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Encyclopedia > Car accident
In an accident resulting from excessive speed, this concrete truck rolled over into the front garden of a house. There were no injuries, but significant damage was caused.
In an accident resulting from excessive speed, this concrete truck rolled over into the front garden of a house. There were no injuries, but significant damage was caused.
Minor collisions such as this one are the most common type of crash.
Minor collisions such as this one are the most common type of crash.

A car accidentor car crash is an incident in which an automobile collides with anything that causes damage to the automobile, including other automobiles, telephone poles, buildings or trees, or in which the driver loses control of the vehicle and damages it in some other way, such as driving into a ditch or rolling over. Sometimes a car accident may also refer to an automobile striking a human or animal. Car crashes — also called road traffic accidents (RTAs), traffic collisions, auto accidents, road accidents, personal injury collisions, motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), — kill an estimated 1.2 million people worldwide each year, and injure about forty times this number (WHO, 2004). In the UK the Department of Transport publish road deaths in each type of vehicle. These statistics are available as "Risk of injury measured by percentage of drivers injured in a two car injury accident." These statistics show a ten to one ratio of in-vehicle accident deaths between the least safe and most safe models of car. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 3853 KB) Summary A cement truck that rolled over in Carlton, Victoria, Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 3853 KB) Summary A cement truck that rolled over in Carlton, Victoria, Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixel Image in higher resolution (4224 × 2376 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixel Image in higher resolution (4224 × 2376 pixel, file size: 4. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... For other uses, see Collision (disambiguation). ...


The statistics show[citation needed] that for popular, lightly built cars, occupants have a 6–8% chance of death in a two-car accident. (e.g. BMW 3 series 6%, Subaru Impreza 8%, Honda Accord 6%). Traditional "safety cars" such as the Volvos halve that chance (Volvo 700 4% incidence of death, Volvo 900 3%). Volvo Cars is the luxury car maker using the Volvo Trademark. ...


The Toyota Land Cruiser SUV has a 6% incidence of occupant death in actual crashes. However, in multiple-vehicle crashes SUVs are not much more lethal than passenger cars. This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Although, rollovers are much more common in older SUVs as compared to passenger cars because of their top weight. For this reason SUVs actually post a greater threat to rollover and cause a fatality rather than passenger cars. Newer SUVs such as the Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT8 have a lower center of gravity and enhanced stability control programs which lower the risk of rollover substantially.


Overall the four best vehicles to be in are the Jaguar XJ series 1%, Mercedes-Benz S-Class / SEC 1%, Land Rover Defender 1% and Land Rover Discovery 1%.[citation needed] The Jaguar XJ is a luxury saloon sold under the British Jaguar luxury marque. ... The Mercedes-Benz S-Class is a series of large luxury flagship sedans produced by Mercedes-Benz, now a division of Daimler AG. The S-Class, a product of nine lines of Mercedes-Benz models dating since the mid-1950s, is the worlds best-selling luxury flagship sedan. ... The Land Rover Defender is a British four wheel drive utility vehicle. ... The Discovery is a four wheel drive on- and off-road vehicle from Land Rover (currently owned by Ford). ...


Motorcyclist deaths within England and Wales stand at 53% of the annual road death statistics. Scooters/mopeds up to 50 cc only account for 3% of those deaths. 2% of the scooter deaths were 16–19 year olds who had not taken CBT (Compulsory Basic Training). (Statistics taken from 2004/2005 DSA annual road deaths percentages)

Contents

Trends in collision statistics

A Chevrolet Malibu involved in a rollover crash
A Chevrolet Malibu involved in a rollover crash

Road toll figures show that car collision fatalities have declined since 1980, with most countries showing a reduction of roughly 50%. This drop appears to confirm the efficacy of safety measures introduced thereafter, assuming that driver behaviour has not changed significantly. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 2. ... It has been suggested that Chevrolet Classic be merged into this article or section. ... A rollover in Sydney, Australia on Christmas day, 2001. ...

A minor head-on collision involving a Perodua Kancil and a old Mitsubishi Lancer in a village.
A minor head-on collision involving a Perodua Kancil and a old Mitsubishi Lancer in a village.
The driver of this Honda Accord was under the influence of alcohol and ended up driving into a small guard house. This picture was taken in Malaysia.

In the United States, fatalities have increased slightly from 40,716 in 1994 to 42,884 in 2003. However, in terms of fatalities per 100 million miles driven, the fatality rate has dropped 16% between 1995 and 2005. Injuries dropped 37% over the same period. (National Traffic Safety Administration, 2006) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Standard wrong-way sign package used on all freeway off-ramps in California (and since copied by other states such as Georgia and Virginia). ... Perodua Nippa 850EX The Perodua Kancil (sold in the United Kingdom as the Nippa) is a small car manufactured by Perusahaan Otomobil Kedua (Malay for Second Automobile Project) in Malaysia. ... The Mitsubishi Lancer is a compact car built by Mitsubishi Motors. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 589 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 589 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Honda Accord is an automobile manufactured by Honda since 1976, debuting as a compact hatchback and evolving into a intermediate vehicle. ...


It has been noted that road fatality trends closely follow the so-called "Smeed's law" (after RJ Smeed, its author), an empirical rule relating injury rates to the two-thirds power of car ownership levels. An analysis by John Adams can be found here. Smeeds Law, after RJ Smeed who first proposed the relationship in 1949, is an empirical rule relating traffic fatalities to motor vehicle registrations and population. ...


[1]


Legal consequences

Car collisions usually carry legal consequences in proportion to the severity of the crash. Nearly all common law jurisdictions impose some kind of requirement that parties involved in a collision (even with only stationary property) must stop at the scene, and exchange insurance or identification information or summon the police. Failing to obey this requirement is referred to as hit and run and is generally a criminal offence. Most car claims are settled without using an attorney. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... An accident resulting in damage to a car. ... Hit-and-run is the crime of colliding with a person, their personal property (including their motor vehicle), or a fixture, and failing to stop and identify oneself afterwards. ... An attorney is someone who represents someone else in the transaction of business: For attorney-at-law, see lawyer, solicitor, barrister or civil law notary. ...


Parties involved in an incident may face criminal liability, civil liability, or both. Usually, the state starts a prosecution only if someone is severely injured or killed, or if one of the drivers involved was clearly grossly negligent or intoxicated or otherwise impaired at the time the accident occurred. Charges might include driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, assault with a deadly weapon, manslaughter, or murder; penalties range from fines to jail time to prison time to death (although the death penalty is not applicable in many jurisdictions). It is notable that the penalties for killing and injuring with motor vehicles are often very much less than for other actions with similar outcomes. Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... In the common law, civil law refers to the area of law governing relations between private individuals. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


As for civil liability, automobile accident personal injury lawsuits have become the most common type of tort. Because these cases have been litigated often in the developed First World nations, the legal questions usually have been answered in prior judgments. So, the courts usually need to decide only the factual questions of who is at fault, and their percentage of fault, as well as how much must be paid out in damages to the injured plaintiff by the defendant's insurer. It has been suggested that civil trial be merged into this article or section. ... Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ...


Another element of liability involves the administrative fines or license suspension/revocation that may be imposed by civil or criminal authorities when a driver has violated the rules of the road and thus the terms of a driver's license. Such complaint may be filed by a police officer or sometimes by other witnesses of an incident. In some jurisdictions such administrative penalties, may be imposed through quasi-criminal infractions; other jurisdictions do not recognize infractions and charge all violations, at a minimum, as misdemeanors or felonies. It has been suggested that Side of the road (traffic) be merged into this article or section. ... Current EU driving licence, German version - front 1. ... For the similarly spelled medical term referring to a blocked artery, see infarction. ... A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ...


Backup collisions

Backup collisions happen when a driver reverses the car into an object, person, or other car. Although most cars come equipped with rear view mirrors which are adequate for detecting vehicles behind a car, they are inadequate on many vehicles for detecting small children or objects close to the ground, which fall in the car's blind spot. Large trucks have much larger blind spots that can hide entire vehicles and large adults. The rear-view mirror of a Mazda 626. ... The blue cars driver sees the green car through his mirrors but cannot see the red car without turning to check his blind spot. ...


According to research by Kids and Cars – an organization devoted to preventing (non-traffic) motor-vehicle-related deaths and injuries – 49% of the non-traffic, non-crash fatalities involving children under 15 from 2001–2005 were caused by vehicles backing up.


The CDC reported that from 2001–2003, an estimated 7,475 children (2,492 per year) under the age of 15 were treated for automobile back-over incidents.


In its “Deaths and Injuries Resulting from Certain Non-Traffic and Non-Crash Events,” report issued in May of 2004, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration found that back-up collisions most often:

  • Occur in residential driveways and parking lots
  • Involve sport utility vehicles (SUVs) or small trucks
  • Occur when a parent, relative or someone known to the family is driving
  • Particularly affect children less than five years old

The driver of the car backing up and hitting an object, a person, or another car is usually considered to be at fault. A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ...


Prevention organizations suggest that parents use common sense, and also take safety measures such as installing cross view mirrors, audible collision detectors, rear view video camera and/or some type of reverse backup sensors. Reverse backup sensors Reverse backup sensors - also known as reverse parking sensors, reverse parking systems, and reverse backing systems - are a technology that allows the driver of a car, truck, van or commercial vehicle to be alerted to nearby objects in their path. ...


Collision prevention

Although many crashes are caused by behavior that is difficult to alter, by mechanical failure, or by road conditions, some technical solutions would automatically detect how close the driver is to the car in front and automatically adjust the car's acceleration to prevent the car from getting closer than the distance in which it can safely stop.

  • Sobriety detectors: These locks prevent the ignition key from working if the driver breathes into one and is shown to have consumed alcohol.
  • Drifting monitors: These devices monitor how close a vehicle is traveling to lane markers and, if it starts to drift toward or over the markers without the turn signal being activated, sounds an alarm.

The young and inexperienced drivers are by far the most likely to be involved in a car crash[citation needed], and this has become an area of focus. Reasons suggested for this include inexperience combined with over-confidence, peer pressure, a desire to show off, and even neurological development arguments. In addition most serious collisions occur at night and when the car has multiple occupants. This has led to the following proposals: Turn signals (US English) or indicators (British English) are a set of lights on a vehicle (be it a car, truck/lorry, tractor, motorcycle, etc. ...

  • A "curfew" imposed on young drivers to prevent them driving at night.
  • Requiring an experienced supervisor to chaperone the less experienced driver.
  • Forbidding the carrying of passengers.
  • Zero alcohol tolerance.
  • Compulsory advanced driving courses.
  • Vehicle restrictions (eg. 'high performance' vehicles)
  • Requiring a sign placed on the back of the vehicle to notify other drivers of a less-experienced individual in the driver's seat.

Some countries or states have already implemented some of these ideas. This increased risk for the young is known to the insurance companies, and premiums sometimes reflect that; however, very high premiums for young drivers do not seem to have had a significant impact on the crash statistics, suggesting that these drivers simply accept the high premiums as part of the "on road" costs of mobility or that age is not a factor in driver recklessness/skill. A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government or by the childs parents for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time. ... Panoramic (wrap-around) windshield on a 1959 Edsel Corsair. ... An SUV with four pillars A pillarless hardtop vehicle, considered to have two total pillars A stretch limo with five pillars An A pillar is a name applied by car stylists and enthusiasts to the shaft of material that supports the windshield (windscreen) on either of the windshield frame sides. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blind spot (automobile). ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Look up ageism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Exhibit featuring the book at Henry Ford Museum, Detroit Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile by Ralph Nader, published in 1965, is a book detailing his claims of resistance by car manufacturers to the introduction of safety features, like seat belts, and their general... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Crash test dummies have saved many thousands of lives. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blind spot (automobile). ... Vehicle extrication is the process of removing a person from a vehicle that has been involved in a motor vehicle accident when conventional means of exit are impossible or unadvisable. ... The field of road safety is concerned with reducing the numbers or the consequences of vehicle crashes, by developing and implementing management systems ideally based in a multidisciplinary and holistic approach, with interrelated activities in a number of fields. ... Transportation safety has steadily improved in the United States for many decades. ... Almost two-thirds of the 1. ... Flowers marking the site of a fatal crash Roadside memorials are sometimes erected at the site of a fatal road crash. ... . ... The ICE (In Case of Emergency) program was conceived by paramedic Bob Brotchie in May 2005. ... // A tram in Helsinki, Finland A tram accident is generally an accident in which a tram is involved. ... A vehicle explosion is the destruction of, or damage to, a vehicle caused by an explosion. ... Vehicular accident reconstructions are often conducted by specialized units in law enforcement agencies, to answer questions about automobile accidents, such as who was driving, where were the victims seated, were they using seat belts? Through accident reconstruction, rigorous analysis is done, with expert witnesses that can present results in trial. ... In certain local police departments in the United States, the Fatal Accident Reconstruction Team is a group of police officers dedicated to investigating motor vehicle accidents that result in death. ... Totaled is a term used in the insurance industry. ...

Footnotes

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Early Auto Accidents A Fascinating Collection of Photos of Auto Accidents from the 1920's to 1950's
  • Car Crashes Different crashes caught on tape.
  • U.S. DOT Fatality Analysis Reporting System FARS
  • Frontal and Side car crash video in slow motion

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