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Encyclopedia > Carbon Disulfide
Carbon disulfide
IUPAC name Carbon disulfide
Other names Dithiocarbonic anhydride
Identifiers
CAS number 75-15-0
SMILES CS(S)
Properties
Molecular formula CS2
Molar mass 76.1 g/mol
Appearance colorless liquid
impure: light-yellow
Density 1.26 g/cm³
Melting point

-112 °C Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... Adobe Creative Suite is a collection of graphic design, video editing, and web development applications made by Adobe Systems. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1041x285, 4 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carbon disulfide ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x814, 131 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carbon disulfide ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

46 °C Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in other solvents 0.2 g/100 ml of water (20 °C)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
NFPA 704

Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon disulfide. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

4
3
0
 
R-phrases R11, R23, R24, R25, R48
S-phrases S16, S33, Template:S44, S53
Flash point -30 °C
Autoignition
temperature
90 °C
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Carbon disulfide is a colorless, volatile liquid with the formula CS2. The compound is used frequently as a building block in organic chemistry as well as an industrial and chemical solvent. It has an "ether-like" odor, but commercial samples are typically contaminated with foul-smelling impurities.[1] R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... The autoignition temperature, or the ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which a chemical will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere, without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon disulfide. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon disulfide. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon disulfide. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon disulfide. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ...

Contents

Occurrence and manufacture

Small amounts of carbon disulfide are released by volcanic eruptions and marshes. CS2 once was manufactured by combining carbon (or coke) and sulfur at high temperatures. A lower temperature reaction, requiring only 600 °C utilizes natural gas as the carbon source in the presence of kieselgel or alumina catalysts:[1] Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Beads of silica gel Silica gel is a granular, porous form of silica made synthetically from sodium silicate. ... Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...

CH4 + 1/2 S8 → CS2 + 2 H2S

The reaction is analogous to the combustion of methane. Although it is structurally similar to carbon dioxide, CS2 is highly flammable:

CS2 + 3 O2 → CO2 + 2 SO2

Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...

Reactions

Compared to CO2, CS2 is more reactive toward nucleophiles and more easily reduced. These differences in reactivity can be attributed to the weaker π donor-ability of the sulfido centers, which renders the carbon more electrophilic. It is widely used in the synthesis of organosulfur compounds such as Metham sodium, a soil fumigant. In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover) is a reagent which is attracted to centres of positive charge. ...


Addition of nucleophiles

Nucleophiles such as amines afford dithiocarbamates: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate is the chemical compound with the formula NaS2CN(C2H5)2. ...

2R2NH + CS2 → [R2NH2+][R2NCS2-]

Xanthates form similarly from alkoxides: An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom. ...

RONa + CS2 → [Na+][ROCS2-]

This reaction is the basis of the manufacture of regenerated cellulose, the main ingredient of viscose rayon and cellophane. Both xanthates and the related thioxanthates (derived from treatment of CS2 with sodium thiolates) are used as flotation agents in mineral processing. Sodium sulfide affords trithiocarbonate: Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Viscose is a viscous organic liquid used to make rayman and semoflange. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of processed cellulose. ... In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ...

Na2S + CS2 → [Na+]2[CS32-]

Reduction

Sodium reduces CS2 to give the heterocycle "dmit2-":[2]

3 CS2 + 4 Na → Na2C3S5 + Na2S

Direct electrochemical reduction affords the tetrathiooxalate anion:[3]

2 CS2 + 2e- → C2S42-

Chlorination

Chlorination of CS2 is the principal route to carbon tetrachloride:[1] R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point Non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

CS2 + 3 Cl2 → CCl4 + S2Cl2

This conversion proceeds via the intermediacy of thiophosgene, CSCl2. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Disulfur dichloride is S2Cl2. ... Thiophosgene is a yellow liquid with the formula CSCl2. ...


Coordination chemistry

CS2 is a ligand for many metal complexes, forming pi complexes. One example is CpCo(η2-CS2)(PMe3).[4] // η-bonding The Greek letter η (eta) is used to denote the number of atoms of a ligand that bind to a metal center. ...


Commercial Availability

CS2 being highly flammable and having one of the lowest autoignition temperatures cannot be transported easily using commercial means. Worldwide exports of this chemical are negligible.


Pressurized Liquid Nitrogen Based Sample

Johnson Mathey's sister company Alfa Aesar was the first company to introduce carbon disulphide in the form of pressurized bottle containing a solution of pressurized nitrogen, coupling agent, stablizer, and carbon disulphide, with an active carbon disulphide content of 85%. Dilution with nitrogen rendered contents inflammable. In 2007 Alfa Aesar stopped selling carbon disulphide samples.


Health effects

At very high levels, carbon disulfide may be life-threatening because it affects the nervous system. Significant safety data come from the viscose rayon Industry, where both carbon disulfide as well as small amounts of H2S may be present. Health effects The Human Nervous System. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


At very high levels, carbon disulfide may be life-threatening because of its effects on the nervous system. People who breathed carbon disulfide near an accident involving a railroad car showed changes in breathing and some chest pains.


Some workers who breathed high levels during working hours for at least 6 months had headaches, tiredness, and trouble sleeping. However, these workers may have been exposed to other chemicals besides carbon disulfide. Among workers who breathed lower levels, some developed very slight changes in their nerves.


Studies in animals indicate that carbon disulfide can affect the normal functions of the brain, liver, and heart. After pregnant rats breathed carbon disulfide in the air, some of the newborn rats died or had birth defects.


High concentrations of carbon disulfide have caused skin burns when the chemical accidentally touched people's skin.


References

  1. ^ a b c Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  2. ^ Girolami, G. S.; Rauchfuss, T. B. and Angelici, R. J., Synthesis and Technique in Inorganic Chemistry, University Science Books: Mill Valley, CA, 1999.ISBN: 0935702482
  3. ^ Jeroschewski, P. "Electrochemical Preparation of Tetraalkylammonium Salts of Tetrathiooxalic Acid" Zeitschrift für Chemie (1981), volume 21, 412.
  4. ^ Werner, H. (1982). "Novel Coordination Compounds formed from CS2 and Heteroallenes". Coordination Chemistry Reviews 43: 165-185. doi:10.1016/S0010-8545(00)82095-0. 

Health effects A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...


At very high levels, carbon disulfide may be life-threatening because of its effects on the nervous system. People who breathed carbon disulfide near an accident involving a railroad car showed changes in breathing and some chest pains.


Some workers who breathed high levels during working hours for at least 6 months had headaches, tiredness, and trouble sleeping. However, these workers may have been exposed to other chemicals besides carbon disulfide. Among workers who breathed lower levels, some developed very slight changes in their nerves.


Studies in animals indicate that carbon disulfide can affect the normal functions of the brain, liver, and heart. After pregnant rats breathed carbon disulfide in the air, some of the newborn rats died or had birth defects.


High concentrations of carbon disulfide have caused skin burns when the chemical accidentally touched people's skin.


External links

  • National Pollutant Inventory: Carbon disulfide

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carbon disulfide, xanthates and metham sodium (888 words)
Carbon disulfide is manufactured from hydrocarbons and sulfur and is a very flammable liquid which is therefore extremely hazardous to manufacture and transport.
Worldwide carbon disulfide is used to manufacture regenerated cellulose (viscose rayon and cellophane), carbon tetrachloride and organic sulfur compounds including xanthates used as flotation agents in mineral processing and Metham sodium soil fumigant.
In Australia carbon disulfide is used by Nufarm at Kwinana WA to produce metham sodium, a dithiocarbamate soil fumigant pesticide and since 1998, by Coogee Chemicals WA to produce xanthates.
Carbon Disulfide: Health Information Summary (803 words)
Carbon disulfide is also used in agriculture as a pesticide and fumigant.
A significant percentage of total carbon disulfide in the environment naturally occurs in oceans, marshes, wetlands, and from volcanoes, although it is likely to be found at low concentrations relative to an industrial release of the chemical.
The odor threshold for carbon disulfide in water is reported to be about three parts per billion (ppb); the odor threshold in air has been reported to range from eight to 200 ppb.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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