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Encyclopedia > Carbon fixation

Carbon fixation is a process found in autotrophs, usually driven by photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide is changed into organic materials. Carbon fixation can also be carried out by the process of calcification in marine, calcifying organisms such as Emiliania huxleyi. Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Binomial name Emiliania huxleyi (Hay & Mohler in Hay, Mohler, Roth, Schmidt & Boudreaux, 1967) Emiliania huxleyi is a species of coccolithophore, single-celled phytoplankton that are covered with uniquely ornamented calcite disks. ...


The Calvin Cycle is the most common method of carbon fixation. Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation The Calvin cycle (or Calvin-Benson cycle or carbon fixation) is a series of biochemical reactions that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. ...


In plants, there are three types of carbon fixation during photosynthesis: For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

  • C3 - plant that uses the Calvin Cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic matter, forming a 3-carbon compound as the 1st stable intermediate. Most broadleaf plants and plants in the temperate zones are C3.
  • C4 - plant that prefaces the Calvin Cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into 4-carbon compound. C4 plants have a distinctive leaf anatomy. This pathway is found mostly in hot regions with intense sunlight. Tropical grasses, such as sugar cane and maize are C4 plants, but there are many broadleaf plants that are C4.
  • CAM - plant that uses Crassulacean acid metabolism as an adaptation for arid conditions. CO2 entering the stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin Cycle during the day, when the stomate is closed. The jade plant (Crassula ovata) and Cactus species are typical of CAM plants.

In addition to the Calvin cycle, the following alternative pathways are currently known to be used in certain autotrophic microorganisms: C3 carbon fixation is a pathway for carbon fixation in photosynthesis. ... Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation The Calvin cycle (or Calvin-Benson cycle or carbon fixation) is a series of biochemical reactions that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. ... Overview of C4 carbon fixation C4 carbon fixation is one of three methods, along with C3 and CAM photosynthesis, used by land plants to fix carbon dioxide (binding the gaseous molecules to dissolved compounds inside the plant) for sugar production through photosynthesis. ... Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation The Calvin cycle (or Calvin-Benson cycle or carbon fixation) is a series of biochemical reactions that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) is a carbon fixation pathway in some photosynthetic plants. ... This is not about surgically created bowel openings; see stoma (medicine) In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the undersurface of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ... Species See text Crassula is a large genus containing many species, including the popular Jade Plant, Crassula ovata. ... Subfamilies Cactoideae Maihuenioideae Opuntioideae Pereskioideae See also taxonomy of the Cactaceae A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses or cactus) is any member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas. ...

  • Reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid cycle). The reaction is basically the Citric acid cycle run in reverse and is used by photolithoautotrophic eubacteria of the Chlorobiales and some chemolithoautotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria.
  • Reductive acetyl CoA Pathway is found in methanogenic archaebacteria and in acetogenic and some sulfate-reducing eubacteria as a way of fixing carbon.
  • 3-Hydroxypropionate Pathway is found in photolithoautotrophically grown eubacteria of the genus Chloroflexus and in modified form in some chemolithoautotrophically grown archaebacteria as a way of fixing carbon.

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems (324 words)
Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of CO in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy—in particular, how we manage carbon.
Carbon sequestration refers to the provision of long-term storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, underground, or the oceans so that the buildup of carbon dioxide (the principal greenhouse gas) concentration in the atmosphere will reduce or slow.
Carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems can be defined as the net removal of CO from the atmosphere into long-lived pools of carbon.
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