FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Carbon fiber" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Carbon fiber
Fabric made of woven carbon filaments
Fabric made of woven carbon filaments

Carbon fiber (alternately called graphite fiber) is a material consisting of extremely thin fibers about 0.0002-0.0004 inches (0.005-0.010 mm) in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in microscopic crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment makes the fiber incredibly strong for its size. Several thousand carbon fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric.[1] Carbon fiber can be combined with a plastic resin and wound or molded to form composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic (also referenced as carbon fiber) to provide a high strength-to-weight ratio material. The density of carbon fiber is also considerably lower than the density of steel, making it ideal for applications requiring low weight.[2] The properties of carbon fiber such as high tensile strength, low weight, and low thermal expansion make it very popular in aerospace, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 143 KB) Kohlenstofffasergewebe Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 17. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 143 KB) Kohlenstofffasergewebe Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 17. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ... Tail of a RC helicopter, made of CFRP Carbon fiber reinforced plastic or (CFRP or CRP), is a very strong, light and expensive composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. ...

Contents

History of Carbon Fiber

In 1958, Dr. Roger Bacon created the first high-performance carbon fibers at the Parma Technical Center, located outside of Cleveland, Ohio.[3]The first fibers were manufactured by heating strands of rayon until they carbonized. This process proved to be inefficient, as the resulting fibers contained only about 20% carbon and had low strength and stiffness properties. In the early 1960s, a process was developed using polyacrylonitrile as a raw material. This produced a carbon fiber that contained about 55% carbon and had much better properties. The polyacrylonitrile conversion process quickly became the primary method for producing carbon fibers.[4] Jan. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


On the 14th January 1969, Carr Reinforcements wove the first ever carbon fiber fabric in the world.[5] is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


During the 1970s, experimental work to find alternative raw materials led to the introduction of carbon fibers made from a petroleum pitch derived from oil processing. These fibers contained about 85% carbon and had excellent flexural strength.[6]


Structure and properties

A 6 μm diameter carbon filament (running from bottom left to top right) compared to a human hair.
A 6 μm diameter carbon filament (running from bottom left to top right) compared to a human hair.

Carbon fibers are the closest to asbestos in a number of properties.[7] Each carbon filament thread is a bundle of many thousand carbon filaments. A single such filament is a thin tube with a diameter of 5–8 micrometers and consists almost exclusively of carbon. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 455 pixelsFull resolution (861 × 490 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Größenvergleich von C-Faser und Menschenhaar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 455 pixelsFull resolution (861 × 490 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Größenvergleich von C-Faser und Menschenhaar. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


The atomic structure of carbon fiber is similar to that of graphite, consisting of sheets of carbon atoms (graphene sheets) arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern. The difference lies in the way these sheets interlock. Graphite is a crystalline material in which the sheets are stacked parallel to one another in regular fashion. The chemical bonds between the sheets are relatively weak Van der Waals forces, giving graphite its soft and brittle characteristics. Depending upon the precursor to make the fiber, carbon fiber may be turbostratic or graphitic, or have a hybrid structure with both graphitic and turbostratic parts present. In turbostratic carbon fiber the sheets of carbon atoms are haphazardly folded, or crumpled, together. Carbon fibers derived from Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are turbostratic, whereas carbon fibers derived from mesophase pitch are graphitic after heat treatment at temperatures exceeding 2200 C. Turbostratic carbon fibers tend to have high tensile strength, wheresas heat-treated mesophase-pitch-derived carbon fibers have high Young's modulus and high thermal conductivity. For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... Graphene is a single planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. ... For other uses, see Hexagon (disambiguation). ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Johannes Diderik van der Waals, a 1910 Nobel Prize winner, was responsible for a number of advances in physical chemistry which are named after him. ... Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is a resinous, fibrous, or rubbery organic polymer. ... Schlieren texture of Liquid Crystal nematic phase Liquid crystals are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional liquid, and those of a solid crystal. ... The pitch drop experiment. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... K value redirects here. ...


Applications

Carbon Fiber Panoz DP01 Champ Car (right rear quarter).

(For common applications, see Carbon fiber reinforced polymer or CFRP) The Panoz DP01 is the recently introduced Champ Car World Series race car that will be used in the 2007 season. ... “CART” redirects here. ... Tail of a RC helicopter, made of CFRP Carbon fiber reinforced plastic or (CFRP or CRP), is a very strong, light and expensive composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. ...


Carbon fiber is most notably used to reinforce composite materials, particularly the class of materials known as Carbon fiber or graphite reinforced polymers. Another utilization of Carbon Fiber is its added aesthetic value to various consumer products. A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ... Tail of a RC helicopter, made of CFRP Carbon fiber reinforced plastic or (CFRP or CRP), is a very strong, light and expensive composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. ...


Carbon Fiber as a tough and lightweight material is applied in the production of watch cases and dials. In watchmaking the material is often combined with polymer to improve its strength.[8]


Non-polymer materials can also be used as the matrix for carbon fibers. Due to the formation of metal carbides (i.e., water-soluble AlC) and corrosion considerations, carbon has seen limited success in metal matrix composite applications. Reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) consists of carbon fiber-reinforced graphite, and is used structurally in high-temperature applications. The fiber also finds use in filtration of high-temperature gases, as an electrode with high surface area and impeccable corrosion resistance, and as an anti-static component. For the hazard, see corrosive. ... A metal matrix composite (MMC) is a type of composite material with at least two constituent parts, one being a metal. ... Mock-up of a space shuttle leading edge, showing brittle failure of RCC due to foam impact reproducing the conditions of Columbias final launch. ... The term filter may refer to: A device to separate mixtures. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... The triboelectric effect is a type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into contact with another different material and are then separated (such as through rubbing). ...


Carbon fiber is also used in compressed gas tanks, including compressed air tanks. A P-v diagram for liquid water. ... Compressed air is used to refer to: Pneumatics, the use of pressurized gases to do work, as used in the Air car Breathing gas, often used in scuba diving, also to inflate buoyancy devices Compressed air can also be used for cooling using a vortex tube. ...


Synthesis

Each carbon filament is made out of long, thin filaments of carbon sometimes transformed to graphite. A common method of making carbon filaments is the oxidation and thermal pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), a polymer based on acrylonitrile used in the creation of synthetic materials. Like all polymers, polyacrylonitrile molecules are long chains, which are aligned in the process of drawing continuous filaments. A common method of manufacture involves heating the PAN to approximately 300 °C in air, which breaks many of the hydrogen bonds and oxidizes the material. The oxidized PAN is then placed into a furnace having an inert atmosphere of a gas such as argon, and heated to approximately 2000 °C, which induces graphitization of the material, changing the molecular bond structure. When heated in the correct conditions, these chains bond side-to-side (ladder polymers), forming narrow graphene sheets which eventually merge to form a single, jelly roll-shaped or round filament. The result is usually 93-95% carbon. Lower-quality fiber can be manufactured using pitch or rayon as the precursor instead of PAN. The carbon can become further enhanced, as high modulus, or high strength carbon, by heat treatment processes. Carbon heated in the range of 1500-2000 °C (carbonization) exhibits the highest tensile strength (820,000 psi or 5,650 MPa or 5,650 N/mm²), while carbon fiber heated from 2500 to 3000 °C (graphitizing) exhibits a higher modulus of elasticity (77,000,000 psi or 531 GPa or 531 kN/mm²). For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is a resinous, fibrous, or rubbery organic polymer. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Acrylonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula CH2CHCN. This pungent-smelling colorless liquid often appears yellow due to impurities. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Graphene is a single planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. ... A jelly roll (known outside of the United States as Swiss roll) is a cylindrical cake containing jelly or jam. ... The pitch drop experiment. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (also known as the modulus of elasticity or elastic modulus) is a measure of the Stiffness of a given material. ...


Textile

There are several categories of carbon fibers: standard modulus (250 GPa), intermediate modulus (300 GPa), and high modulus (> 300 GPa).[9] The tensile strength of different yarn types varies between 2000 and 7000 MPa. A typical density of carbon fiber is 1750 kg/m3. For other uses, see Pascal. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ...


Precursors for carbon fibers are PAN, rayon and pitch. Carbon fiber filament yarns are used in several processing techniques: the direct uses are for prepregging, filament winding, pultrusion, weaving, braiding etc. Carbon fiber yarn is rated by the linear density (weight per unit length = 1 g/1000 m = tex) or by number of filaments per yarn count, in thousands. For example, 200 tex for 3,000 filaments of carbon fiber is 3 times as strong as 1,000 carbon fibers but is also 3 times as heavy. This thread can then be used to weave a carbon fiber filament fabric or cloth. The appearance of this fabric generally depends on the linear density of the yarn and the weave chosen. Some commonly used types of weave are twill, satin and plain. In computer science, weaving describes the process of combining different aspects into a complete application. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... A twill weave can easily be identified by its diagonal lines. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Plain weave is one of the three basic types of textile weaves. ...


Manufacturers

PAN aerospace/high end carbon fiber:
Toray (largest worldwide manufacturer)
TohoTenax
Mitsubishi
Hexcel
Cytec

Nakanoshima Mitsui Building, Osaka head office of Toray, in Kita-ku, Osaka, Japan Toray Industries, Inc. ... For information on Mitsubishi brand computer monitors, see NEC-Mitsubishi Electronics Display of America Inc. ... Hexcel is a company based in Stamford, Connecticut that manufactures advanced structural materials. ... Cytec Industries is a specialty chemicals and materials technology company with pro-forma sales in 2004, including the Surface Specialties acquisition, of approximately $3. ...


PAN commercial grade carbon fiber:
Zoltek
SGL
Fortafil

Pitch carbon fiber:
Sumitomo
plus others


See also

// 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... Tail of a RC helicopter, made of CFRP Carbon fiber reinforced plastic or (CFRP or CRP), is a very strong, light and expensive composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. ...

Chemistry and Synthesis of Carbon Fiber

  • The Chemistry of Carbon Fiber
  • Making Carbon Fiber

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.answers.com/topic/carbon-fiber?cat=technology
  2. ^ Mr. Jeremy Hierholzer, Assistant Professor of Aviation Technology, Purdue University, 2007.
  3. ^ Bacon’s breakthrough
  4. ^ http://www.answers.com/topic/carbon-fiber?cat=technology
  5. ^ Carr Reinforcements - [www.carrreinforcements.com/about.htm]
  6. ^ http://www.answers.com/topic/carbon-fiber?cat=technology
  7. ^ Properties And Fiber Types
  8. ^ Carbon Fiber in Watchmaking
  9. ^ "Carbon Fiber Data Sheets - Continuous Fiber," Hexcel Corporation, 26 November 2007

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Carbon fibres
Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fiber. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Angora wool or Angora fiber refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. ... Camel hair is, variously, the hair of a camel; a type of cloth made from camel hair; or a substitute for authentic camel hair. ... Kashmere redirects here. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... Chiengora is a yarn or wool spun from dog hair. ... For other uses, see Llama (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Mohair (band). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue, attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone. ... Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper, cloth, or rope. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... This article is about vegetable fibre. ... Binomial name L. Kenaf [Etymology: Persian [1] ]. (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a species of Hibiscus, probably native to southern Asia, though its exact natural origin is unknown. ... Manila hemp, also known as manilla, is a type of fiber obtained from the leaves of the abaca (Musa textilis), a relative of the banana. ... Piña is a fiber derived from the leaves of a pineapple. ... Species About 25-30 species, including: Raphia australis Raphia farinifera Raphia hookeri Raphia regalis Raphia taedigera Raphia vinifera The Raffia palm (Raphia) is a genus of tropical palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Madagascar, Central America and South America. ... Binomial name Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. ... Binomial name Agave sisalana Perrine Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff fiber used in making rope. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Technora is the brandname of Teijin Twaron for a aromatic copolyamid. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ... Microfiber (British spelling: Microfibre) is fiber with strands less than one denier. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... This article needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), also known as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) or high performance polyethylene (HPPE), is a thermoplastic. ... Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), also known as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) or high performance polyethylene (HPPE), is a thermoplastic. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. ... poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) Zylon is a trademarked name for a range of thermoset polyurethane materials manufactured by the Toyobo Corporation. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carbon Fiber Props Contur Composite Carbon Fiber Propeller (1393 words)
Carbon fiber props are lightweight, flexible, cost effective and extremely efficient.
The carbon fiber propeller design allows each blade to be identical in size, weight and shape which dramatically reduces vibration and noise caused by metal props.
Carbon fiber propellers are extraordinary light weight, approximately 1/3 of a standard metal.
Carbon Fiber Composites (4209 words)
Carbon fibers, Though known since Thomas Edison's development of the incandescent light in the 1870s, were not made in large quantities until the late 1960s.
Carbon fiber sizing must be applied to the fiber tow (which may consist of 12,000 filaments of more) to prevent the individual filaments from contact damage between themselves or with eyelets or guides during weaving or prepreging.
Unidirectional carbon fiber tow is the strongest and lightest way to make a landing gear and since the original landing gear can be used as the mold it makes it affordable for the person who would like a starter carbon fiber project.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m