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Encyclopedia > Caracalla
Caracalla
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign 209 - February 4, 211
(with Severus & Geta);
February - December 211 (with Geta);
December 211 - 8 April 217 (alone)
Full name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Caracalla
Born April 4, 186
Lugdunum
Died April 8, 217
Near Harran
Predecessor Septimius Severus (alone)
Successor Macrinus
Wife/wives Fulvia Plautilla
Dynasty Severan
Father Septimius Severus
Mother Julia Domna
Roman imperial dynasties
Severan dynasty

The Severan Tondo
Septimius Severus alone
Children
   Geta
   Caracalla
Septimius Severus, with Geta and Caracalla
Geta and Caracalla
Caracalla alone
Interlude, Macrinus
Elagabalus
Children
   Alexander Severus, adoptive
Alexander Severus

Caracalla (April 4, 186April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211217. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (496x701, 34 KB) Source: nl:Afbeelding:Caracalla. ... Events Publius Septimius Geta receives the titles of Imperator and Augustus from his father, Roman emperor Septimius Severus. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year 211. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Publius Septimius Geta Publius Septimius Geta (March 7, 189–December 211), was a Roman Emperor co-ruling with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 to his death. ... This article is about the year 211. ... Publius Septimius Geta Publius Septimius Geta (March 7, 189–December 211), was a Roman Emperor co-ruling with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 to his death. ... This article is about the year 211. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Events Births April 4 - Caracalla, Roman emperor (+ 217) Deaths Categories: 186 ... Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon) was an important Roman city in Gaul. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Şanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Şanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ... Publia Fulvia Plautilla, Fulvia Plautilla or Plautilla (around 188/189 AD - early 212 AD) was a Roman Princess, short time Roman Empress and the only wife to Roman Emperor Caracalla. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Julia Domna ( 170-217) was member of the Severan dynasty of the Roman Empire. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1069x1087, 1311 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander Severus Septimius Severus Caracalla Publius Septimius Geta Severan Tondo ... Severan Tondo, tondo of the Severan family, with portraits of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Publius Septimius Geta Publius Septimius Geta (March 7, 189–December 211), was a Roman Emperor co-ruling with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 to his death. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Publius Septimius Geta Publius Septimius Geta (March 7, 189–December 211), was a Roman Emperor co-ruling with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 to his death. ... Publius Septimius Geta Publius Septimius Geta (March 7, 189–December 211), was a Roman Emperor co-ruling with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 to his death. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ... A bust depicting Elagabalus. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Events Births April 4 - Caracalla, Roman emperor (+ 217) Deaths Categories: 186 ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the year 211. ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ...

Contents

Life

Caracalla and Geta by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. 1907.
Caracalla and Geta by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. 1907.

Caracalla was the son of the later Emperor Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. He was born in Lugdunum, Gaul, and his full name at birth was Lucius Septimius Bassianus, which was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of seven, to solidify connection to the family of Marcus Aurelius. He was later given the nickname Caracalla, which referred to the Gallic hooded tunic he habitually wore and which he made fashionable. He is generally considered among the most brutal and murderous of Roman emperors. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1325, 562 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caracalla Publius Septimius Geta ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1325, 562 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caracalla Publius Septimius Geta ... Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (January 8, 1836--June 25, 1912) was a Dutch-born painter of the Victorian era, best known for his sumptuous portrayals of life in the ancient world. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Julia Domna ( 170-217) was member of the Severan dynasty of the Roman Empire. ... Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon) was an important Roman city in Gaul. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ...


Rise to power

Denarius issued in the name of Fulvia Plautilla, wife of Caracalla.
Denarius issued in the name of Fulvia Plautilla, wife of Caracalla.

Severus, who had taken the imperial throne in 193, died in 211 while visiting Eboracum (York), and Caracalla was proclaimed co-emperor with his brother Publius Septimius Antoninius Geta. Caracalla, however, wanted to be the sole ruler. He had Geta, his own father in law Gaius Fulvius Plautianus and wife Fulvia Plautilla (also his paternal second cousin) assassinated. He persecuted Geta's supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae against his brother. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard Caracalla's claims that he had killed Geta in self-defense, they produced a satire mocking this claim, as well as Caracalla's other pretensions. Caracalla responded to this insult savagely in 215 by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, then unleashed his troops for several days of looting and plunder of Alexandria. According to historian Cassius Dio, over 20,000 people were killed. Image File history File links 052_Plautilla. ... Image File history File links 052_Plautilla. ... First row : c. ... Publia Fulvia Plautilla, Fulvia Plautilla or Plautilla (around 188/189 AD - early 212 AD) was a Roman Princess, short time Roman Empress and the only wife to Roman Emperor Caracalla. ... Events June 1 – Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated in his palace. ... This article is about the year 211. ... York is a city in North Yorkshire, England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... Publius Septimius Geta Publius Septimius Geta (March 7, 189–December 211), was a Roman Emperor co-ruling with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 to his death. ... Gaius or Lucius Fulvius Plautianus (? - 22 January 205 AD) was a Roman who lived in the second and third century AD. Plautianus was a member of gens Fulvius, a family of plebs status and the family were active in politics since the Roman Republic. ... Publia Fulvia Plautilla, Fulvia Plautilla or Plautilla (around 188/189 AD - early 212 AD) was a Roman Princess, short time Roman Empress and the only wife to Roman Emperor Caracalla. ... Damnatio memoriae is the Latin phrase literally meaning damnation of memory, in the sense of removed from the remembrance. ... Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport For other uses, see Alexandria (disambiguation). ... Events Caracallas Roman troops massacre the population of Alexandria, Egypt. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (155–after 229), known in English as Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio, was a noted Roman historian and public servant. ...


During his reign as emperor, Caracalla raised the pay of an average legionnaire to 675 denarii and lavished many benefits on the army, as instructed by his father Septimius Severus who had told him to always mind the soldiers and ignore everyone else.


Three things stand out from his reign: the edict of 212 (Constitutio Antoniniana) granting Roman citizenship to freemen throughout the Roman Empire in order to increase taxation; debasing the silver content in Roman coinage by 25% in order to pay the legions their bounties; and the construction of a large thermae outside Rome, the remains of which, known as the Baths of Caracalla, can still be seen. Events Roman Emperor Caracalla decrees that freemen throughout the Roman Empire become Roman Citizens. ... The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin: Constitution [or Edict] of Antoninus) was an edict declared in 212 AD by the Roman Emperor Caracalla (whose real name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus). ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Roman public baths in Bath, England. ... The Baths of Caracalla, in 2003 The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between 212 and 216 AD, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla. ...


Fall

Caracalla coin. On the reverse, Circus Maximus, with the obelisk and the spinae, restored by the emperor.
Caracalla coin. On the reverse, Circus Maximus, with the obelisk and the spinae, restored by the emperor.

Caracalla had effectively become a military dictator, and was consequently very unpopular except with the soldiers. Ironically while travelling from Edessa to begin a war with Parthia, he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Harran on April 8, 217 by Julius Martialis, an officer in the imperial bodyguard. Herodian says that Martialis' brother had been executed a few days earlier by Caracalla on an unproven charge; Cassius Dio, on the other hand, says that Martialis was resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion. The escort of the emperor gave him privacy to relieve himself, and Martialis ran forward and killed Caracalla with a single sword stroke. He immediately fled on horseback, but was killed by a bodyguard archer. Caracalla was succeeded by the Praetorian Prefect of the Guard, Macrinus who almost certainly was part of the conspiracy against the emperor. Image File history File links Caracalla. ... Image File history File links Caracalla. ... For other uses, see Circus Maximus (disambiguation). ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Åžanlı Urfa. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Manneken Pis of Brussels. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... For the grammarian, see Aelius Herodianus. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (155–after 229), known in English as Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio, was a noted Roman historian and public servant. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ...


Source of his nickname

The cognomen Caracalla refers to a sort of Oriental cloak that the emperor, who was of Syrian origin on his mothers line, affected to wear during his reign. The Aramaic or Syriac kərākā refers to a short-sleeved loose mantle which is still used in Arab countries under the name karaka(t).[citations needed] Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ...


Legendary king of Britain

Bronze sesterce from Tarsus (Cilicia) with bust of Caracalla (211-217) on the obverse, and god Sandan on the reverse.
Bronze sesterce from Tarsus (Cilicia) with bust of Caracalla (211-217) on the obverse, and god Sandan on the reverse.

Geoffrey of Monmouth's legendary History of the Kings of Britain makes Caracalla, under the name Bassianus, a king of Britain. After Severus's death the Romans want to make Geta king of Britain, but the Britons prefer Bassianus because he had a British mother. The two brothers fight a battle in which Geta is killed, and Bassianus succeeds to the throne. He rules until he is betrayed by his Pictish allies and overthrown by Carausius, who according to Geoffrey is a Briton, rather than a Menapian Gaul as in reality.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1762x900, 3243 KB) Bronze sesterce from Tarsus (Cilicia) with bust of Caracalla (211-217) and god Sandan on the reverse. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1762x900, 3243 KB) Bronze sesterce from Tarsus (Cilicia) with bust of Caracalla (211-217) and god Sandan on the reverse. ... Tarsus is a city in present day Turkey, located on the mouth of the Tarsus Cay (Cydnus) which empties into the Mediterranean. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Sandshrew (サンド/Sand in Japanese, Sandan in German and Sabelette in French) is a fictional character of the Pokémon franchise. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Geoffrey of Monmouth Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. ... Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniæ (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) was written around 1136. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Carausius coin from Londinium mint. ... The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul in the 1st century BC, dwelling around the Rhine estuary, and extending inland towards the Ardennes. ...


Trivia

The city of Caracal in Romania bears his name. Caracal (population: 34,603) is a city in the Olt county, Romania, situated in the plains between the lower reaches of the Jiu and Olt. ...


See also

This is a family tree of the Severan dynasty of the Roman Empire. ...

References

  1. ^ Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae 5.2-3

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Geoffrey of Monmouth Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. ... Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniæ (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) was written around 1136. ...

External links

  •  Media on Caracalla in the Wikicommons.
  • Life of Caracalla (Historia Augusta at LacusCurtius: Latin text and English translation)
Preceded by
Septimius Severus
Roman Emperor
211 – 217
with
Septimius Severus (197 – 211)
and
Geta (208 – 211)
Succeeded by
Macrinus
Preceded by
Septimius Severus
Severan Dynasty
208 – 211 with Septimius Severus and Geta
Feb – Decenber 211 with Geta
December 211 – 217 alone
Succeeded by
Alexander Severus
Preceded by
Geta
Legendary kings of Britain Succeeded by
Interregnum
-
Carausius
Persondata
NAME Caracalla
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Lucius Septimius Bassianus; Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
SHORT DESCRIPTION Roman emperor
DATE OF BIRTH 4 April 186
PLACE OF BIRTH Lugdunum, Gaul
DATE OF DEATH near Harran
PLACE OF DEATH 8 April 217

  Results from FactBites:
 
Caracalla - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (490 words)
Caracalla (April 4, 186–April 8, 217) was emperor of the Roman Empire from AD Born in Lugdunum in the province of Gaul in 186, he was the son of the future emperor Septimius Severus and Julia Domna.
Caracalla responded to this insult savagely in 215 by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, then unleashed his troops for several days of looting and plunder of Alexandria.
On the reverse, Circus Maximus, with the obelisk and the spinae, restored by the emperor.
Roman Emperors - DIR Caracalla (1252 words)
Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus.
Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.
Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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