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Encyclopedia > Car bomb

A car bomb is an improvised explosive device that is placed in a car or other vehicle and then exploded. It is commonly used as a weapon of assassination, terrorism, or guerrilla warfare, to kill the occupant(s) of the vehicle and people near the blast site and/or to cause damage to buildings or other property. Car bombs act as their own delivery mechanisms and can carry a relatively large amount of explosives without attracting suspicion. A car bomb is a type of explosive device. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally chared States Army|US Army]][1] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. ... Bold text Although there are earlier related examples, the history of terrorism in the modern sense seems to have emerged around the mid 19th-century. ... International conventions on terrorism set out obligations of states in respect to defining international counter terrorist offences, prosecuting individuals suspected of such offences, extraditing such persons upon request, and providing mutual legal assistance upon request. ... Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of laws passed in the purported aim of fighting terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of terrorist organizations. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... Communist terrorism is terrorism carried out in the name of furthering Communist goals or teachings. ... Eco-terrorism is defined by the Federal Bureau of Investigations Domestic Terrorism Section as the use or threatened use of violence of a criminal nature against innocent victims or property by an environmentally-oriented, subnational group for environmental-political reasons, or aimed at an audience beyond the target, often... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Terrorism. ... 15:40, 25 January 2007 (UTC)168. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... The Ku Klux Klan with a fiery cross Christian terrorism is a form of militant extremism that attempts to spread fear and terror, to perpetrate ideological goals, through violent attacks against civilian populations. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism, and state terrorism are controversial. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Agro-terrorism is a controversial neologism used to describe threats by a terrorist act on the food chain. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... Environmental terrorism is the unlawful destruction of resources in order to deprive others of its use. ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Nuclear terrorism denotes the use of nuclear weapons, radiological weapons (dirty bombs), or attacks against local facilities that handle nuclear material with mass destruction in mind. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... The Proxy Bomb (also known as a human bomb) was a tactic used by the Provisional IRA for a short time in 1990s, whereby people were forced to drive car bombs into military targets. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, and knows that they will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... This article is about acts of terrorism. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... A vehicle explosion is the destruction of, or damage to, a vehicle caused by an explosion. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...


The U.S. military and law enforcement agencies often call a car bomb a "VBIED", an acronym standing for "Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device", or "SVBIED" if it is a suicide attack. A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, and knows that they will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ...

Contents

Usage

The earliest car bombs were intended for assassination. These were often wired to the car's ignition system, to explode when the car was started. Ignition triggering is now rare, as it is easy to detect and hard to install — interfering with the circuitry is time-consuming and car alarms can be triggered by drains on the car's electrical system. Also, the target can start the car remotely (inadvertently or otherwise), or the target may be a passenger who is a safe distance away when the ignition starts. The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... A car alarm is an electronic device installed in a vehicle in an attempt to discourage theft. ...


It is now more common for assassination bombs to be affixed to the underside of the car and then detonated remotely, by the car's motion, or by other means. The bomb is exploded as the target approaches or starts the vehicle or, more commonly, after the vehicle begins to move, when the target is more likely to be inside. For this reason, guards often check the underside of vehicles with a long mirror mounted on a pole.


In recent years, car bombs have become widely used by suicide bombers who seek to ram the car into a building and simultaneously detonate it. A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attacks primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). ...


Countermeasures

Defending against a car bomb involves keeping vehicles at a distance from vulnerable targets, often using Jersey barriers, concrete blocks or bollards, and hardening buildings to withstand an explosion. Since the height of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) campaign, the entrance to Downing Street has been closed, preventing the general public from getting near Number 10. This can be difficult where public roads pass near buildings, and road closures may be the only option in such circumstances (hence, for instance, in Washington, D.C. Pennsylvania Avenue is closed to traffic immediately behind the White House). Jersey wall on the Woodrow Wilson Bridge near Washington, D.C. A Jersey barrier or Jersey wall separates lanes of traffic (often opposing lanes of traffic) with a goal of minimizing vehicle crossover in the case of accidents. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Pennsylvania Avenue street sign, 2004. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


History

The origin of the car bomb could be traced back to the one used for the assassination attempt on Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1905 in Constantinople. Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: ) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ...


In the past, groups to use car bombs included:

  • September 1920 in New York, Italian anarchist Mario Buda parked his horse-drawn wagon filled with explosives and shrapnel near the corner of Wall and Broad streets, directly across from J P Morgan Company. Forty killed, 200 wounded.
Vietcong terror car bombing aftermath scene in Saigon, 1965.
Vietcong terror car bombing aftermath scene in Saigon, 1965.
Car bomb in Iraq, made from a number of concealed artillery shells in the back of a pickup truck.
Car bomb in Iraq, made from a number of concealed artillery shells in the back of a pickup truck.
A 2005 car bombing in Iraq in which a second car bomb was detonated while Coalition forces were investigating the scene of an earlier such blast, causing 18 casualties.
A 2005 car bombing in Iraq in which a second car bomb was detonated while Coalition forces were investigating the scene of an earlier such blast, causing 18 casualties.
BATF summary table illustrating the size and range of effectiveness of car bombs by vehicle type used

Mass casualty car bombing, and especially suicide car bombing, is currently a predominantly Middle Eastern phenomenon. The tactic was widely used in the Lebanese Civil War by the Islamic fundamentalist group Hezbollah. The most notable car bombing was the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing which killed 241 U.S. Marines and 58 French. In the Lebanese civil war, one estimate says that 3,641 car bombs were detonated.[1] The Wall Street bombing was a terrorist incident that occurred at 12:01 p. ... This article is about the financier. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2464x1632, 628 KB) Car bombing in Iraq, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2464x1632, 628 KB) Car bombing in Iraq, 2005. ... Image File history File links Vbied-standards-chart. ... Image File history File links Vbied-standards-chart. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ... Avraham Stern Lehi (Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) was a radical underground Jewish paramilitary group, a terrorist group according to both its own description and that of its opponents. ... Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied... Irgun emblem. ... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... This article is about the organized crime groups. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Propaganda poster of the Provisional IRA. From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (Provisional IRA) conducted an armed campaign (or guerrilla war) in the United Kingdom aimed at overthrowing British rule in Northern Ireland to create a united Ireland. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... A Single-Pole, Single-Throw (SPST) mercury switch A mercury switch is a switch whose purpose is to allow or interrupt the flow of electric current in an electrical circuit in a manner that is dependent on the switchs physical position or alignment relative to the direction of the... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Belfast Bomb Blitz and Bloody Friday are among the names given to the bombings by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) in and around Belfast, Northern Ireland on July 21, 1972. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) is a Loyalist group in Northern Ireland. ... UFF redirects here; they are also the initials of the United Freedom Front, a radical left-wing organisation in the US. The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is a loyalist paramilitary organization in Northern Ireland, outlawed as a terrorist group in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and which aim... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monaghan (disambiguation). ... The Dublin and Monaghan Bombings on May 17, 1974 were a series of terrorist attacks on Dublin and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland which left 33 people dead, and almost 300 injured, the largest number of casualties in any single day in The Troubles. ... For the Navy sailor, see Timothy R. McVeigh. ... Alfred P. Murrah building four days before its demolition Alfred P. Murrah building during demolition Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah building after bombing The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States Federal Government complex located at 200 N.W. 5th Street in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... Downtown Oklahoma City The State Capitol of Oklahoma From The South Motto: Nickname: Capital of the New Century Founded 1889 Incorporated County Oklahoma County Cleveland County Canadian County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Mick Cornett Area  - Total  - Water 1,608. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating literalistic interpretations of the texts of Islam and of Sharia law. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ...


Groups that still use car bombs include:

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.cornerhouse.org/books/info.aspx?ID=1835&page=0
  2. ^ http://www.ft.com/cms/s/f141b23e-f86a-11db-a940-000b5df10621.html

See also

This is a list of mass car bombings. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Car bomb - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (713 words)
Car bomb in Iraq, made from a number of concealed artillery shells in the back of a pickup truck.
Car bombs act as their own delivery mechanisms and can carry a relatively large amount of explosive without attracting suspicion.
Car bombs have been used by terrorist groups for many years — the IRA used them frequently in The Troubles in Northern Ireland and Great Britain — but mass casualty car bombing, and especially suicide car bombing, is principally a Middle Eastern phenomenon.
Car bomb - definition of Car bomb in Encyclopedia (339 words)
A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there.
This kind of bomb is a favorite instrument of terrorists, guerrillas and assassins because the car bomb acts as its own delivery mechanism and can carry a relatively large amount of explosive without attracting suspicion.
Defending against a car bomb involves keeping cars at distance from buildings, often using Jersey barriers or similar devices, and hardening buildings to withstand an explosion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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