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Encyclopedia > Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
IUPAC name Carbon dioxide
Other names Carbonic acid gas; carbonic anhydride; dry ice (solid)
Identifiers
CAS number [124-38-9]
PubChem 280
EINECS number 204-696-9
UN number 1013
Solid (dry ice): 1845
Mixtures with Ethylene oxide: 1952,3300
RTECS number FF6400000
SMILES
InChI
Properties
Molecular formula CO2
Molar mass 44.0095(14) g/mol
Appearance colorless gas
Density 1,600 g/L, solid; 1.98 g/L, gas
Melting point

−57 °C (216 K) (under pressure) Image File history File links Carbon-dioxide-2D-dimensions. ... Image File history File links Carbon-dioxide-3D-vdW.svg‎ File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... Dry ice pellet sublimating in water Dry ice block sublimating in air. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The EINECS number (for European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances) is a registry number given to each chemical substance commercially available in the European Union between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. ... UN numbers or UN IDs are four-digit numbers that identify hazardous substances and products (such as explosives and poisonous materials) of commercial importance. ... Dry ice pellet sublimating in water Dry ice block sublimating in air. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... Categories: | ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

−78 °C (195 K), (sublimes) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Solubility in water 1.45 g/L
Acidity (pKa) 6.35 and 10.33
Viscosity 0.07 cP at −78 °C
Dipole moment zero
Structure
Molecular shape linear
Related compounds
Related oxides carbon monoxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: CO2) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state. It is currently at a globally averaged concentration of approximately 387 ppm by volume in the Earth's atmosphere,[1] although this is increasing due to human activity[citation needed]. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide fluctuate slightly with the change of the seasons, falling during the spring and summer as plants consume the gas, and rising during the fall and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay. Carbon dioxide makes up approximately 95.7% of Mars' atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is greenhouse gas because it transmits visible light but absorbs strongly in the infrared and near-infrared. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An acid dissociation constant, denoted by Ka, is an equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a weak acid. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The poise (P; IPA: ) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecular geometry or molecular structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule, inferred from the spectroscopic studies of the compound. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Carbon suboxide, C3O2, is a colorless gas with a melting point of -107oC and a boiling point of 6. ... Dicarbon monoxide (C2O) is an extremely reactive molecule that contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon dioxide. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon dioxide. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon dioxide. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon dioxide. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... 900MHz, 21. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Covalent redirects here. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... Air redirects here. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Visible light redirects here. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ...


Carbon dioxide is produced by all animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms during respiration and is used by plants during photosynthesis. This is to make sugars which may either be consumed again in respiration or used as the raw material to produce cellulose for plant growth. It is, therefore, a major component of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels or the burning of vegetable matter, among other chemical processes. Large amounts of carbon dioxide are emitted from volcanoes and other geothermal processes such as hot springs and geysers. Look up Respiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Geothermal may refer to: Geothermal (geology), heat that comes from within the Earth Geothermal desalination, the production of fresh water using heat energy extracted from underground rocks Geothermal heating, a method of heating and cooling a building using underground heat Geothermal power, electricity generated from naturally occurring geological heat sources... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or... Clepsydra Geyser in Yellowstone A geyser is a special type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ...


Carbon dioxide has no liquid state at pressures below 5.1 atm, but is a solid at temperatures below -78 °C. In its solid state, carbon dioxide is commonly called dry ice. Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ... Dry ice pellet sublimating in water Dry ice block sublimating in air. ...


CO2 is an acidic oxide: an aqueous solution turns litmus from blue to pink. An Acidic oxide (sometimes known as an acidic anhydride, but not to be confused with an acid anhydride) is an oxide that either reacts with water to form an acid; or reacts with a base to form a salt. ... Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens, specially Roccella tinctoria. ...


CO2 is toxic in higher concentrations: 1% (10,000 ppm) will make some people feel drowsy[citation needed]. Concentrations of 7% to 10% cause dizziness, headache, visual and hearing dysfunction, and unconsciousness within a few minutes to an hour[2].

Contents

Chemical and physical properties

Carbon dioxide pressure-temperature phase diagram showing the triple point of carbon dioxide
For more details on this topic, see Carbon dioxide (data page).
Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas. When inhaled at concentrations much higher than usual atmospheric levels, it can produce a sour taste in the mouth and a stinging sensation in the nose and throat. These effects result from the gas dissolving in the mucous membranes and saliva, forming a weak solution of carbonic acid. This sensation can also occur during an attempt to stifle a burp after drinking a carbonated beverage. Amounts above 5,000 ppm are considered very unhealthy, and those above about 50,000 ppm (equal to 5% by volume) are considered dangerous to animal life.[3]

At standard temperature and pressure, the density of carbon dioxide is around 1.98 kg/m³, about 1.5 times that of air. The carbon dioxide molecule (O=C=O) contains two double bonds and has a linear shape. It has no electrical dipole, and as it is fully oxidized, it is moderately reactive and is non-flammable, but will support the combustion of metals such as magnesium. In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon dioxide. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... For the chemical reaction forming calcium carbonate, see carbonatation. ... In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ... Air redirects here. ... Covalent redirects here. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...

Small pellets of dry ice subliming in air.
Crystal structure of dry ice

At −78.51° C or -109.3° F, carbon dioxide changes directly from a solid phase to a gaseous phase through sublimation, or from gaseous to solid through deposition. Solid carbon dioxide is normally called "dry ice", a generic trademark. It was first observed in 1825 by the French chemist Charles Thilorier. Dry ice is commonly used as a cooling agent, and it is relatively inexpensive. A convenient property for this purpose is that solid carbon dioxide sublimes directly into the gas phase leaving no liquid. It can often be found in grocery stores and laboratories, and it is also used in the shipping industry. The largest non-cooling use for dry ice is blast cleaning. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)By Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) 2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)By Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) 2007. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Deposition is a term used in chemistry to describe the settling of particles or sediment from a solution or suspension mixture, or the production of a solid on a pre-existing surface. ... Dry ice pellet sublimating in water Dry ice block sublimating in air. ... A genericized trademark (Commonwealth English genericised trade mark), sometimes known as a generic trade mark, generic descriptor or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name which is often used as the colloquial description for a particular type of product or service as a result of widespread popular or cultural... Charles Thilorier was a scientist who gave the earliest description of solid carbon dioxide. ...


Liquid carbon dioxide forms only at pressures above 5.1 atm; the triple point of carbon dioxide is about 518 kPa at −56.6 °C (See phase diagram, above). The critical point is 7.38 MPa at 31.1 °C.[4] This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ...


An alternative form of solid carbon dioxide, an amorphous glass-like form, is possible, although not at atmospheric pressure.[5] This form of glass, called carbonia, was produced by supercooling heated CO2 at extreme pressure (40–48 GPa or about 400,000 atmospheres) in a diamond anvil. This discovery confirmed the theory that carbon dioxide could exist in a glass state similar to other members of its elemental family, like silicon (silica glass) and germanium. Unlike silica and germania glasses, however, carbonia glass is not stable at normal pressures and reverts back to gas when pressure is released. An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ... Amorphous carbonia, also called a-carbonia or a-CO2, is an exotic amorphous solid form of carbon dioxide that is analogous to amorphous silica glass. ... Supercool redirects here. ... The initials GPA can refer, among other things, to Grade Point Average; see Grade (education) Guinness Peat Aviation General Practice Australia, a private, independent medical accreditation society Greyhound Pets of America This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A diamond anvil, more properly a diamond anvil cell (DAC), is a device used by physicists to exert extreme pressures on a material. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ...

See also: Supercritical carbon dioxide and dry ice

Carbon dioxide pressure-temperature phase diagram Supercritical carbon dioxide refers to carbon dioxide with some unique properties. ... Dry ice pellet sublimating in water Dry ice block sublimating in air. ...

History of human understanding

Carbon dioxide was one of the first gases to be described as a substance distinct from air. In the seventeenth century, the Flemish chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont observed that when he burned charcoal in a closed vessel, the mass of the resulting ash was much less than that of the original charcoal. His interpretation was that the rest of the charcoal had been transmuted into an invisible substance he termed a "gas" or "wild spirit" (spiritus sylvestre). Flemings and Flem redirect here. ... PAKIS RULE Jan Baptist van Helmont. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ...


The properties of carbon dioxide were studied more thoroughly in the 1750s by the Scottish physician Joseph Black. He found that limestone (calcium carbonate) could be heated or treated with acids to yield a gas he called "fixed air." He observed that the fixed air was denser than air and did not support either flame or animal life. He also found that when bubbled through an aqueous solution of lime (calcium hydroxide), it would precipitate calcium carbonate. He used this phenomenon to illustrate that carbon dioxide is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. In 1772, English chemist Joseph Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he described a process of dripping sulfuric acid (or oil of vitriol as Priestley knew it) on chalk in order to produce carbon dioxide, and forcing the gas to dissolve by agitating a bowl of water in contact with the gas.[6] Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Portlandite be merged into this article or section. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 (Old Style) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century British theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...


Carbon dioxide was first liquefied (at elevated pressures) in 1823 by Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday.[7] The earliest description of solid carbon dioxide was given by Charles Thilorier, who in 1834 opened a pressurized container of liquid carbon dioxide, only to find that the cooling produced by the rapid evaporation of the liquid yielded a "snow" of solid CO2.[8] Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... Charles Thilorier was a scientist who gave the earliest description of solid carbon dioxide. ...


Isolation and production

Carbon dioxide may be obtained from air distillation. However, this yields only very small quantities of CO2. A large variety of chemical reactions yield carbon dioxide, such as the reaction between most acids and most metal carbonates. For example, the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium carbonate (limestone or chalk) is depicted below: Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...

H2SO4 + CaCO3 → CaSO4 + H2CO3

The H2CO3 then decomposes to water and CO2. Such reactions are accompanied by foaming or bubbling, or both. In industry such reactions are widespread because they can be used to neutralize waste acid streams.


The production of quicklime (CaO) a chemical that has widespread use, from limestone by heating at about 850 °C also produces CO2: Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ...

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

The combustion of all carbon containing fuels, such as methane (natural gas), petroleum distillates (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, propane), but also of coal and wood, will yield carbon dioxide and, in most cases, water. As an example the chemical reaction between methane and oxygen is given below. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Petrol redirects here. ... Diesel or diesel fuel (IPA: ) in general is any fuel used in diesel engines. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ...

CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O

Iron is reduced from its oxides with coke in a blast furnace, producing pig iron and carbon dioxide: Fe redirects here. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ...

2 Fe2O3 + 3 C → 4 Fe + 3 CO2

Yeast metabolizes sugar to produce carbon dioxide and ethanol, also known as alcohol, in the production of wines, beers and other spirits, but also in the production of bioethanol: Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

C6H12O62 CO2 + 2 C2H5OH

All aerobic organisms produce CO2 when they oxidize carbohydrates, fatty acids, and proteins in the mitochondria of cells. The large number of reactions involved are exceedingly complex and not described easily. Refer to (cellular respiration, anaerobic respiration and photosynthesis). Photoautotrophs (i.e. plants, cyanobacteria) use another modus operandi: Plants absorb CO2 from the air, and, together with water, react it to form carbohydrates: Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Anaerobic respiration refers to the oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen to produce energy, in opposition to Aerobic respiration which does use oxygen. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Terrestrial and aquatic phototrophs: Plants grow on a fallen log floating in algae rich water. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ...

nCO2 + nH2O → (CH2O)n + nO2

Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, in which it spontaneously interconverts between CO2 and H2CO3 (carbonic acid). The relative concentrations of CO2, H2CO3, and the deprotonated forms HCO3 (bicarbonate) and CO32−(carbonate) depend on the pH. In neutral or slightly alkaline water (pH > 6.5), the bicarbonate form predominates (>50%) becoming the most prevalent (>95%) at the pH of seawater, while in very alkaline water (pH > 10.4) the predominant (>50%) form is carbonate. The bicarbonate and carbonate forms are very soluble, such that air-equilibrated ocean water (mildly alkaline with typical pH = 8.2 – 8.5) contains about 120 mg of bicarbonate per liter. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


Industrial production

Carbon dioxide is manufactured mainly from seven processes:[9]

  1. As a by-product in ammonia and hydrogen plants, where methane is converted to CO2;
  2. From combustion of wood and fossil fuels;
  3. As a by-product of fermentation of sugar in the brewing of beer, whisky and other alcoholic beverages;
  4. From thermal decomposition of limestone, CaCO3, in the manufacture of lime, CaO;
  5. As a by-product of sodium phosphate manufacture;
  6. Directly from natural carbon dioxide springs, where it is produced by the action of acidified water on limestone or dolomite.
  7. The greatest production of CO2 is not man made but produced by the tectonic movement of the earth's plates.

For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... This article is about beer. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... Lime has several meanings: Look up Lime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Lime (mineral) - a group of calcium compounds and minerals in which they predominate, including: Limestone Agricultural lime - a mineral soil additive Calcium oxide (also quicklime) - a chemical compound Calcium hydroxide (also slaked lime) - a chemical compound Lime (fruit... Sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) is a phosphate of sodium. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation). ...

Uses

Carbon dioxide bubbles in a soft drink.

Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry.[9] It is used in many consumer products that require pressurized gas because it is inexpensive and nonflammable, and because it undergoes a phase transition from gas to liquid at room temperature at an attainable pressure of approximately 60 bar (870 psi, 59 atm), allowing far more carbon dioxide to fit in a given container than otherwise would. Life jackets often contain canisters of pressured carbon dioxide for quick inflation. Aluminum capsules are also sold as supplies of compressed gas for airguns, paintball markers, for inflating bicycle tires, and for making seltzer. Rapid vaporization of liquid carbon dioxide is used for blasting in coal mines. High concentrations of carbon dioxide can also be used to kill pests, such as the Common Clothes Moth. Macro photograph of coca-cola bubbles. ... Macro photograph of coca-cola bubbles. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... Air guns are weapons that propel a bullet using compressed air or another gas, possibly liquefied. ... A woodsball player firing at opponents from behind cover. ... Effervescence from soda. ... Binomial name (Hummel, 1823) Synonyms Tinea lanariella Tineola furciferella Tinea flavifrontella Tinea destructor Tinea crinella The Clothing Moth (Tineola bisselliella) is a winged insect capable of flying, which develops from a caterpillar. ...


Carbon dioxide is used to produce carbonated soft drinks and soda water. Traditionally, the carbonation in beer and sparkling wine comes about through natural fermentation, but some manufacturers carbonate these drinks artificially. A candy called Pop Rocks is pressurized with carbon dioxide gas at about 40 bar (600 psi). When placed in the mouth, it dissolves (just like other hard candy) and releases the gas bubbles with an audible pop. For the chemical reaction forming calcium carbonate, see carbonatation. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... Bubbles in carbonated water float to the surface. ... Strawberry flavored Pop Rocks Pop Rocks (UK: Space dust) is a carbonated candy with ingredients including sugar, lactose (milk sugar), corn syrup, and flavoring. ...


Leavening agents produce carbon dioxide to cause dough to rise. Baker's yeast produces carbon dioxide by fermentation of sugars within the dough, while chemical leaveners such as baking powder and baking soda release carbon dioxide when heated or if exposed to acids. A leavening agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... [[Image:PIPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPbe caused by ingredients like buttermilk, lemon, yoghurt, citrus, or honey. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ...

Carbon dioxide is the most commonly used compressed gas for pneumatic systems in portable pressure tools and combat robots. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1204x680, 228 KB) Summary continuous wave 50,000 watt carbon dioxide electric discharge coaxial laser [1]. Original caption: A sergeant operates a 15,000-watt laser. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1204x680, 228 KB) Summary continuous wave 50,000 watt carbon dioxide electric discharge coaxial laser [1]. Original caption: A sergeant operates a 15,000-watt laser. ... A test target is vaporized and bursts into flame upon irradiation by a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser emitting tens of kilowatts of infrared light. ... Robot Combat is a hobby in which two or more radio-controlled machines use varied methods of destroying or disabling the other robot. ...


Carbon dioxide extinguishes flames, and some fire extinguishers, especially those designed for electrical fires, contain liquid carbon dioxide under pressure. Carbon dioxide also finds use as an atmosphere for welding, although in the welding arc, it reacts to oxidize most metals. Use in the automotive industry is common despite significant evidence that welds made in carbon dioxide are brittler than those made in more inert atmospheres, and that such weld joints deteriorate over time because of the formation of carbonic acid. It is used as a welding gas primarily because it is much less expensive than more inert gases such as argon or helium. Fire extinguisher A fire extinguisher is a device used to put out a fire, often in an emergency situation. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... A material is brittle if it is subject to fracture when subjected to stress i. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ...


Liquid carbon dioxide is a good solvent for many lipophilic organic compounds, and is used to remove caffeine from coffee. First, the green coffee beans are soaked in water. The beans are placed in the top of a column seventy feet (21 meters) high. Then super-pressurized carbon dioxide in fluid form at about 93 degrees Celsius enters at the bottom of the column. The caffeine diffuses out of the beans and into the carbon dioxide. For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ...


Carbon dioxide has begun to attract attention in the pharmaceutical and other chemical processing industries as a less toxic alternative to more traditional solvents such as organochlorides. It's used by some dry cleaners for this reason. (See green chemistry.) Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... An organochloride, organochlorine or chlorocarbon, is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom. ... Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using an organic solvent other than water — generally known as dry cleaning fluid, and typically this is tetrachloroethylene. ... Green chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. ...


Plants require carbon dioxide to conduct photosynthesis, and greenhouses may enrich their atmospheres with additional CO2 to boost plant growth, since its low present-day atmosphere concentration is just above the "suffocation" level for green plants. A photosynthesis-related drop in carbon dioxide concentration in a greenhouse compartment can kill green plants. At high concentrations, carbon dioxide is toxic to animal life, so raising the concentration to 10,000 ppm (1%) for several hours can eliminate pests such as whiteflies and spider mites in a greenhouse. Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Whitefly Categories: Stub ... Binomial name Tetranychus urticae C.L. Koch, 1836 The Red Spider Mite is a predatory mite found in dry environments, generally considered a pest. ...


It has been proposed that carbon dioxide from power generation be bubbled into ponds to grow algae that could then be converted into biodiesel fuel.[10] In medicine, up to 5% carbon dioxide is added to pure oxygen for stimulation of breathing after apnea and to stabilize the O2/CO2 balance in blood. This article is about transesterified lipids. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Apnea, apnoea, or apnœa (Greek απνοια, from α-, privative, πνεειν, to breathe) is a technical term for suspension of external breathing. ...


A common type of industrial gas laser is the carbon dioxide laser. For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... A test target is vaporized and bursts into flame upon irradiation by a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser emitting tens of kilowatts of infrared light. ...


Carbon dioxide can also be combined with limonene oxide from orange peels or other epoxides to create polymers and plastics.[11] Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... A category of ethers, epoxides exist as an oxygen doubly bonded to two carbon groups. ...


Carbon dioxide is used in enhanced oil recovery where it is injected into or adjacent to producing oil wells, usually under supercritical conditions. It acts as both a pressurizing agent and, when dissolved into the underground crude oil, significantly reduces its viscosity, enabling the oil to flow more rapidly through the earth to the removal well.[12] In mature oil fields, extensive pipe networks are used to carry the carbon dioxide to the injection points. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a generic term for techniques for increasing the amount of oil that can be extracted from an oil field. ... A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ...


In the chemical industry, carbon dioxide is used for the production of urea, carbonates and bicarbonates, and sodium salicylate. Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , Autoignition temperature > 250 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sodium salicylate is a sodium salt of salicylic acid. ...


Liquid and solid carbon dioxide are important refrigerants, especially in the food industry, where they are employed during the transportation and storage of ice cream and other frozen foods. Solid carbon dioxide is called "dry ice" and is used for small shipments where refrigeration equipment is not practical. A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ...


Liquid carbon dioxide (industry nomenclature R744 / R-744) was used as a refrigerant prior to the discovery of R-12 and is likely to enjoy a renaissance due to environmental concerns. Its physical properties are highly favorable for cooling, refrigeration, and heating purposes, having a high volumetric cooling capacity. Due to its operation at pressures of up to 130 bars, CO2 systems require highly resistant components that have been already developed to serial production in many sectors. In car air conditioning, in more than 90% of all driving conditions, R744 operates more efficiently than systems using R-134a. Its environmental advantages (GWP of 1, non-ozone depleting, non-toxic, non-flammable) could make it the future working fluid to replace current HFCs in cars, supermarkets, hot water heat pumps, among others. Some applications: Coca-Cola has fielded CO2-based beverage coolers and the US Army is interested in CO2 refrigeration and heating technology.[13][14] R-phrases S-phrases , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12), usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane, commonly known as CFC, used as a refrigerant and... 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, also called simply tetrafluoroethane or R-134a, is a refrigerant that has zero ozone depletion potential and thermodynamic properties similar to R-12. ... Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


By the end of 2007, the global car industry is expected to decide on the next-generation refrigerant in car air conditioning. CO2 is one discussed option.(see The Cool War) This article is about refrigerants. ...


In enhanced coal bed methane recovery, carbon dioxide is pumped into the coal seam to displace methane.[15]


In the Earth's atmosphere

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured at Mauna Loa Observatory.

Carbon dioxide in earth's atmosphere is considered a trace gas currently occurring at an average concentration of about 385 parts per million by volume or 582 parts per million by mass. The mass of the Earth atmosphere is 5.14×1018 kg [16], so the total mass of atmospheric carbon dioxide is 3.0×1015 kg (3,000 gigatonnes). Its concentration varies seasonally (see graph at right) and also considerably on a regional basis: in urban areas it is generally higher and indoors it can reach 10 times the background atmospheric concentration. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is an atmospheric baseline station. ... Carbon dioxide in the Earths atmosphere is present in a low concentration. ... Air redirects here. ... The term trace gas refers to a gas or gasses which make up less than 1% of the earths atmosphere. ... Earths atmosphere is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ...


Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. See greenhouse effect for more. Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ...

Yearly increase of atmospheric CO2: In the 1960s, the average annual increase was 37% of the 2000-2007 average.[17]

Due to human activities such as the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation, the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased by about 35% since the beginning of the age of industrialization.[18] In 1999, 2,244,804,000 metric tons of CO2 were produced in the U.S. as a result of electric energy generation. This is an output rate of 0.6083 kg (1.341 pounds) per kWh.[19] Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Five hundred million years ago carbon dioxide was 20 times more prevalent than today, decreasing to 4-5 times during the Jurassic period and then maintained a slow decline until the industrial revolution, with a particularly swift reduction occurring 49 million years ago.[20][21] The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Up to 40% of the gas emitted by some volcanoes during subaerial volcanic eruptions is carbon dioxide.[22] According to the best estimates, volcanoes release about 130-230 million tonnes (145-255 million tons) of CO2 into the atmosphere each year. Carbon dioxide is also produced by hot springs such as those at the Bossoleto site near Rapolano Terme in Tuscany, Italy. Here, in a bowl-shaped depression of about 100 m diameter, local concentrations of CO2 rise to above 75% overnight, sufficient to kill insects and small animals, but warm rapidly when sunlit and disperse by convection during the day[23] Locally high concentrations of CO2, produced by disturbance of deep lake water saturated with CO2 are thought to have caused 37 fatalities at Lake Monoun, Cameroon in 1984 and 1700 casualties at Lake Nyos, Cameroon in 1986.[24] However, emissions of CO2 by human activities are currently more than 130 times greater than the quantity emitted by volcanoes, amounting to about 27 billion tonnes per year (30 billion tons).[25] Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Lake Monoun is a lake in West Province, Cameroon that lies in the Oku Volcanic Field . ... Lake Nyos is a crater lake in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, located at . ...


In the oceans

There is about 50 times as much carbon dissolved in the oceans in the form of CO2 and CO2 hydration products as exists in the atmosphere. The oceans act as an enormous carbon sink, having "absorbed about one-third of all human-generated CO2 emissions to date."[26] Generally, gas solubility decreases as water temperature increases. Accordingly carbon dioxide is released from ocean water into the atmosphere as ocean temperatures rise. A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is the opposite of a carbon source. ...


Most of the CO2 taken up by the ocean forms carbonic acid. Some is consumed in photosynthesis by organisms in the water, and a small proportion of that sinks and leaves the carbon cycle. There is considerable concern that as a result of increased CO2 in the atmosphere the acidity of seawater will increase and may adversely affect organisms living in the water. In particular, with increasing acidity, the availability of carbonates for forming shells decreases.[citation needed]


Biological role

Carbon dioxide is an end product in organisms that obtain energy from breaking down sugars, fats and amino acids with oxygen as part of their metabolism, in a process known as cellular respiration. This includes all plants, animals, many fungi and some bacteria. In higher animals, the carbon dioxide travels in the blood from the body's tissues to the lungs where it is exhaled. In plants using photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere. This article is about the class of chemicals. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ...


Role in photosynthesis

Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis, also called carbon assimilation, which uses light energy to produce organic plant materials (cellulose) by combining carbon dioxide and water. Free oxygen is released as gas from the decomposition of water molecules, while the hydrogen is split into its protons and electrons and used to generate chemical energy via photophosphorylation. This energy is required for the fixation of carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle to form sugars. These sugars can then be used for growth within the plant through respiration. Carbon fixation is a process found in autotrophs, usually driven by photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide is changed into organic materials. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... The production of ATP using the energy of sunlight is called photophosphorylation. ... Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation The Calvin cycle (or Calvin-Benson cycle or carbon fixation) is a series of biochemical reactions that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. ...


Even when vented, carbon dioxide must be introduced into greenhouses to maintain plant growth, as the concentration of carbon dioxide can fall during daylight hours to as low as 200 ppm (a limit of C3 carbon fixation photosynthesis[citation needed]). Plants can potentially grow up to 50 percent faster in concentrations of 1,000 ppm CO2 when compared with ambient conditions.[27] C3 carbon fixation is a pathway for carbon fixation in photosynthesis. ...


Plants also emit CO2 during respiration, so it is only during growth stages that plants are net absorbers. For example a growing forest will absorb many tons of CO2 each year, however a mature forest will produce as much CO2 from respiration and decomposition of dead specimens (e.g. fallen branches) as used in biosynthesis in growing plants.[28] Regardless of this, mature forests are still valuable carbon sinks, helping maintain balance in the Earth's atmosphere. Additionally, and crucially to life on earth, phytoplankton photosynthesis absorbs dissolved CO2 in the upper ocean and thereby promotes the absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere.[29] Biosynthesis is a phenomenon where chemical compounds are produced from simpler reagents. ... A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is the opposite of a carbon source. ...


Toxicity

Carbon dioxide content in fresh air varies between 0.03% (300 ppm) and 0.06% (600 ppm), depending on the location (see graphical map of CO2 in real-time).


According to the Australian Maritime Safety Authority, "Prolonged exposure to moderate concentrations can cause acidosis and adverse effects on calcium phosphorus metabolism resulting in increased calcium deposits in soft tissue. Carbon dioxide is toxic to the heart and causes diminished contractile force. At concentrations of three per cent by volume in air, it is mildly narcotic and causes increased blood pressure and pulse rate, and causes reduced hearing. At concentrations of about five per cent by volume it causes stimulation of the respiratory centre, dizziness, confusion and difficulty in breathing accompanied by headache and shortness of breath. At about eight per cent concentration it causes headache, sweating, dim vision, tremor and loss of consciousness after exposure for between five and ten minutes." [30]


Due to the health risks associated with carbon dioxide exposure, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration says that average exposure for health adults during an eight-hour work day should not exceed 5,000 ppm (0.5%). The maximum safe level for infants, children, the elderly and individuals with cardio-pulmonary health issues is significantly less. For short-term (under ten minutes) exposure, the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) limit is 30,000 ppm (3%). NIOSH also states that carbon dioxide concentrations exceeding 4% are immediately dangerous to life and health. [31]


Adaptation to increased levels of CO2 occurs in humans. Continuous inhalation of CO2 can be tolerated at three percent inspired concentrations for at least one month and four percent inspired concentrations for over a week. It was suggested that 2.0 percent inspired concentrations could be used for closed air spaces (ex. Submarine) since the adaptation is physiological and reversible. Decrement in performance or in normal physical activity does not happen at this level.[32][33] For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


These figures are valid for pure carbon dioxide. In indoor spaces occupied by people the carbon dioxide concentration will reach higher levels than in pure outdoor air. Concentrations higher than 1,000 ppm will cause discomfort in more than 20% of occupants, and the discomfort will increase with increasing CO2 concentration. The discomfort will be caused by various gases coming from human respiration and perspiration, and not by CO2 itself. At 2,000 ppm the majority of occupants will feel a significant degree of discomfort, and many will develop nausea and headaches. The CO2 concentration between 300 and 2,500 ppm is used as an indicator of indoor air quality.


Acute carbon dioxide toxicity is sometimes known by the names given to it by miners: blackdamp (also called choke damp or stythe). Miners would try to alert themselves to dangerous levels of carbon dioxide in a mine shaft by bringing a caged canary with them as they worked. The canary would inevitably die before CO2 reached levels toxic to people. Carbon dioxide caused a great loss of life at Lake Nyos in Cameroon in 1986, when an upwelling of CO2-laden lake water quickly blanketed a large surrounding populated area.[34] The heavier carbon dioxide forced out the life-sustaining oxygen near the surface, killing nearly two thousand people. Blackdamp is a mixture of gases formed when oxygen is removed from the atmosphere, so comprises mainly nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapour. ... The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine This article is about mineral extraction. ... Lake Nyos is a crater lake in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, located at . ...


Carbon dioxide ppm levels (CDPL) are a surrogate for measuring indoor pollutants that may cause occupants to grow drowsy, get headaches, or function at lower activity levels. To eliminate most Indoor Air Quality complaints, total indoor CDPL must be reduced to below 600. NIOSH considers that indoor air concentrations that exceed 1,000 are a marker suggesting inadequate ventilation. ASHRAE recommends they not exceed 1,000 inside a space. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ... The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is an international voluntary organization for people involved in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, or refrigeration (HVAC&R). ...


Human physiology

See also: Arterial blood gas

CO2 is carried in blood in three different ways. (The exact percentages vary depending whether it is arterial or venous blood). An arterial blood gas (also called ABGS) is a blood test that is performed specifically on arterial blood, to determine the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen and bicarbonate, as well as the pH of the blood. ...

  • Most of it (about 70% – 80%) is converted to bicarbonate ions HCO3 by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells,[35] by the reaction CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3.

Hemoglobin, the main oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells, carries both oxygen and carbon dioxide. However, the CO2 bound to hemoglobin does not bind to the same site as oxygen. Instead, it combines with the N-terminal groups on the four globin chains. However, because of allosteric effects on the hemoglobin molecule, the binding of CO2 decreases the amount of oxygen that is bound for a given partial pressure of oxygen. The decreased binding to carbon dioxide in the blood due to increased oxygen levels is known as the Haldane Effect, and is important in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Conversely, a rise in the partial pressure of CO2 or a lower pH will cause offloading of oxygen from hemoglobin, which is known as the Bohr Effect. For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... Carbonic anhydrase (carbonate dehydratase) is a family of metalloenzymes (enzymes that contain one or more metal atoms as a functional component of the enzyme) that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... A compound composed by the addition of carbon dioxide with a free amino group in an amino acid or a protein,such as hemoglobin forming carbaminohemoglobin. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... In biochemistry, allosteric regulation is the regulation of an enzyme or protein by binding an effector molecule at the proteins allosteric site (that is, a site other than the proteins active site). ... The Haldane effect is a property of hemoglobin first described by the British physician John Scott Haldane. ... Oxyhaemoglobin Dissociation Curve. ...


Carbon dioxide is one of the mediators of local autoregulation of blood supply. If its levels are high, the capillaries expand to allow a greater blood flow to that tissue. Autoregulation is a specific form of homeostasis used to describe the tendency of the body to keep blood flow constant when blood pressure varies. ... The word capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. ...


Bicarbonate ions are crucial for regulating blood pH. A person's breathing rate influences the level of CO2 in their blood. Breathing that is too slow or shallow causes respiratory acidosis, while breathing that is too rapid leads to hyperventilation, which may cause respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory acidosis is acidosis (abnormal acidity of the blood) due to decreased ventilation of the pulmonary alveoli, leading to elevated arterial carbon dioxide concentration. ... In medicine, hyperventilation (or hyperpnea) is the state of breathing faster or deeper (hyper) than necessary, and thereby reducing the carbon dioxide concentration of the blood below normal. ... Alkalosis refers to a condition reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma. ...


Although the body requires oxygen for metabolism, low oxygen levels do not stimulate breathing. Rather, breathing is stimulated by higher carbon dioxide levels. As a result, breathing low-pressure air or a gas mixture with no oxygen at all (such as pure nitrogen) can lead to loss of consciousness without ever experiencing air hunger. This is especially perilous for high-altitude fighter pilots. It is also why flight attendants instruct passengers, in case of loss of cabin pressure, to apply the oxygen mask to themselves first before helping others — otherwise one risks going unconscious.[35] Air hunger is the sensation of the urge to breathe. ...


Typically the gas we exhale is about 4% to 5% carbon dioxide and 4% to 5% less oxygen than was inhaled. For the play Breath by Samuel Beckett, see Breath (play). ...


According to a study by the United States Department of Agriculture, an average person's respiration generates approximately 450 liters (roughly 900 grams) of carbon dioxide per day.[36] USDA redirects here. ...


See also

The Bosch reaction is a chemical reaction between carbon dioxide and hydrogen that produces elemental carbon (graphite), water and heat. ... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon dioxide. ... A carbon dioxide (CO2) sink is a carbon dioxide reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon dioxide source. The main natural sinks are (1) the oceans and (2) plants and other organisms that use photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere by incorporating it... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change is a non-profit organization based in Arizona. ... Lake Nyos is a crater lake in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, located at . ... A CO2 sensor is an instrument for the measurement of carbon dioxide gas. ... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The Sabatier process involves the reaction of hydrogen with carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of a nickel catalyst to produce methane and water. ... C02 sequestration is the capture, extraction, separation, collection, etc, of carbon dioxide and a means for its storage or use. ...

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is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 (Old Style) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century British theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Carbon suboxide, C3O2, is a colorless gas with a melting point of -107oC and a boiling point of 6. ... Dicarbon monoxide (C2O) is an extremely reactive molecule that contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Metal carbonyls are organometallic complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... An isocyanide (erroneously called isonitrile) is a functional group in organic synthesis containing carbon and nitrogen. ... The cyanate ion is an anion consisting of one oxygen atom, one carbon atom, and one nitrogen atom (OCN−), in that order, and possesses 1 unit of negative charge, borne mainly by the nitrogen atom. ... The structure and bonding of the thiocyanate ion Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is the anion, [SCN]−. Common compounds include the colourless salts potassium thiocyanate and sodium thiocyanate. ... Isothiocyanate is the chemical group -N=C=S, formed by substituting sulfur for oxygen in the isocyanate group. ... Calcium carbide. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (3667 words)
Carbon dioxide emissions from generators that produce electric power as part of an industrial or commercial operation—that is, businesses that produce electricity primarily for their own use—are not included in the electric power sector total but are assigned to the industrial or commercial sector according to the classification of the business.
Carbon dioxide emissions from ethanol consumption are considered to be zero because the carbon in the fuel is derived primarily from corn, and it is assumed that an equivalent amount of carbon will be sequestered during the corn growing season.
Carbon dioxide is also released during aluminum smelting, when carbon anodes (with the carbon derived from nonfuel use of fossil fuels) are vaporized in the presence of aluminum oxide.
Universal Industrial Gases, Inc...CO2 Carbon Dioxide Properties, Uses, Applications  -  Recovery from ... (1604 words)
Carbon dioxide is used in selectively, primarily in wells which will benefit not only from re-pressurization, but also from a reduction in viscosity of the oil in the reservoir caused by a portion of the CO dissolving in the oil.
Carbon dioxide plays a major role as a component of the carbon cycle in which carbon is exchanged between the atmosphere, the terrestrial biosphere (which includes freshwater systems and soil), the oceans, and sediments (including fossil fuels).
Carbon dioxide is used on a large scale as a shield gas in MIG/MAG welding, where the gas protects the weld puddle against oxidation by the surrounding air.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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