Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units. The empirical formula for carbohydrates, like that of their monomer counterparts, is CX(H2YOY). Carbohydrates literally undergo combustion to retrieve the large amounts of energy in their bonds. Read more about mitochondria to find out more about the reaction and how its energy is secured in ATP.
Carbohydrates are classified by their number of sugar units: monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose), disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides (such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose).
The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, which are small straight-chain aldehydes and ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon except the functional group.
Carbohydrates require less water to digest than proteins or fats and are the most common source of energy.
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