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Encyclopedia > Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide
IUPAC name Carbon monoxide
Other names Carbonic oxide,
Coal gas
Identifiers
CAS number [630-08-0]
RTECS number FG3500000
Properties
Molecular formula CO
Molar mass 28.0101 g/mol
Appearance Colourless, odorless gas
Density 0.789 g/cm³, liquid
1.250 g/L at 0°C, 1 atm.
1.145 g/L at 25°C, 1 atm.
(lighter than air)
Melting point

-205 °C (68 K) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x866, 119 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide poisoning ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The expression lighter than air refers to objects, usually aircraft, that are buoyant in air because they have an average density that is less than that of air (usually because they contain gases that have a density that is lower than that of air). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

-192 °C (81 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water 0.0026 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Dipole moment 0.112 D (3.74×10−31 C·m)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Highly flammable (F+)
Repr. Cat. 1
Toxic (T)
NFPA 704
2
3
2
 
R-phrases R12, R23, R33, R48, R61
S-phrases S9, S16, S33, S45, S53
Flash point Flammable gas
Related compounds
Related oxides carbon dioxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. It consists of one carbon atom covalently bonded to one oxygen atom. There are 2 covalent bonds and a dative covalent bond between the oxygen and carbon atom which comes from the oxygen. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon monoxide. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Carbon suboxide, C3O2, is a colorless gas with a melting point of -107oC and a boiling point of 6. ... Dicarbon monoxide (C2O) is an extremely reactive molecule that contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon monoxide. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon monoxide. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon monoxide. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon monoxide. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Covalent redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial combustion of carbon-containing compounds, notably in internal-combustion engines. Carbon monoxide forms in preference to the more usual carbon dioxide when there is a reduced availability of oxygen present during the combustion process. Carbon monoxide has significant fuel value, burning in air with a characteristic blue flame, producing carbon dioxide. Despite its serious toxicity, CO plays a highly useful role in modern technology, being a precursor to a myriad of products. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...

Contents

Production

Carbon monoxide is so fundamentally important that many methods have been developed for its production.[1]


Producer gas is formed by combustion of carbon in oxygen at high temperatures when there is an excess of carbon. In an oven, air is passed through a bed of coke. The initially produced CO2 equilibrates with the remaining hot carbon to give CO. The reaction of O2 with carbon to give CO is described as the Boudouard equilibrium. Above 800 °C, CO is the predominant product: Producer Gas is a generic term referring to: Wood gas : produced in a gasifier to power cars with ordinary internal combustion engines. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ...

O2 + 2 C → 2 CO
ΔH = -221 kJ/mol

The downside of this method is if done with air it leaves a mixture that is mostly nitrogen.


Synthesis gas or Water gas is produced via the endothermic reaction of steam and carbon: It has been suggested that Town gas be merged into this article or section. ... Water gas is a method of hydrogen production that combines steam and coke gas In the following chemical reaction: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 In 1873, Professor Thaddeus S. C. Lowe developed and patented a process by which large amounts of hydrogen gas could be generated for residential and commercial use... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ...

H2O + C → H2 + CO
ΔH = 131 kJ/mol

CO also is a byproduct of the reduction of metal oxide ores with carbon, shown in a simplified form as follows:

MO + C → M + CO
ΔH = 131 kJ/mol

Since CO is a gas, the reduction process can be driven by heating, exploiting the positive (favorable) entropy of reaction. The Ellingham diagram shows that CO formation is favored over CO2 in high temperatures. For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... In metallurgy, the Ellingham diagram is used to predict the equilibrium temperature between a metal, its oxide and oxygen. ...


CO is the anhydride of formic acid. As such it is conveniently produced by the dehydration of formic acid, for example with sulfuric acid. Another laboratory preparation for carbon monoxide entails heating an intimate mixture of powdered zinc metal and calcium carbonate. Structure of anhydride. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ...

Zn + CaCO3ZnO + CaO + CO

Another lab style of generate CO is reacting Sucrose and Sodium Hydroxide in a closed system. Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ...


Structure

The CO molecule is characterized by a bond length of 0.1128 nm.[2] Formal charge and electronegativity difference cancel each other out. The result is a small dipole moment with its negative end on the carbon atom[3]. The reason for this, despite oxygen's greater electronegativity, is that the highest occupied molecular orbital has an energy much closer to that of carbon's p orbitals, meaning that greater electron density is found near the carbon. In addition, carbon's lower electronegativity creates a much more diffuse electron cloud, enhancing the dipole moment. This is also the reason that almost all chemistry involving carbon monoxide occurs through the carbon atom, and not the oxygen. A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... In chemistry, a formal charge (FC) on an atom in a molecule is defined as: FC = number of valence electrons of the atom - number of Lone pair electrons on this atom - half the total number of electrons participating in covalent bonds with this atom. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ...


The molecule's bond length is consistent with a partial triple bond. The molecule has a small dipole moment and can be represented by three resonance structures: The bond dipole moment is a measure for the polarity of a chemical bond within a molecule. ...

The leftmost resonance form is the most important.[2] Image File history File links Chemical structure of three Carbon Monoxide resonance structures. ...


Dinitrogen is isoelectronic to carbon monoxide, which means that these molecules have the same number of electrons and similar bonding. The physical properties of N2 and CO are similar, although CO is more reactive. Dinitrogen, N2, is the most common form of the element nitrogen in normal conditions. ...


Principal chemical reactions

Industrial uses

Carbon monoxide is a major industrial gas that has many applications in bulk chemicals manufacturing.[4] Industrial gas is a group of gases that are commercially manufactured and sold for uses in other applications. ...


High volume aldehydes are produced by the hydroformylation reaction of alkenes, CO, and H2. In one of many applications of this technology, hydroformylation is coupled to the Shell Higher Olefin Process to give precursors to detergents. An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... Hydroformylation is the transformation of an alkene to an aldehyde via the addition of both H2 and CO. The aldehyde has one more carbon atom than the precursor alkene. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The Shell higher olefin process is an chemical process for the production of linear alpha olefins via olefin metathesis invented and exploited by Royal Dutch Shell [1]. The first step in this process is the ethylene oligomerization at 80 to 120 °C and 70 to 140 bar (7 to 14... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ...


Methanol is produced by the hydrogenation of CO. In a related reaction, the hydrogenation of CO is coupled to C-C bond formation, as in the Fischer-Tropsch process where CO is hydrogenated to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This technology allows coal to be converted to petrol. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


In the Monsanto process, carbon monoxide and methanol react in the presence of a homogeneous rhodium catalyst and HI to give acetic acid. This process is responsible for most of the industrial production of acetic acid. A major route to Acetic acid is the rhodium-catalysed Monsanto process. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Carbon monoxide is a principle component of syngas, which is often used for industrial power. Carbon monoxide(CO) is too used in industrial scale operations for purify Nickel, it is a precursor for an corrosion process called Mond Process. It has been suggested that Town gas be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... The Mond Process is a technique created by jacky balboa the 1st in 2007 during his hsc year to extract and purify nickel. ...


Coordination chemistry

Main article: metal carbonyl
The HOMO of CO is a σ MO
The LUMO of CO is a π* antibonding MO

Most metals form coordination complexes containing covalently attached carbon monoxide. Only those in lower oxidation states will complex with carbon monoxide ligands. This is because there must be sufficient electron density to facilitate back donation from the metal dxz-orbital, to the π* molecular orbital from CO. The lone pair on the carbon atom in CO, also donates electron density to the dx²−y² on the metal to form a sigma bond. In nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO)4 forms by the direct combination of carbon monoxide and nickel metal at room temperature. For this reason, nickel in any tubing or part must not come into prolonged contact with carbon monoxide (corrosion). Nickel carbonyl decomposes readily back to Ni and CO upon contact with hot surfaces, and this method was once used for the industrial purification of nickel in the Mond process.[5] Metal carbonyls are organometallic complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 764 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 863 pixel, file size: 245 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carbon monoxide Metal carbonyl ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 764 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 863 pixel, file size: 245 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carbon monoxide Metal carbonyl ... HOMO and LUMO are acronyms for highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, respectively. ... In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a region in which an electron may be found in a molecule. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 545 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 1100 pixel, file size: 345 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carbon monoxide Metal carbonyl ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 545 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 1100 pixel, file size: 345 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carbon monoxide Metal carbonyl ... HOMO and LUMO are acronyms for highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, respectively. ... Antibonding (or anti-bonding) is a type of chemical bonding. ... In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a region in which an electron may be found in a molecule. ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion or functional group that is bonded to one or more central atoms or ions, usually metals generally through co-ordinate covalent bond. ... In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a region in which an electron may be found in a molecule. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals, showing among others the sigma bond of two s-orbitals and a sigma bond of two p-orbitals In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are a type of covalent chemical bond. ... Nickel carbonyl, or tetracarbonylnickel is the compound Ni(CO)4. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Nickel carbonyl, or tetracarbonylnickel is the compound Ni(CO)4. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... The Mond Process is a technique created by jacky balboa the 1st in 2007 during his hsc year to extract and purify nickel. ...


In nickel carbonyl and other carbonyls, the electron pair on the carbon interacts with the metal; the carbon monoxide donates the electron pair to the metal. In these situations, carbon monoxide is called the carbonyl ligand. One of the most important metal carbonyls is iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5: In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... Iron pentacarbonyl, also known as iron carbonyl, is the compound with formula Fe(CO)5. ...


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (903x730, 24 KB) Summary Text form of iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO)5) structure, drawn in ChemDraw by User:Walkerma May 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1011x1112, 75 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carbon monoxide Iron pentacarbonyl ...


Many metal-CO complexes are prepared by decarbonylation of organic solvents, not from CO. For instance, iridium trichloride and triphenylphosphine react in boiling methoxyethanol or DMF) to afford IrCl(CO)(PPh3)2. Iridium(III) chloride is the starting material for most iridium chemistry. ... Triphenylphosphine (in Europe: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P. It is widely used in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds. ... 2-Methoxyethanol, or methyl cellosolve, is an organic compound that is used mainly as a solvent. ... Dimethylformamide is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H. Commonly abbreviated DMF, this colourless liquid is miscible with water and majority of organic liquids. ... Vaskas complex is the trivial name for trans-chlorocarbonylbis(triphenylphosphine)iridium(I): trans-IrCl(CO)[P(C6H5)3]2. ...


Organic and main group chemistry

In the presence of strong acids and water, carbon monoxide reacts with olefins to form carboxylic acids in a process known as the Koch-Haaf reaction.[6] In the Gattermann-Koch reaction, arenes are converted to benzaldehyde derivatives in the presence of AlCl3 and HCl.[7] Organolithium compounds, e.g. butyl lithium react with CO, but this reaction enjoys little use. An alkene in organic chemistry is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon to carbon double bond. ... In chemistry, carboxylic acids (also called alkanoic acids) are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group. ... The Gattermann-Koch reaction in organic chemistry refers to a Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydochloric acid are used in-situ with Fridel-Crafts catalyst, namely AlCl3 to produce a benzaldehye-derivative from a benzene-derivative in one step. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is a chemical compound consisting of a benzene ring with an aldehyde substituent. ... Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is a compound of aluminium and chlorine. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... An organolithium reagent is a carbon nucleophile similar to a Grignard reagent. ...


Although CO reacts with carbocations and carbanions, it is relatively unreactive toward organic compounds without the intervention of metal catalysts.[8] A carbocation (IPA pronunciation: ) is an ion with a positively-charged carbon atom. ... A carbanion is an anion in which carbon has an unshared pair of electrons and bears a negative charge usually with three substituents for a total of eight valence electrons. ...


With main group reagents, CO undergoes several noteworthy reactions. Chlorination of CO is the industrial route to the important compound phosgene. With borane CO forms an adduct, H3BCO, which is isoelectronic with the acylium cation [H3CCO]+. CO reacts with sodium to give products resulting from C-C coupling such as Na2C2O2 (sodium acetylenediolate), and potassium to give K2C2O2 (potassium acetylenediolate) and K2C6O6 (potassium rhodizonate). Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... In chemistry a borane is a chemical compound of boron and hydrogen. ... An acyl group is a functional group derived by the removal of one or more hydroxyl group from an oxoacid. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...


Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere

MOPITT 2000 global carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide, though thought of as a pollutant today, has always been present in the atmosphere, chiefly as a product of volcanic activity. It occurs dissolved in molten volcanic rock at high pressures in the earth's mantle. Carbon monoxide contents of volcanic gases vary from less than 0.01% to as much as 2% depending on the volcano. It also occurs naturally in bushfires. Because natural sources of carbon monoxide are so variable from year to year, it is extremely difficult to accurately measure natural emissions of the gas. Download high resolution version (540x630, 61 KB)The MOPITT sensor aboard NASA’s Terra satellite has assembled the first view of carbon monoxide in the Earths atmosphere. ... Download high resolution version (540x630, 61 KB)The MOPITT sensor aboard NASA’s Terra satellite has assembled the first view of carbon monoxide in the Earths atmosphere. ... Categories: Stub ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Backburning in Townsville, Australia. ...


Carbon monoxide has an indirect radiative forcing effect by elevating concentrations of methane and tropospheric ozone through chemical reactions with other atmospheric constituents (e.g., the hydroxyl radical, OH.) that would otherwise destroy them. Through natural processes in the atmosphere, it is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide concentrations are both short-lived in the atmosphere and spatially variable. Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Anthropogenic CO from automobile and industrial emissions may contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. In urban areas carbon monoxide, along with aldehydes, reacts photochemically to produce peroxy radicals. Peroxy radicals react with nitrogen oxide to increase the ratio of NO2 to NO, which reduces the quantity of NO that is available to react with ozone. Carbon monoxide is also a constituent of tobacco smoke. Wikinews has related news: Scientists warn thawing Siberia may trigger global meltdown A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ...


Role in physiology and food

Carbon monoxide is used in modified atmosphere packaging systems in the US, mainly with fresh meat products such as beef and pork. The CO combines with myoglobin to form carboxymyoglobin, a bright cherry red pigment. Carboxymyoglobin is more stable than the oxygenated form of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, which can become oxidized to the brown pigment, metmyoglobin. This stable red colour can persist much longer than in normally packaged meat, giving the appearance of freshness.[9] Typical levels of CO used are 0.4% to 0.5%. Modified atmosphere is a common technical definition that describes the practice of modifying the composition of the internal atmosphere of a package (commonly food packages, but this technique is also used for drugs) in order to improve the shelf life. ... An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. ...


The technology was first given generally recognized as safe status by the FDA in 2002 for use as a secondary packaging system. In 2004 the FDA approved CO as primary packaging method, declaring that CO does not mask spoilage odour.[10] Despite this ruling, the technology remains controversial in the US for fears that it is deceptive and masks spoilage.[11] Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) is a United States of America Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


One reaction in the body produces CO. Carbon monoxide is produced naturally as a breakdown of heme (which is one of hemoglobin moieties), a substrate for the enzyme heme oxygenase. The enzymatic reaction results in breakdown of heme to CO, biliverdin and Fe3+ radical. The endogenously produced CO may have important physiological roles in the body (eg as a neurotransmitter or a blood vessels relaxant). In addition CO regulates inflammatory reactions in a manner that prevents the development of several diseases such atherosclerosis or severe malaria. Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Heme oxygenase (HO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ...


CO is a nutrient for methanogenic bacteria,[12] a building block for acetylcoenzyme A. This theme is the subject for the emerging field of bioorganometallic chemistry. In bacteria, CO is produced via the reduction of carbon dioxide via the enzyme carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, an Fe-Ni-S-containing protein.[13] Methanogens are archaea that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions. ... Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. ... Bioorganometallic chemistry is the study of biologically active molecules that contain carbon directly bonded to metals or metalloids. ...


A haeme-based CO-sensor protein, CooA, is known.[14] The scope of its biological role is still unclear, it is apparently part of a signaling pathway in bacteria and archaea, but its occurrence in mammals is not established.


CO is also currently being studied in several research laboratories throughout the world for its anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties that can be used therapeutically to prevent the development of a series of pathologic conditions such as ischemia reperfusion injury, transplant rejection, atherosclerosis, sepsis, severe malaria or autoimmunity. There are yet no clinical applications of CO in humans.


History

Carbon monoxide was first prepared by the French chemist de Lassone in 1776 by heating zinc oxide with coke. He mistakenly concluded that the gaseous product was hydrogen as it burned with a blue flame. The gas was identified as a compound containing carbon and oxygen by the English chemist William Cumberland Cruikshank in the year 1800. A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... William Cumberland Cruikshank (1745, Edinburgh — June 27, 1800) was a British chemist and anatomist, an author of the The Anatomy of the Absorbing Vessels of the Human Body. He used chlorine to purify water, in 1797 first reported the property of some urines to coagulate when heated and identified carbon...


The toxic properties of CO were first thoroughly investigated by the French physiologist Claude Bernard around 1846. He poisoned dogs with the gas, and noticed that their blood was more rutilant in all the vessels. 'Rutilant' is a French word, but also has an entry in English dictionaries, meaning ruddy, shimmering, or golden. However, it was translated at the time as crimson, scarlet, and now is famously known as 'cherry pink'. For the 17th Century Roman Catholic priest who popularized the Memorare, see Father Claude Bernard. ...


During World War II, carbon monoxide was used to keep motor vehicles running in parts of the world where gasoline was scarce. External charcoal or wood burners were fitted, and the carbon monoxide produced by gasification was piped to the carburetor. The CO in this case is known as "wood gas". Carbon monoxide was also reportedly used on a small scale during the Holocaust at some Nazi extermination camps, and in the Action T4 "euthanasia" program. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wood gas generator schematic Wood gasifier on a Ford truck converted to a tractor (an EPA tractor). ... For the water carbonator, see Gasogene. ... Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ... Wood gasifier on a Ford truck converted to a tractor (an EPA tractor). ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The extermination camps were the facilities set up by Nazi Germany in World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ...


Source concentrations

  • 0.1 ppm - natural background atmosphere level (MOPITT)
  • 0.5 to 5 ppm - average background level in homes[15]
  • 5 to 15 ppm - levels near properly adjusted gas stoves in homes[15]
  • 100-200 ppm - Mexico City central area from autos etc.[16]
  • 5,000 ppm - chimney of a home wood fire [17]
  • 7,000 ppm - undiluted warm car exhaust - without catalytic converter[17]
  • 30,000 ppm - undiluted cigarette smoke[17]

Categories: Stub ...

Toxicity

Carbon monoxide is a significantly toxic gas and has no odor or color. It is the most common type of fatal poisoning in many countries.[18] Exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system and heart. Following poisoning, long-term sequelae often occur. Carbon monoxide can also have severe effects on the baby of a pregnant woman. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches and dizziness at concentrations less than 100 ppm. Concentrations as low as 667 ppm can cause up to 50% of the body's hemoglobin to be converted to carboxy-haemoglobin (HbCO). Carboxy-haemoglobin is quite stable but this change is reversible. Carboxy-haemoglobin is ineffective for delivering oxygen, resulting in some body parts not receiving oxygen needed. As a result, exposures of this level can be life-threatening. In the United States, OSHA limits long-term workplace exposure levels to 50 ppm. Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A sequela, (IPA ) (plural sequelæ) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, or other trauma. ... The term baby can refer to: an infant a very early computer—the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, nicknamed Baby a musician – Brian Williams – who performs under the name Baby. ... Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin that forms in red blood cells when carbon monoxide is inhaled, and hinders delivery of oxygen to the body. ... OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ...


The mechanisms by which carbon monoxide produces toxic effects are not yet fully understood, but haemoglobin, myoglobin, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase are thought to be compromised. Treatment largely consists of administering 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, although the optimum treatment remains controversial.[19] Domestic carbon monoxide poisoning can be prevented by the use of household carbon monoxide detectors. 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin Hemoglobin or haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red cells of the blood in mammals and other animals. ... An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the medical use of oxygen at a higher than atmospheric pressure. ... Carbon Monoxide detector connected to a North American power outlet. ...


See also

This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon monoxide. ... Boudouard reaction is the redox reaction of chemical equilibrium mixture of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in a given temperature. ... Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... Criteria air contaminants (CAC) are a group of air pollutants that cause smog, acid rain and other health hazards. ... The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) is the primary source of information for diving and hyperbaric medicine physiology worldwide. ... // Rubicon Foundation, Inc. ...

References

  1. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 200. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  2. ^ a b O. R. Gilliam, C. M. Johnson and W. Gordy (1950). "Microwave Spectroscopy in the Region from Two to Three Millimeters". Physical Review 78 (2): 140. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.78.140. 
  3. ^ W. Kutzelnigg. Einführung in die Theoretische Chemie. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-30609-9. 
  4. ^ Elschenbroich, C.;Salzer, A. ”Organometallics : A Concise Introduction” (2nd Ed) Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2006. ISBN 3-527-28165-7
  5. ^ Mond L, Langer K, Quincke F (1890). "Action of carbon monoxide on nickel". Journal of the Chemical Society: 749-753. doi:10.1039/CT8905700749. 
  6. ^ Koch, H.; Haaf, W. "1-Adamantanecarboxylic Acid" Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume 5, p.20 (1973).
  7. ^ Coleman, G. H.; Craig, D. "p-Tolualdehyde" Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume 2, p.583 (1943).
  8. ^ Chatani, N.; Murai, S. "Carbon Monoxide" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis (Ed: L. Paquette) 2004, J. Wiley & Sons, New York. doi:10.1002/047084289
  9. ^ Sorheim, S, Nissena, H, Nesbakken, T (1999). "The storage life of beef and pork packaged in an atmosphere with low carbon monoxide and high carbon dioxide". Journal of Meat Science 52 (2): 157-64. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00163-6. 
  10. ^ Eilert EJ (2005). "New packaging technologies for the 21st century". Journal of Meat Science 71 (1): 122-27. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.04.003. 
  11. ^ "Low-Oxygen Packaging with CO: A Study in Food Politics That Warrants Peer Review". Retrieved on 2007-04-18. 
  12. ^ R. K. Thauer (1998). "Biochemistry of methanogenesis: a tribute to Marjory Stephenson. 1998 Marjory Stephenson Prize Lecture" (Free). Microbiology 144 (9): 2377-2406. 
  13. ^ Jaouen, G., Ed. (2006). Bioorganometallics: Biomolecules, Labeling, Medicine. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-30990-X. 
  14. ^ Roberts, G. P.; Youn, H.; Kerby, R. L. (2004). "CO-Sensing Mechanisms". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 68: 453-473. doi:10.1128/MMBR.68.3.453-473.2004. 
  15. ^ a b Basic Information : Carbon Monoxide. Retrieved on 2007-12-01.
  16. ^ Singer, Siegfried Fred (1975). The Changing Global Environment, pp. 90. ISBN 9789027704023. 
  17. ^ a b c Gosink, Tom (January 28, 1983). What Do Carbon Monoxide Levels Mean? (HTML). Alaska Science Forum. Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on December 1, 2007.
  18. ^ Omaye ST. (2002). "Metabolic modulation of carbon monoxide toxicity". Toxicology 180 (2): 139-50. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00387-6. 
  19. ^ Buckley NA, Isbister GK, Stokes B, Juurlink DN. (2005). "Hyperbaric oxygen for carbon monoxide poisoning : a systematic review and critical analysis of the evidence" (Abstract). Toxicol Rev 24 (2): 75-92. PMID 16180928. 

Physical Review is one of the oldest and most-respected scientific journals publishing research on all aspects of physics. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... Royal Society of Chemistry The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of advancing the chemical sciences. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Carbon suboxide, C3O2, is a colorless gas with a melting point of -107oC and a boiling point of 6. ... Dicarbon monoxide (C2O) is an extremely reactive molecule that contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Metal carbonyls are organometallic complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... An isocyanide (erroneously called isonitrile) is a functional group in organic synthesis containing carbon and nitrogen. ... The cyanate ion is an anion consisting of one oxygen atom, one carbon atom, and one nitrogen atom (OCN−), in that order, and possesses 1 unit of negative charge, borne mainly by the nitrogen atom. ... The structure and bonding of the thiocyanate ion Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is the anion, [SCN]−. Common compounds include the colourless salts potassium thiocyanate and sodium thiocyanate. ... Calcium carbide. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carbon Monoxide | Basic Information | Indoor Air Quality | Air | US EPA (1550 words)
Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and toxic gas.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, practically odorless, and tasteless gas or liquid.
Discusses carbon monoxide (CO) hazards; and prevention and detection of dangerous CO levels.
Carbon monoxide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1483 words)
Carbon monoxide from automobile and industrial emissions is a dangerous pollutant that may contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming.
Carbon monoxide is dangerous and life-threatening to humans and other forms of air-breathing life, as inhaling even relatively small amounts of it can lead to hypoxic injury, neurological damage, and possibly death.
Carbon monoxide and methanol react in the presence of a homogeneous rhodium catalyst and HI to give acetic acid in the Monsanto process, which is responsible for most of the industrial production of acetic acid.
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