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Encyclopedia > Carantania

History of Slovenia Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Slovenia. ... // The territory of present day Slovenia under the Roman Empire In ancient times Celts and Illyrians inhabited the territory of present-day Slovenia. ...

Samo's Realm
Karantania
Carniola
March of Carniola
Illyrian Provinces
Kingdom of Illyria
Duchy of Carniola
Drava Banovina
Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Republic of Slovenia

Karantania (also Carantania, Carentania, in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slavic principality that emerged in the 7th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. Having lasted almost 300 years, it is considered one of the first Slavic state forms. This biography does not cite any references or sources. ... Karantania (also Carantania, Carentania, in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slavic principality that emerged in the 7th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ... The Mark Krain (March of Carniola) is in the southeast (lower right) of this map of the 10th-century Holy Roman Empire. ... Illyrian Provinces (French Provinces illyriennes) were formed in 1809 when Austria ceded with the Treaty of Schoenbrunn its lands Carinthia, Carniola, Croatia southwest of the river Sava, Gorizia and Trieste to France after the defeat at the Battle of Wagram. ... Illyria (Anc. ... Carniola (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a region in Slovenia. ... Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Drava Banovina is coloured yellow, on the top left part of the map) The Drava Banovina or Drava Banate (Slovenian and Croatian: Dravska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... Flag of Socialist Republic of Slovenia Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia Socialist Republic of Slovenia was the official name of Slovenia as a federal unit in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Onomastics (Onomatology) is the study of proper names of all kinds and the origins of names. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Slovenian: Koroška) is the southernmost Austrian state or Land; it is chiefly famous for its mountains and lakes. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...

Contents

Territory

Hypothetical borders of Karantania around 828
Hypothetical borders of Karantania around 828

Karantania's capital was most likely Karnburg (Slovenian Krnski grad) in the Zollfeld valley (Slovenian Gosposvetsko polje), north of modern Klagenfurt (Slovenian Celovec). Apart from the territory of modern Carinthia, it included parts of today's East Tyrol, Styria, the Lungau and Ennspongau regions of Salzburg, and parts of southern Upper Austria and Lower Austria. It is not certain whether it also included parts of modern Slovenia. The few existing historical sources distinguish two separate principalities: Karantania and Karniola. The latter appears in historical record in late 8th century and was situated in the central part of modern Slovenia. It was (at least by its name) the predecessor to the later Carniola (Slovenian Kranjska). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1006x1030, 39 KB) Map of Karantania. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1006x1030, 39 KB) Map of Karantania. ... Events Egbert became first King of England Alcamo was founded by the Muslim commander al-Kamuk. ... The Maria Saal Cathedral Maria Saal (Slovenian: Gospa Sveta) is a market town in the district of Klagenfurt-Land in Carinthia, Austria, in the Zollfield Valley. ... Klagenfurt since July 3, 2007 Klagenfurt am Wörthersee is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia (German Kärnten), in Austria. ... East Tyrol is an exclave of the Austrian state of Tyrol, sharing no border with North Tyrol, the main part of the state. ... Styria redirects here. ... The Bezirk Tamsweg is an administrative district (Bezirk) in the federal state of Salzburg, Austria, and congruent with the Lungau. ... The Bezirk Sankt Johann im Pongau is an administrative district (Bezirk) in the federal state of Salzburg, Austria, and congruent with the Pongau. ... Salzburg is a state or Land of Austria with an area of 7,154 km², located adjacent to the German border. ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ...


The borders of the later Karantania, which was under the feudal overlordship of the Carolingians and their successors March of Carinthia (as part of Bavaria, 826-976), as well as of the later Duchy of Carinthia (from 976), extended beyond historical Karantania. Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The Holy Roman Emperor during the tenth century. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Events The Danish king accepts Christianity. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state coat The Duchy of Carinthia (German language: Kärnten, Slovenian: Koroška) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ...


History

In 568, Langobards receded into Northern Italy. Subsequently, in the last decades of the 6th century, Slavs gradually settled in the Eastern Alpine region. After 591 they conquered the area along the upper Drava river and fought with the Bavarian king Tassilo I. Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Scandinavia that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Events Ethelbert of Kent elected Bretwalda after Ceawlin of Wessex, the former Bretwalda, is deposed. ... The Drava at Drávaszabolcs, Hungary The Drava at Vízvár, Hungary The Drava at Maribor, Slovenia Drava or Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian, Croatian and Italian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. ... Tassilo I (or Tassilon) (560 – 610) was King of Bavaria from 591 to his death. ...


In 623, Slavs joined Samo's Tribal Union (623-626), also known in historical sources as Marca Vinedorum. The Union was ruled by the duke Valuk (Wallux dux Winedorum). In 658, Samo died and his Tribal Union disintegrated. The name Karantania begins to appear after 660. Events Clotaire II, king of the Franks, makes his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia Samo, reputedly a Frankish merchant, governs in Moravia, Slovakia and Lower Austria. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This biography does not cite any references or sources. ... Events Clotaire II, king of the Franks, makes his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia Samo, reputedly a Frankish merchant, governs in Moravia, Slovakia and Lower Austria. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... Events The union of Slavic tribes falls apart after Samos death Births Deaths King Samo of the Slavs Categories: 658 ... Events Childeric II proclaimed king of Austrasia. ...


The claim of whether Karantania was the first Slavic state form is a topic of some controversy. According to some interpretations, that title should be attributed to Bulgarian Empire which was established in 681, although the Bulgarian empire was still Turkic at this time, only becoming 'Slavicized' in the 9th century. Some historians argue that the Bulgars were an Iranian, not a Turkic people, and would also argue that the Bulgarians were Slavicized much earlier than the ninth century. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... First Bulgarian Empire Second Bulgarian Empire This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the...


In 745, Karantania lost its independence and became part of the semifeudal Frankish Empire (which was ruled by king Charlemagne (742-814) from 771 to 814), due to pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east. Events Births November 10 - Musa al-Kazim, Shia Imam (d. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Events Chinese poet Li Po is presented before the emperor and given a position in the Imperial court. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... Events December 4 - Austrasian King Carloman dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne king of the now complete Frank kingdom (Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Franks at Rome on Christmas Day, 800). ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ...


In 828, following the rebellion of Ljudevit Posavski, Karantania became a margraviate of the Frankish empire. In 843 it passed into the hands of Louis the German (804-876). In 887 Arnulf of Carinthia (850-899) a grandson of Louis the German, assumed his title of King of the East Franks and became the first Duke of Carinthia. Events Egbert became first King of England Alcamo was founded by the Muslim commander al-Kamuk. ... Prince Ljudevit Posavski ruled 810 - 823; ruler of Pannonia (continental Croatia). ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count or an earl. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian or German Ludwig der Deutsche) (804 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire... Events March 25 - The Inscription of Sukabumi from Eastern Java marks the beginning of the Javanese language. ... Events Seiwa is succeeded by Yozei as emperor of Japan. ... Events Emperor Uda ascends to the throne of Japan Births Deaths September 18 - Pietro I Candiano, Doge of Venice (killed in battle) Emperor Koko of Japan Categories: 887 ... Later romantic portrait of Arnulf. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Events Edward the Elder becomes King of England. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


The Ducal Coronation

Church of Maria Saal (Gospa Sveta)
Church of Maria Saal (Gospa Sveta)

The principality of Karantania is particularly notable for the ancient ritual of installing Karantanian princes, a practice that continued in the later Duchy of Carinthia. It was last performed in 1414, when the Habsburg Ernest the Iron was enthroned as Duke of Carinthia. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1580 × 2180 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1580 × 2180 pixel, file size: 1. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Carinthia within Austria-Hungary (number 3) Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state arms The Duchy of Carinthia (German: ; Slovenian: ) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Ernest the Iron, officially Ernest, Duke of Inner Austria (German: Ernst der Eiserne) (born 1377 in Bruck an der Mur; died June 10, 1424 in the same place) was from the Habsburg dynasty, and as a member of the Leopoldian line, whose head of the family he was 1411-24... Carinthia within Austria-Hungary (number 3) Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state arms The Duchy of Carinthia (German: ; Slovenian: ) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. ...


The ritual took place on the Prince's Stone (Slovenian Knežji kamen, German Fürstenstein), an ancient Celtic column near Krnski grad (now Karnburg) and was performed in the Slovenian language by a free farmer selected by his peers. The farmer questioned the new Prince about his integrity. The Princes Stone The Princes Stone (German: Fürstenstein, Slovenian: Knežji kamen) is the base of an ancient Roman ionic column, in which the coat of arms of the Duchy of Carinthia were engraved during the Middle ages. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... The Maria Saal Cathedral Maria Saal (Slovenian: Gospa Sveta) is a market town in the district of Klagenfurt-Land in Carinthia, Austria, in the Zollfield Valley. ... Slovenian or Slovene (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the family of South Slavic languages. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ...


After Karantania had been incorporated into the Duchy of Carinthia, this ancient ritual was continued. The Coronation of Carinthian Dukes consisted of three parts: first, a ritual in Slovenian language was performed at the Prince's Stone; then a mass was held at the cathedral of Maria Saal (Gospa Sveta); and subsequently, a ceremony took place at the Duke's Chair (Slovenian Vojvodski stol, German Herzogsstuhl), where the new Duke had to swear an oath in German and where he also received the homage of the estates. The Duke's Chair is located at Zollfeld valley (Slovenian Gosposvetsko polje), north of Klagenfurt (Slovenian Celovec) in modern Carinthia, Austria. Slovenian or Slovene (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the family of South Slavic languages. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The Maria Saal Cathedral Maria Saal (Slovenian: Gospa Sveta) is a market town in the district of Klagenfurt-Land in Carinthia, Austria, in the Zollfield Valley. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... Klagenfurt since July 3, 2007 Klagenfurt am Wörthersee is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia (German Kärnten), in Austria. ... Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Slovenian: Koroška) is the southernmost Austrian state or Land; it is chiefly famous for its mountains and lakes. ...


The ceremony was first described by the chronicler John of Viktring on the occasion of the coronation of Meinhard II of Tyrol in 1286. It is also mentioned in Jean Bodin's book Six livres de la République in 1576. John of Viktring (btw. ... Meinhard II (c. ... Events Margaret I of Scotland became queen of Scotland, end of Canmore dynasty. ... Jean Bodin (1530-1596) was a French jurist, member of the Parliament of Paris and professor of Law in Toulouse. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ...


Mentionings in late medieval literature

Latin authors named Karantania as Carantanum. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) mentions Karantania as Chiarentana. The same name was also used by Florentines, such as the poet Fazio degli Uberti (circa 1309-1367), the famous chronicler Giovanni Villani (c. 1275-1348), and Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), who wrote that the Brenta River rises from the mountains of Karantania, a land in the Alps dividing Italy from Germany. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... Events Battle of Najera, Peter I of Castile restored as King. ... Giovanni Villani (ca 1275-1348), the Florentine writer of the famous chronicles (the Cronica) is the greatest Italian chronicler of his own times and the cornerstone of the early medieval history of Florence. ... // April 22 - The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses. ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Events Siege of Rostock ends Foundation year of the Order of the Rose Cross (Rosicrucian Order), according to the Rosicrucian Fellowship. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... The Brenta is an Italian river that runs from the Trento Province to the Adriatic Sea just south of the Venetian lagoon in the Veneto region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Origin of the name

The name Karantania is of pre-Slavic origin. There are two possible explanations. It may be derived from pre-Indo-European root *karra meaning 'rock' or it may be of Celtic origin and derived from *karantos meaning 'friend'. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ...


Its Slavic name *korǫtanъ was adopted from Latin *carantanum. The name Carinthia (Slovenian Koroška < Proto-Slavic *korǫt’ьsko) is also etymologically related and derives from pre-Slavic *carantia. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Ethnic and social structure

The population of Karantania had a polyethnic structure. The upper classes of the state were Alpine Slavs, and, for a time, probably also Avars. The remaining population consisted of romanized Celts (Noricans) and descendants of Romans who had dwelt in the region earlier. Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... This article is about the European people. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a province of the Roman Empire. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The people of Karantania are considered to have been among the precursors and ancestors of modern Slovenians.


References

  • France Bezlaj, Etimološki slovar slovenskega jezika (Slovenian Etymological Dictionary). Vol. 2: K-O / edited by Bogomil Gerlanc. - 1982. p. 68. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1976-2005.
  • Hans-Dietrich Kahl, Der Staat der Karantanen: Fakten, Thesen und Fragen zu einer frühen slawischen Machtbildung im Ostalpenraum, Ljubljana, 2002.

See also

Caranthanians (Latin Quarantani, Slovenian Karantanci) were the only Alpine Slavs in the early middle ages and the first ethnic name of an old Slovenian people as a separate part of the Slavs (Latin Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, Slavs called Caranthanians). ... The description Carinthian Slovenes (German: Kärntner Slowenen; Slovenian: Koroški Slovenci) is used to refer to the autochthonous, Slovene-speaking population group in the Austrian province of Carinthia. ... Some factual claims in this article need to be verified. ...

External links

  • The Ducal Coronation

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