Symphyla - Symphylans Four groups of arthropods—the centipedes, millipedes, pauropods, and symphylans—share a number of common features such as a similar body plan consisting of a head followed by an elongate trunk with many legs. ... For other uses, see Arachnid (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... The Protodonata or Meganisoptera are an extinct order of very large to gigantic Palaeozoic ((Late Carboniferous to Late Permian) insects, similar in appearance to, and related to, dragonflies. ... Binomial name Meganeura monyi (C. Brongniart, 1893) Meganeura monyi was a prehistoric insect of the Carboniferous period (300 million years ago), resembling and related to the present-day dragonfly. ... This article is about the insect. ... The mayflies are an order (Ephemeroptera) of insects that grow up in fresh water, and live very briefly as adults, as little as a few hours but more typically a day or two. ... Orders Palaeodictyoptera Megasecoptera Archodonata Diaphanopterodea The Palaeodictyopteroidea or Paleodictyopterida are an extinct superorder of Palaeozoic beaked insects, characterised by unique mouthparts consisting of 5 stylets. ... The Protorthoptera are an extinct order of Palaeozoic insects, and represent a wastebasket taxon and paraphyletic assemblage of basal neoptera. ... In phylogenetics, basal members of a group diverged earlier than a subgroup of others (or vice versa). ... Orders Blattaria (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Dictyoptera includes two groups of insects, the Blattaria (cockroaches) and the Mantodea (mantids, or praying mantises). ... Families Blaberidae Blattellidae Blattidae Cryptocercidae Polyphagidae Ref: ITIS 102427 2002-12-11 A cockroach is an insect of the order Blattodea (or Blattaria). ... Not to be confused with commentary. ...


Tetrapods

Pederpes, the most primitive Mississippian tetrapod
Pederpes, the most primitive Mississippian tetrapod

Carboniferous amphibians were diverse and common by the middle of the period, more so than they are today; some were as long as 6 meters, and those fully terrestrial as adults had scaly skin.[13] They included a number of basal tetrapod groups classified in early books under the Labyrinthodontia. These had long bodies, a head covered with bony plates and generally weak or undeveloped limbs. The largest were over 2 meters long. They were accompanied by an assemblage of smaller amphibians included under the Lepospondyli, often only about 15 cm long. Some Carboniferous amphibians were aquatic and lived in rivers (Loxomma, Eogyrinus, Proterogyrinus); others may have been semi-aquatic (Ophiderpeton, Amphibamus) or terrestrial (Dendrerpeton, Hyloplesion, Tuditanus, Anthracosaurus). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 260 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 325 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pederpes, my own work, dmitrchel@mail. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 260 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 325 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pederpes, my own work, dmitrchel@mail. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... A Labyrinthodont (Greek, maze-toothed) is any member of an extinct suborder (Labyrinthodontia) or subclass of amphibians that constituted the dominant animals of Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic times (about 350 to 210 million years ago). ... Groups Acherontiscidae Adelospondyli Aïstopoda Lysorophia Microsauria Nectridea Lepospondyli are a group of small but diverse Carboniferous to early Permian tetrapods. ... Eogyrinus was one of the largest Carboniferous tetrapods, and perhaps one of the largest of its family. ... Proterogyrinus was an anthracosaur which lived in the Carboniferous period. ... Ophiderpeton is an extinct genus of lepospondyl amphibian from the Carboniferous period. ... Dendrerpeton is an extinct genus of amphibian. ...

Arthropleura (right) depicted fighting a Proterogyrinus in Walking With Monsters

One of the greatest evolutionary innovations of the Carboniferous was the amniote egg, which allowed for the further exploitation of the land by certain tetrapods. These included the earliest Sauropsid reptiles (Hylonomus), and the earliest known synapsid (Archaeothyris). These small lizard-like animals quickly gave rise to many descendants. The amniote egg allowed these ancestors of all later birds, mammals, and reptiles to reproduce on land by preventing the desiccation, or drying-out, of the embryo inside. By the end of the Carboniferous period, the amniotes had already diversified into a number of groups, including protorothyridids, captorhinids, aeroscelids, and several families of pelycosaurs. Image File history File links Arthropleura. ... Image File history File links Arthropleura. ... Wikipedia think that everyone looking at this page are ass holes. ... Proterogyrinus was an anthracosaur which lived in the Carboniferous period. ... Walking with Monsters (also distributed as Before the Dinosaurs: Walking With Monsters) is a three-part British documentary film series about life in the Paleozoic, bringing to life extinct arthropods, fish, amphibians, synapsids, and reptiles. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... Groups See text. ... Superclasses Anapsida Eurapsida Diapsida Reptilia was an old kingdom or phylum classification that has since been divided into 4 classes. ... Hylonomus lyelli was an early reptile. ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... Binomial name Archaeothyris florensis Reisz, 1972 Archaeothyris was an amniote, it was lizard-like in appearance. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ... Protorothyrididae was a clade of small, lizard-like reptiles, possibly the ancestors of turtles and tortoises. ... Genera See text Captorhinidae (also known as cotylosaurs, or stem reptiles) were the earliest and most primitive reptiles. ... Genera (see text) Synonyms Araeoscelida Araeoscelidia or Araeoscelida is a clade of extinct diapsid reptiles superficially resembling lizards. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Groups see text The pelycosaurs (from Greek pelyx meaning bowl and sauros meaning lizard) were primitive Late Paleozoic synapsid amniotes. ...


Fungal life

Because plants and animals were growing in size and abundance in this time (e.g., Lepidodendron), land fungi diversified further. Marine fungi still occupied the oceans. Species See text. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...


Other life forms

Extinction events

The Middle Carboniferous extinction event is shown here as Middle C.
The Middle Carboniferous extinction event is shown here as Middle C.

In the middle Carboniferous, an extinction event occurred that was probably caused by climate change. A less intense extinction event also occurred at the end of Carboniferous. An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


See also

Carboniferous Tetrapods include amphibians and reptiles that lived during the Carboniferous Period. ... Lagerstätten (German, singular: Lagerstätte, literally: place(s) of storage or resting place(s)) are sedimentary deposits that exhibit extraordinary fossil richness or completeness. ... Hamilton Quarry is a fossil Lagerstätte in Greenwood County, Kansas that yields a diverse assemblage of unusually well-preserved marine, euryhaline, freshwater, flying, and terrestrial fossils (invertebrates, vertebrates, and plants). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Mazon Creek fossils are conservation lagerstätten found near Chicago, Illinois. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... List of fossil sites: // ^ http://www. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bild:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj.svg
  2. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Phanerozoic_Carbon_Dioxide.png
  3. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:All_palaeotemps.png
  4. ^ Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Smith, A.G. (2004). A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge university press. 
  5. ^ Steven M. Stanley, Earth System History. (New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1999), 414.
  6. ^ Stanley, 414.
  7. ^ Stanley, 416.
  8. ^ Stanley, 414.
  9. ^ Stanley, 414.
  10. ^ Stanley, 414-6.
  11. ^ Stanley, 426.
  12. ^ Robinson JM 1990 Lignin, land plants, and fungi: Biological evolution affecting Phanerozoic oxygen balance. Geology 10; 607-610, on p608.
  13. ^ Stanley, 411-12.

References

  • Dudley, Robert. "Atmospheric Oxygen, Giant Paleozoic Insects and the Evolution of Aerial Locomotor Performance." Journal of Experimental Biology 201, 1043-50 (1998) (PDF)
  • Ogg, Jim; June, 2004, Overview of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's) http://www.stratigraphy.org/gssp.htm Accessed April 30, 2006.
  • Stanley, Steven M. Earth System History. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1999. ISBN 0-7167-2882-6

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Carboniferous
Carboniferous period
Mississippian Pennsylvanian
Lower/Early Middle Upper/Late Lower/Early Middle Upper/Late
Tournaisian Viséan Serpukhovian Bashkirian Moscovian Kasimovian | Gzhelian
Paleozoic era
Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian
Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mississippian was an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 360 Ma to 325 Ma (million years ago). ... The Pennsylvanian is an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 325 Ma to 299 Ma (million years ago). ... The Early Mississippian (also known as the Lower Mississippian) is the first of three subepochs of the Mississippian epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... The Middle Mississippian is the second of three subepochs of the Mississippian epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... The Late Mississippian (also known as the Upper Mississippian) is the third and final of three subepochs of the Mississippian epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... The Early Pennsylvanian (also known as the Lower Pennsylvanian) is the first of three subepochs of the Pennsylvanian epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... The Middle Pennsylvanian is the second of three subepochs of the Pennsylvanian epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... The Late Pennsylvanian (also known as the Upper Pennsylvanian) is the third and final of three subepochs of the Pennsylvanian epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... The Tournasian Age is one of the three ages in the Mississippian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period. ... The Viséan Age is the middle of three ages in the Mississippian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period. ... The Serpukhovian Age is the last of three ages in the Mississippian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Moscovian is an epoch of the Pennsylvanian Time Period. ... The Kasimovian Age is the third of four ages in the Pennsylvanian Epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... The Gzhelian Age is the last of four ages in the Pennsylvanian Epoch of the Carboniferous period. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Carboniferous (536 words)
One of the greatest evolutionary innovations of the Carboniferous was the amniote egg, which allowed for the further exploitation of the land by certain tetrapods.
The North American Upper Carboniferous environment was alternately terrestrialand marine, with the transgression and regression of the seas caused by glaciation.
The chart at left shows the major subdivisions of the Carboniferous Period.The Lower Carboniferous of Europe corresponds roughly to the Mississippian of North America, and the Middle and Upper Carboniferous are roughly equivalent to the Pennsylvanian.
Carboniferous period - Encyclopedia.com (967 words)
The Carboniferous period was marked by vast, coal-forming swamps (see also bog) and a succession of changes in the earth's surface that, continuing into the Permian period, ended the Paleozoic era.
The Carboniferous is often split into two divisions, the Mississippian and the Pennsylvanian; in the United States the break in the geologic sequence is so sharp that each division is commonly considered an independent period.
The Upper Carboniferous was a period of marked disturbances caused by collisions of crustal plates.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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