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Karl Benz's "Velo" model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race
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Karl Benz's "Velo" model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race
Automobile Portal

An automobile is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for between one and six people, typically have four wheels and be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods. However, the term is far from precise. Look up car in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1412, 574 KB) Benz Patent-Motorwagen Velo Foto by Softeis, 3/10/2004 at/im http://de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1412, 574 KB) Benz Patent-Motorwagen Velo Foto by Softeis, 3/10/2004 at/im http://de. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... A driving wheel on a steam locomotive. ... A passenger is a person using but not operating an airplane, train, bus or other mode of transport. ... Vehicles are non-living means of transportation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Internal combustion engine. ...


The term automobile is derived from Greek auto- ("self") and Latin mobilis ("movable"), referring to the fact that it "moves by itself". Earlier terms for automobile include motorwagon, and horseless carriage. Although the term "car" is presumed to be derived through the shortening of the term "carriage", the word has its origin before 1300 A.D. in English as, "carr"—derived from similar words in French and much earlier Greek words—for a vehicle that moves, especially on wheels, that was applied to chariots, small carts, and later—to carriages that carried more people and larger loads. Note, therefore, that carriage and chariot come from the same root as car, which in a sense predates them. As of 2002 there were 590 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car for every eleven people), of which 140 million in the U.S. (roughly one car for every two people) [1]. For the torpedo-shaped underwater vehicle ridden by two frogmen, sometimes referred to as a chariot, see Human torpedo. ... Tourists in a vis-a-vis, Prague The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse-drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs or leather strapping for suspension, whether light, smart and fast or large and comfortable. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ...

Contents


History

The automobile powered by the Otto gasoline engine was invented in Germany by Karl Benz in 1885. Benz was granted a patent dated 29 January 1886 in Mannheim for that automobile. Even though Benz is credited with the invention of the modern automobile, several other German engineers worked on building automobiles at the same time. In 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart patented the first motor bike, built and tested in 1885, and in 1886 they built a converted horse-drawn stagecoach. In 1870, German-Austrian inventor Siegfried Marcus assembled a motorized handcart, though Marcus' vehicle did not go beyond the experimental stage.
Self-powered vehicles were demonstrated as early as 1769. ... Karl Benz Replica of the Benz Patent Motorwagen built in 1885 Karl Friedrich Benz (November 25, 1844 – April 4, 1929) was a German automobile engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the petrol-powered automobile. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Basic information Country: Germany Federal state: Land Baden-Württemberg Regions: Rhein-Neckar District: Independent municipality Population: 324,787 (Mai 2005) Additional information Area: 144. ... Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler ( March 17, 1834, Schorndorf; March 6, 1900, Cannstatt, Stuttgart) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist from Germany. ... Wilhelm Maybach Wilhelm Maybach (born February 9, 1846, in Heilbronn; died December 29, 1929, in Stuttgart) was an early German engine designer and industrialist. ... Stuttgart [], a city located in southern Germany, is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of approximately 590,000 (as of September 2005) in the city and around 3 million in the metropolitan area. ... Siegfried Marcus 1831-1898 Siegfried Samuel Marcus (born in Malchin, Mecklenburg, Germany, on 1831-09-18, died in Vienna on 1898-07-01) was a German – Austrian inventor and automobile pioneer of Jewish ancestry. ...

Automobile history eras
1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s
Veteran Brass or Edwardian Vintage Pre-War Post-War Modern
Antique
Classic

Self-powered vehicles were demonstrated as early as 1769. ... Self-powered vehicles were demonstrated as early as 1769. ... Self-powered vehicles were demonstrated as early as 1769. ... Self-powered vehicles were demonstrated as early as 1769. ... Self-powered vehicles were demonstrated as early as 1769. ... Self-powered vehicles were demonstrated as early as 1769. ... An antique car is generally defined as a car over 25 years of age, this being the definition used by the Antique Automobile Club of America and many other organisations worldwide. ... Ford Model A Fordor 1948 Buick Eight convertible 1955 Chevrolet Nomad 1935 Plymouth PJ Touring Sedan 1948 Pontiac Streamliner Sedan Coupe 1959 Chevrolet Impala Classic car is a term frequently used to describe an older car, but what exactly is meant by that varies from person to person and organisation...

Internal combustion engine powered vehicles

Enlarge
Animation of a 4-stroke overhead-cam internal combustion engine

In 1806 François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss, designed the first internal combustion engine (sometimes abbreviated "ICE" today). He subsequently used it to develop the world's first vehicle to run on such an engine that used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen to generate energy. The design was not very successful, as was the case with the British inventor, Samuel Brown, and the American inventor, Samuel Morey, who produced vehicles powered by clumsy internal combustion engines about 1826. Image File history File links animated scheme of a four stroke internal combustion engine, Otto principle Source: self-made: UtzOnBike (3D-model & animation: Autodesk Inventor) File links The following pages link to this file: Four-stroke cycle ... Image File history File links animated scheme of a four stroke internal combustion engine, Otto principle Source: self-made: UtzOnBike (3D-model & animation: Autodesk Inventor) File links The following pages link to this file: Four-stroke cycle ... François Isaac de Rivaz (Paris, December 19, 1752 – Sion, July 30, 1828) was a Swiss inventor. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... It has been suggested that Liquid hydrogen be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance transparent (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... Samuel Brown is an English engineer who developed an internal combustion engine. ... Samuel Morey (October 23, 1762 - April 17, 1843), American inventor, invented the internal combustion engine and was a pioneer in steamships who accumulated a total of 20 patents. ...


Etienne Lenoir produced the first successful stationary internal combustion engine in 1860, and within a few years, about four hundred were in operation in Paris. About 1863, Lenoir installed his engine in a vehicle. It seems to have been powered by city lighting-gas in bottles, and was said by Lenoir to have "travelled more slowly than a man could walk, with breakdowns being frequent." Lenoir, in his patent of 1860, included the provision of a carburettor, so liquid fuel could be substituted for gas, particularly for mobile purposes in vehicles. Lenoir is said to have tested liquid fuel, such as alcohol, in his stationary engines; but it does not appear that he used them in his own vehicle. If he did, he most certainly did not use gasoline, as this was not well-known and was considered a waste product. Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) was born in Mussy-la-Ville, Belgium, in 1822. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and... The carburetor (or carburettor, carb for short) is a device which mixes air and fuel for an internal_combustion engine. ... In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ... Gasoline, also called petrol, is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzenes to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ...


The next innovation occurred in the late 1860s, with Siegfried Marcus, a German working in Vienna, Austria. He developed the idea of using gasoline as a fuel in a two-stroke internal combustion engine. In 1870, using a simple handcart, he built a crude vehicle with no seats, steering, or brakes, but it was remarkable for one reason: it was the world's first vehicle using an internal combustion engine fueled by gasoline. It was tested in Vienna in September of 1870 and put aside. In 1888 or 1889, he built a second automobile, this one with seats, brakes, and steering, and included a four-stroke engine of his own design. That design may have been tested in 1890. Although he held patents for many inventions, he never applied for patents for either design in this category. Siegfried Marcus 1831-1898 Siegfried Samuel Marcus (born in Malchin, Mecklenburg, Germany, on 1831-09-18, died in Vienna on 1898-07-01) was a German – Austrian inventor and automobile pioneer of Jewish ancestry. ... Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Gasoline, also called petrol, is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzenes to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ...


The four-stroke engine already had been documented and a patent was applied for in 1862 by the Frenchman Beau de Rochas in a long-winded and rambling pamphlet. He printed about three hundred copies of his pamphlet and they were distributed in Paris, but nothing came of this, with the patent application expiring soon afterward and the pamphlet disappearing into obscurity. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ...


Most historians agree that Nikolaus Otto of Germany built the world's first four-stroke engine although his patent was voided. He knew nothing of Beau de Rochas's patent or idea, and invented the concept independently. In fact, he began thinking about the concept in 1861, but abandoned it until the mid-1870s. Nikolaus August Otto (June 14, 1832 - January 28, 1891) was the German inventor of the internal-combustion engine. ...


In 1883, Edouard Delamare-Deboutteville and Leon Malandin of France installed an internal combustion engine powered by a tank of city gas on a tricycle. As they tested the vehicle, the tank hose came loose, resulting in an explosion. In 1884, Delamare-Deboutteville and Malandin built and patented a second vehicle. This one consisted of two four-stroke, liquid-fueled engines mounted on an old four-wheeled horse cart. The patent, and presumably the vehicle, contained many innovations, some of which would not be used for decades. However, during the vehicle's first test, the frame broke apart, the vehicle literally "shaking itself to pieces," in Malandin's own words. No more vehicles were built by the two men. Their venture went completely unnoticed and their patent unexploited. Knowledge of the vehicles and their experiments was obscured until years later.


Production of automobiles begins

Karl Benz
Karl Benz
Replica of the Benz Patent Motorwagen built in 1886

Internal combustion engine automobiles were first produced in Germany by Karl Benz in 1885-1886, and Gottlieb Daimler between 1886-1889. This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Download high resolution version (1164x1141, 224 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1164x1141, 224 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Karl Benz began to work on new engine patents in 1878. At first he concentrated on creating a reliable two-stroke gas engine, based on Nikolaus Otto's design of the four-stroke engine. A patent on the design by Otto had been declared void. Benz finished his engine on New Year's Eve and was granted a patent for it in 1879. Benz built his first three-wheeled automobile in 1885 and it was granted a patent in Mannheim, dated January of 1886. This was the first automobile designed and built as such, rather than a converted carriage, boat, or cart. Among other items Benz invented are the speed regulation system known also as an accelerator, ignition using sparks from a battery, the spark plug, the clutch, the gear shift, and the water radiator. He built improved versions in 1886 and 1887 and went into production in 1888: the world's first automobile production. His wife, Bertha, made significant suggestions for innovation that he included in that model. Approximately twenty-five were built before 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced. They were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany. Karl Benz Replica of the Benz Patent Motorwagen built in 1885 Karl Friedrich Benz (November 25, 1844 – April 4, 1929) was a German automobile engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the petrol-powered automobile. ... Basic information Country: Germany Federal state: Land Baden-Württemberg Regions: Rhein-Neckar District: Independent municipality Population: 324,787 (Mai 2005) Additional information Area: 144. ... A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... Ignition occurs when the heat produced by a reaction becomes sufficient to sustain the reaction, whether it be a fire, an explosion, or nuclear fusion. ... Lead-acid car battery // A car battery is a type of electric battery that supplies electric energy to the starter motor and the ignition system of a vehicle’s engine. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... Rear side of a Ford V6 engine, looking at the clutch housing on the flywheel Single, dry, clutch friction disc. ... The gear shifting is the part of the gearbox which has the shift forks and allows the contact from the driver to the synchronisation. ... Radiator is a common term for several types of heat exchangers. ... Bertha Benz, born Bertha Ringer (born May 3, 1849 in Pforzheim, Germany, married inventor Karl Benz on July 20, 1872, and died May 5, 1944 in Ladenburg), was the first person to drive an automobile over a long distance. ...


In 1886 Gottlieb Daimler fitted a horse carriage with his four-stroke engine. In 1889, he built two vehicles from scratch as automobiles, with several innovations. From 1890 to 1895 about thirty vehicles were built by Daimler and his assistant, Wilhelm Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after falling out with their backers. Benz and Daimler, seem to have been unaware of each other's early work and worked independently. Daimler died in 1900. During the First World War, Benz suggested a co-operative effort between the two companies, but it was not until 1926 that the they united under the name of Daimler-Benz with a commitment to remain together under that name until the year 2000. Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler ( March 17, 1834, Schorndorf; March 6, 1900, Cannstatt, Stuttgart) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist from Germany. ... Wilhelm Maybach Wilhelm Maybach (born February 9, 1846, in Heilbronn; died December 29, 1929, in Stuttgart) was an early German engine designer and industrialist. ...


In 1890, Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation of the motor industry in France. They were inspired by Daimler's Stahlradwagen of 1889, which was exhibited in Paris in 1889. Armand Peugeot (1849-1915) was an industrialist, pioneer of the automobile industry and the founder of the French firm Peugeot. ...


The first American car with a gasoline internal combustion engine supposedly was designed in 1877 by George Baldwin Selden of Rochester, New York, who applied for a patent on an automobile in 1879. Selden did not build an automobile until 1905, when he was forced to do so, due to a lawsuit threatening the legality of his patent because the subject had never been built. After building the 1877 design in 1905, Selden received his patent and later sued the Ford Motor Company for infringing upon his patent. Henry Ford was notorious for opposing the American patent system and Selden's case against Ford went all the way to the Supreme Court, which ruled that Ford, and anyone else, was free to build automobiles without paying royalties to Selden, since automobile technology had improved so significantly since the design of Selden's patent, that no one was building according to his early designs. George B. Selden, born September 14, 1846 in Clarkson, New York, died January 17, 1922 in Rochester, New York, was a lawyer and inventor who was granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile. ... Nickname: The Flour City, The Flower City, The Worlds Image Center Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country United States State New York County Monroe Mayor Robert Duffy Area    - City 96. ... Ford Motor Company is one of the largest automobile manufacturers in the world. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of the modern assembly line used in mass production. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ...


In Britain there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860.[1] One of the major problems was the poor state of the road network. Santler from Malvern is recognised by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol powered car in the country in 1894 [2] followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895 [2] but these were both one-offs. The first production vehicles came from the Daimler Motor Company founded in 1896 and making their first cars made in 1897.[2] Thomas Rickett from Buckingham, England, made a steam powered car in 1860. ... The Santler was a British car built in Malvern Link, Worcestershire, England, between 1889 and 1922. ... Frederick William Lanchester (October 23, 1868 - March 8, 1946) was an English polymath and engineer who made important contributions to automotive engineering, aerodynamics and co-invented the field of operations research. ... Daimler has, since 1896, been the motor car marque of the British Daimler Motor Company, based in Coventry. ...


Innovation

Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, a French inventor, is credited for having built the world's first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in 1765. The first automobile patent in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in 1789 for his "Amphibious Digger". It was a harbor dredge scow designed to be powered by a steam engine and he built wheels to attach to the bow. In 1804 Evans demonstrated his first successful self-propelled vehicle, which not only was the first automobile in the US but was also the first amphibious vehicle, as his steam-powered vehicle was able to travel on wheels on land as he demonstrated once, and via a paddle wheel in the water. It was not successful and eventually was sold as spare parts. Image File history File links Picture of non-black 1927 Model T at Greenfield Village, photo by rmhermen File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Picture of non-black 1927 Model T at Greenfield Village, photo by rmhermen File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ford Model T For the blues musician, see T-Model Ford. ... Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (25 September 1725 – 2 October 1804) was a French inventor who built what may have been the worlds first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and... Oliver Evans Oliver Evans (13 September 1755 – 15 April 1819) was a United States inventor. ... A steam engine is an external combustion heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... A DUKW (commonly DUCK), during World War II Propeller on a French VAB An amphibian or amphibious vehicle, is a vehicle that, like an amphibian, can move on land as well as on water. ... A driving wheel on a steam locomotive. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship driven by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ...


The Benz Motorwagen, built in 1885, was patented on 29 January 1886 by Karl Benz as the first automobile powered by an internal combustion engine. In 1888, a major breakthrough came with the historic drive of Bertha Benz. She drove an automobile that her husband had built for a distance of more than 106 km (i.e. - approximately 65 miles). This event demonstrated the practical usefulness of the automobile and gained wide publicity, which was the promotion she thought was needed to advance the invention. The Benz vehicle was the first automobile put into production and sold commercially. Bertha Benz's historic drive is celebrated as an annual holiday in Germany with rallies of antique automobiles. January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Karl Benz Replica of the Benz Patent Motorwagen built in 1885 Karl Friedrich Benz (November 25, 1844 – April 4, 1929) was a German automobile engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the petrol-powered automobile. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Bertha Benz, born Bertha Ringer (born May 3, 1849 in Pforzheim, Germany, married inventor Karl Benz on July 20, 1872, and died May 5, 1944 in Ladenburg), was the first person to drive an automobile over a long distance. ... The word holiday has related but different meanings in English-speaking countries. ...


In 1892 Rudolf Diesel gets a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine" by modifying the Carnot Cycle. And in 1897 he builds the first Diesel Engine. Rudolf Diesel (1858–1913) Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor, famous for the invention of the Diesel engine. ... A heat engine is an engine that uses heat to produce mechanical work by carrying a working substance through a cyclic process. ... A Diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, it is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited by being suddenly exposed to the high temperature...


On 5 November 1895, George B. Selden was granted a United States patent for a two-stroke automobile engine (U.S. Patent 549160). This patent did more to hinder than encourage development of autos in the United States. Steam, electric, and gasoline powered autos competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s. November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... George B. Selden, born September 14, 1846 in Clarkson, New York, died January 17, 1922 in Rochester, New York, was a lawyer and inventor who was granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile, which he invented in 1877. ... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by having only two strokes (linear movements of the piston) instead of four, although the same four operations (intake, compression, power, exhaust) still occur. ...

Ransom E. Olds, the creator of the first automobile assembly line
Ransom E. Olds, the creator of the first automobile assembly line

The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted by Ransom Eli Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in 1902. This assembly line concept was then greatly expanded by Henry Ford in the 1910s. Development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering, for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910-1911), independent suspension, and four-wheel brakes. Image File history File links Olds2. ... Image File history File links Olds2. ... Ransom Eli Olds (June 3, 1864–August 26, 1950) was a pioneer of American automobile industry. ... A production line is a set of sequential operations established in a factory whereby materials are put through a refining process to produce an end-product that is suitable for onward consumption; or components are assembled to make a finished article. ... Ransom Eli Olds (June 3, 1864–August 26, 1950) was a pioneer of American automobile industry. ... The final Oldsmobile Logo, introduced in 1997 as an update of the Rocket theme used in various forms since 1948. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of the modern assembly line used in mass production. ... The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... Charles Kettering, on a Time cover, 1933 Charles Franklin Kettering (August 29, 1876 – November 24 or November 25, 1958), also known as Boss Kettering, was born in northern Ohio, USA. He was a farmer, school teacher, mechanic, engineer, scientist, inventor and social philosopher. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the USA; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ...


Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, only Mazda's version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success. A rotary engine is an internal combustion engine that does not use pistons in the way a reciprocating engine does, but instead uses one or more rotors, sometimes called rotary pistons. ... piston + connecting rod Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Crankshaft, pistons, and flywheel Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 For the comic strip about an old, curmudgeonly bus driver, see Crankshaft (comic strip). ... 12A redirects here. ... First Wankel Engine NSU KKM 57P Autovision und Forum, Germany Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ...


Model changeover and design change

Since the 1920s nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs, so marketing plans have often heavily influenced automobile design. It was Alfred P. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one firm, so that buyers could "move up" as their fortunes improved. The makes shared parts with one another so that the larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. For example, in the 1950s, Chevrolet shared hood, doors, roof, and windows with Pontiac; the LaSalle of the 1930s, sold by Cadillac, used the cheaper mechanical parts made by the Oldsmobile division. Cover of Time Magazine (December 27, 1926) Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ... Chevrolet (Shev-ro-LAY — French origin), (colloquially Chev or Chevy) , is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors. ... This article concerns the automobile; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for the city in Michigan, see Pontiac, Michigan. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors Corporation, produced and mostly sold in the United States and Canada; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ...


Production statistics

In 2005, 63 million cars and light trucks were produced worldwide.

Top 15 Motor Vehicle Producing Countries 2005[3][4] edit
Car and Light Commercial Vehicle Production (1,000 units)
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000
United States of America 11,524
Japan 10,064
Germany 5,543
China 5,067
South Korea 3,657
France 3,495
Spain 2,677
Canada 2,624
Brazil 2,375
United Kingdom 1,783
Mexico 1,607
India 1,406
Russia 1,264
Thailand 1,110
Italy 995
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
  1. ^ Burgess Wise, D. (1970). Veteran and Vintage Cars. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-60000-283-7.
  2. ^ a b c Georgano, N. (2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. London: HMSO. ISBN 1-57958-293-1.
  3. ^ World Motor Vehicle Production by Country and Type: Cars 2004 - 2005. OICA.
  4. ^ World Motor Vehicle Production by Country and Type: Light Commercial Vehicles 2004 - 2005. OICA.


Large free trade areas like EU, NAFTA and MERCOSUR attract manufacturers worldwide to produce their products within them reducing currency risks and customs controls and additionally being close to their customers. Thus the production figures do not show the technological ability or business skill of the areas. In fact much, if not most, of Third World countries car production uses Western technology and car models and sometimes complete Western factories are shipped to such countries. This is reflected in patent statistics as well as the location of R&D centers.


The automobile industry is dominated by relatively few large corporations (not to be confused with the much more numerous brands), the biggest of which (by numbers of cars produced) are currently General Motors, Toyota and Ford Motor Company. It is expected that Toyota will reach the No.1 position in 2006. The most profitable per-unit car-maker of recent years has been Porsche due to its premium price tag. General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Toyota redirects here. ... Ford Motor Company is one of the largest automobile manufacturers in the world. ... Dr. Ing. ...

Top 15 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers 2005[5] edit
Car and Light Commercial Vehicle Production (1,000 units)
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000
General Motors 9,040
Toyota 7,100
Ford 6,418
Volkswagen Group 5,173
DaimlerChrysler 4,319
PSA Peugeot Citroën 3,375
Honda 3,373
Nissan 3,348
Hyundai-Kia 2,853
Renault-Dacia-Samsung 2,617
Suzuki-Maruti 2,072
Fiat 1,934
Mitsubishi 1,327
BMW 1,323
Mazda 1,285
Total global production: 67,265
                                                                                                                                                                                                       
  1. ^ Burgess Wise, D. (1970). Veteran and Vintage Cars. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-60000-283-7.
  2. ^ a b c Georgano, N. (2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. London: HMSO. ISBN 1-57958-293-1.
  3. ^ World Motor Vehicle Production by Country and Type: Cars 2004 - 2005. OICA.
  4. ^ World Motor Vehicle Production by Country and Type: Light Commercial Vehicles 2004 - 2005. OICA.
  5. ^ World motor vehicle production by manufacturer: World ranking 2005. OICA (June 2006).

General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is the worlds largest automaker. ... Toyota redirects here. ... Ford Motor Company is one of the largest automobile manufacturers in the world. ... Volkswagen Group (DE0007664005) (TYO: 7659 ) is a German automobile manufacturer. ... DaimlerChrysler AG headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg (Germany) and Auburn Hills, Michigan (USA), is a prominent automobile and truck manufacturer and financial services provider (through DaimlerChrysler Financial Services). ... PSA Peugeot Citroën (PSA) is a vehicle company that owns the marques Peugeot and Citroën. ... For other uses, see Honda (disambiguation). ... Nissan Motor Co. ... The Hyundai Group (meaning modernity in Korean) was founded by Chung Ju-yung in 1947 as a construction company and was once South Koreas biggest conglomerate (chaebol). ... Kia Motors Company is a South Korean automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Yangjae-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea. ... Renault S.A. is a French vehicle manufacturer producing cars, vans, buses, tractors and trucks. ... Suzuki Motor Corporation (スズキ株式会社) TYO: 7269 is a Japanese manufacturing company producing a range of small automobiles (especially Keicars), a full range of motorcycles, outboard motors, and a variety of other small combustion-powered engine products. ... FIAT Group, or Fiat S.p. ... Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (in Japanese: 三菱自動車工業, in romaji Mitsubishi Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha) is a Japanese automobile company, manufacturing an extensive range of cars and trucks (see Fuso). ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation) BMW AG (an acronym for Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, or in English, Bavarian Motor Works), is an independent German company and manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles. ... Mazda Motor Corporation ) (TYO: 7261 ) is a Japanese automobile maker based in Hiroshima, Japan. ...

Future of the car

The hydrogen powered FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) was developed by Toyota in 2005
The hydrogen powered FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) was developed by Toyota in 2005
Main article: Future of the car

There have been many efforts to innovate automobile design funded by the NHTSA, including the work of the NavLab group at Carnegie Mellon University. Recent efforts include the highly publicized DARPA Grand Challenge race. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 1389 KB) en: TOYOTA FCHV(Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 1389 KB) en: TOYOTA FCHV(Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle). ... Toyota redirects here. ... The future of the car is a controversial topic, with some advocates arguing that the car has no future, and others that the car will in the future supplant most other forms of transport. ... The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, often pronounced nit-suh) is a U.S. Government agency, part of the Department of Transportation, responsible for setting safety standards and verifying compliance by automobile manufacturers. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...


Relatively high transportation fuel prices do not significantly reduce car usage but do make it more expensive. One environmental benefit of high fuel prices is that it is an incentive for the production of more efficient (and hence less polluting) car designs and the development of alternative fuels. At the beginning of 2006, 1 liter of gasoline cost approximately $0.60 USD in the United States and in Germany and other European countries nearly $1.80 USD. With fuel prices at these levels there is a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars. Greenpeace, however, demonstrated with the highly fuel efficient SmILE that car manufacturers aren't delivering what they could and thus not supplying for any such demand [citation needed]. Nevertheless, individual mobility is highly prized in modern societies so the demand for automobiles is inelastic. Alternative individual modes of transport, such as Personal rapid transit, could serve a an alternative to automobiles if they prove to be cheaper and more energy efficient. Greenpeace is an international environmental organization founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1971. ... An Iraqi girl smiles In physiology, a smile is a facial expression formed by flexing muscles most notably near both ends of the mouth, but also around the eyes. ... Artists rendering of SkyTran, a proposed PRT design. ...

Lexus LF-A concept car at the 2006 Greater Los Angeles Auto Show
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Lexus LF-A concept car at the 2006 Greater Los Angeles Auto Show

Electric cars operate a complex drivetrain and transmission would not be needed. However, despite this the electric car is held back by battery technology - a cell with comparable energy density to a tank of liquid fuel is a long way off, and there is no infrastructure in place to support it. A more practical approach may be to use a smaller internal combustion (IC) engine to drive a generator- this approach can be much more efficient since the IC engine can be run at a single speed, use cheaper fuel such as diesel, and drop the heavy, power wasting drivetrain. Such an approach has worked very well for railway locomotives, but so far has not been scaled down for car use. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 386 KB) Summary A picture of the Lexus LF-A concept car at the 2006 Greater Los Angeles Auto Show. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 386 KB) Summary A picture of the Lexus LF-A concept car at the 2006 Greater Los Angeles Auto Show. ... Lexus is a brand name of the Toyota Motor Corporation for its line of luxury vehicles. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ... Great Western Railway No. ...


Alternative technologies

Main article: Alternative fuel cars
The Henney Kilowatt, the first modern (transistor-controlled) electric car.
The Henney Kilowatt, the first modern (transistor-controlled) electric car.

Increasing costs of oil-based fuels and tightening environmental laws with the possibility of further restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. Alternative fuel cars refers to cars run on Alternative fuel; any method of powering an engine that does not involve petroleum. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x630, 149 KB) Summary 1960 Henney Kilowatt Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x630, 149 KB) Summary 1960 Henney Kilowatt Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... See also Wikipedias Law Portal. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Many diesel-powered cars can run with little or no modifications on 100% pure biodiesel. The main benefit of Diesel combustion engines is its 50% fuel burn efficiency compared with 23% in the best gasoline engines. Most modern gasoline engines are capable of running with up to 15% ethanol mixed into the gasoline fuel - older vehicles may have seals and hoses that could be harmed by ethanol. With a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentrations as high as 85%. 100% ethanol is used in some parts of the world using vehicles that must be started on pure gasoline and switched over to ethanol once the engine is running. Most gasoline fuelled cars can also run on LPG with the addition of a heavy propane tank for fuel storage and carburation modifications to heat the liquid to its boiling point before injection into the engine to avoid carburettor icing. LPG produces non-toxic emissions and is a popular fuel for fork lift trucks that have to operate inside buildings. Diesel or Diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent, processed fuel derived from biological sources. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid with inexpensive containers. ...


The first electric cars were built in the late 1800s, prior to combustion engine automobiles, nevertheless attempts at building viable, modern battery-powered electric vehicle began with the introduction of the first modern (transistor controlled) electric car. This article or section needs additional references or sources. ... Assorted transistors The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. ...


Current research and development is centered on "hybrid" vehicles that use both electric power and internal combustion. Research into alternative forms of power also focus on developing fuel cells, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), and even using the stored energy of compressed air or liquid nitrogen. A hybrid car or hybrid electric vehicle is a vehicle which relies not only on batteries but also on an internal combustion engine which drives a generator to provide the electricity and may also drive the wheels directly. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, or HCCI, is a form of internal combustion in which well mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. ... A liquid nitrogen (LN2) economy is a hypothetical proposal for a future economy in which the primary form of energy storage and transport is liquid nitrogen. ...


Alternative forms of combustion such as Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) are starting to appear in production vehicles. GDI is employed in the 2007 BMW MINI. Gasoline direct injection or GDI is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern four stroke petrol engines. ... MINI is both a car, and a BMW subsidiary that has produced it since 2001. ...


Design

Main article: Automotive design
The 1955 Citroën DS; revolutionary visual design and technological innovation.
The 1955 Citroën DS; revolutionary visual design and technological innovation.

The design of modern cars is typically handled by a large team of designers and engineers from many different disciplines. As part of the product development effort the team of designers will work closely with teams of design engineers responsible for all aspects of the vehicle. These engineering teams include: chassis, body and trim, powertrain, electrical and production. The design team under the leadership of the design director will typically comprise of an exterior designer, an interior designer (usually referred to as stylists) and a color and materials designer. A few other designers will be involved in detail design of both exterior and interior. For example, a designer might be tasked with designing the rear light clusters or the steering wheel. The color and materials designer will work closely with the exterior and interior designers in developing exterior color paints, interior colors, fabrics, leathers, carpet, wood trim and so on. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into car making. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 669 KB) Description: A 1975 Citroën D Super DS FD photographed by myself at Prins Bertil Memorial in Stockholm, Sweden. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 669 KB) Description: A 1975 Citroën D Super DS FD photographed by myself at Prins Bertil Memorial in Stockholm, Sweden. ... 1974 Citroën DS23 Pallas Directional headlight detail of a Citroën DS21 Swedish-spec Citroën DS with headlight wipers US-spec 1969 Citroën DS with exposed headlights Citroën DS Break - also known as the Safari, Familiale, or Wagon 1966 Citroën DS 1966 Citroën DS...


In 1924 the American national automobile market began reaching saturation. To maintain unit sales, General Motors instituted annual model-year design changes in order to convince car owners that they needed to buy a new replacement each year. Since 1935 automotive form has been driven more by consumer expectations than by engineering improvement.


Safety

Main article: Car safety
Main article: Automobile accident

Automobile accidents are almost as old as automobiles themselves. Joseph Cugnot crashed his steam-powered "Fardier" against a wall in 1771. One of the earliest recorded automobile fatalities was Mary Ward, on August-31, 1869 in Parsonstown, Ireland, an early victim in the United States was Henry Bliss on 1899-09-13 in New York City, NY. Car safety is the avoidance of car accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (25 September 1725 - 2 October 1804) was a French inventor who built what may have been the worlds first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile. ... Scientist Mary Ward Mary Ward (b. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Henry Bliss in 1873 While Bridget Driscoll was the first person killed by an automobile in the world, Henry Hale Bliss (1831? to September 13, 1899) is the first person killed in a car accident in the United States. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the United States, the most densely populated major city in North America, and is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. ...


Cars have two basic safety problems: They have human drivers who make mistakes, and the wheels lose traction when braking or turning forces are close to a half gravity.


Early safety research focused on increasing the reliability of brakes and reducing the flammability of fuel systems. For example, modern engine compartments are open at the bottom so that fuel vapors, which are heavier than air, vent to the open air. Brakes are hydraulic and dual circuit so that failures are slow leaks, rather than abrupt cable breaks. Systematic research on crash safety started in 1958 at Ford Motor Company. Since then, most research has focused on absorbing external crash energy with crushable panels and reducing the motion of human bodies in the passenger compartment. Ford Motor Company is one of the largest automobile manufacturers in the world. ...


Significant reductions in death and injury have come from the addition of Safety belts and laws in many countries to require vehicle occupants to wear them. Airbags and specialised child restraint systems have improved on that. A three-point seat belt. ... An airbag is a flexible membrane or envelope, inflatable to contain air or some other gas. ...


There are standard tests for safety in new automobiles, like the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests. There are also tests run by organizations such as IIHS and backed by the insurance industry. EuroNCAP, the European New Car Assessment Programme, is a safety assessment programme for automobiles supported by several European governments, many major manufacturers and motoring organisations across the world. ...


Despite technological advances, there is still significant loss of life from car accidents: About 40,000 people die every year in the U.S., with similar figures in Europe. This figure increases annually in step with rising population and increasing travel if no measures are taken, but the rate per capita and per mile travelled decreases steadily. The death toll is expected to nearly double worldwide by 2020. A much higher number of accidents result in injury or permanent disability. The highest accident figures are reported in China and India. The European Union has a rigid program to cut the death toll in the EU in half by 2010 and member states have started implementing measures. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Automated control has been seriously proposed and successfully prototyped. Shoulder-belted passengers could tolerate a 32G emergency stop (reducing the safe intervehicle gap 64-fold) if high-speed roads incorporated a steel rail for emergency braking. Both safety modifications of the roadway are thought to be too expensive by most funding authorities, although these modifications could dramatically increase the number of vehicles that could safely use a high-speed highway. An automated highway system (AHS) or Smart Roads, is an advanced Intelligent transportation system technology designed to provide for driverless cars on specific rights-of-way. ... The acceleration due to gravity denoted g (also gee) is a non-SI unit of acceleration defined as exactly 9. ... Highway in Pennsylvania, USA A highway is a major road designed for automobile travel that connects cities, places, other highways, or other significant points of interest. ...


Economics and societal impact

The economics of personal automobile ownership go beyond the initial cost of the vehicle and includes repairs, maintenance, fuel, depreciation, the cost of borrowing, parking fees, tire replacement, taxes and insurance. Additionally, there are indirect societal costs such as the costs of maintaining roads and other infrastructure, pollution, health care costs due to accidents and the cost of finally desposing of the vehicle at the end of it's life. The ability for humans to move rapidly from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of our society. People can now live far from their workplaces, the design of our cities is determined as much by the need to get vehicles into and out of the city as the nature of the buildings and public spaces within the city. One of the costs of vehicle ownership. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Further reading

Articles relating to Automobile configurations
Car body style and classification 2 plus 2, Antique car, Cabrio coach, Cabriolet, City car, Classic car, Compact car, Compact performance car, Compact SUV, Convertible, Coupé, Coupé convertible, Coupe Utility, Crossover SUV, Custom car, Drophead coupe, Fastback, Full-size car, Grand tourer, Hardtop, Hatchback, Hot hatch, Hot rod, Large family car, Leisure activity vehicle, Liftback, Limousine, Luxury car, Microcar, Mid-size car, Mini SUV, Minivan, Multi-purpose vehicle, Muscle car, Notchback, Personal luxury car, Pickup truck, Retractable hardtop, Roadster, Sedan, Saloon, Small family car, Sport compact, Sports car, Sport utility vehicle, Spyder, Station wagon, Estate car, Supermini, Targa top, Taxicab, Touring car, Town car, T-top, Ute, Van, Voiturette
Specialised vehicles Gyrocar, Flying car. Amphibious vehicle
Fuel technologies Internal combustion engine, Electric vehicle, Neighborhood electric vehicle, Hybrid vehicle, Battery electric vehicle, Hydrogen vehicle, Fuel cell, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, Steam car, Alternative fuel cars, Biodiesel, Gasohol, Ethanol, LPG (Propane), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, Liquid Nitrogen, Gasoline Direct Injection
Driven wheels Two-wheel drive, Four-wheel drive, Front-wheel drive, Rear-wheel drive, All-wheel drive
Engine positioning Front engine, Rear engine, Mid engine
Layout FF layout, FR layout, MR layout, MF layout, RR layout
Engine configuration Internal combustion engine, Straight-6, V engine, Wankel engine, Reciprocating engine, Inline engine, Flat engine, Flathead engine, Diesel engine, Two-stroke cycle, Four-stroke cycle, Pushrod engine, Straight engine, H engine, Turbodiesel, Hybrid vehicle, Rechargeable energy storage system, Electric vehicle, Hydrogen vehicle
Articles relating to Parts of Automobiles
Body Framework A-pillar, Bumper, Cabrio coach, Chassis, Crumple zone, Body-on-frame, Dagmar bumpers, Fender, Fender skirts, Grille, Hood, Hood scoop, Monocoque construction, Pontoon fenders, Quarter panel, Shaker scoop, Spoiler, Subframe, Tonneau
Doors Butterfly doors, Gull-wing door, Scissor doors, Suicide door
Glass Sunroof, Greenhouse, Windshield
Other Antenna ball, Hood ornament, Japan Black paint, Nerf bar, Truck accessory, Bumper sticker
Exterior Equipment Lighting Daytime running lamp, Headlamp, Headlight styling, Hidden headlamps, Retroreflector, Sealed beam, Trafficators, High intensity discharge
Other British car number plates, Distance sensor, US and Canadian license plates, Vanity plate, Vehicle registration plate, Windscreen wiper, Windshield washer fluid
Car engine Air/Fuel Air filter, Automatic Performance Control, Blowoff valve, Boost, Boost controller, Butterfly valve, Carburetor, Charge cooler, Centrifugal type supercharger, Cold air intake, Engine management system, Engine Control Unit, Forced induction, Front mounted intercooler, Fuel filter, Fuel injection, Fuel pump, Fuel tank, Gasoline direct injection, Indirect injection, Intake, Intercooler, Manifold, Manifold vacuum, Mass flow sensor, Naturally-aspirated engine, Ram-air intake, Scroll-type supercharger, Short ram air intake, Supercharger, Throttle body, Top mounted intercooler, Turbocharger, Turbocharged Direct Injection, Twin-turbo, Variable Length Intake Manifold, Variable geometry turbocharger. Warm air intake
Exhaust Catalytic converter, Emissions control devices, Exhaust pipe, Exhaust system, Glasspack, Muffler, Oxygen sensor
Cooling Aircooling, Antifreeze, Ethylene glycol, Radiator, Thermostat
Ignition system Starter, Car battery, Contact breaker, Distributor, Electrical ballast, Ignition coil, Lead-acid battery, Magneto, Spark-ignition, Spark plug
Other Balance shaft, Block heater, Crank. Cam, Camshaft, Connecting rod, Combustion chamber, Crank pin, Crankshaft, Crossflow cylinder head, Crossplane, Desmodromic valve, Engine knocking, Compression ratio, Crank sensor, Cylinder, Cylinder bank, Cylinder block, Cylinder head, Cylinder head porting, Dump valve,Engine balance, Oil filter, Firing order, Freeze plug, Gasket, Head gasket, Hypereutectic piston, Hydrolock, Lean burn, Main bearing, Motor oil, Multi-valve, Oil sludge, Overhead camshaft, Overhead valve, PCV valve, Piston, Piston ring, Pneumatic valve gear, Poppet valve, Power band, Redline, Reverse-flow cylinder head, Rocker arm, Seal, Sleeve valve, Starter ring gear, Synthetic oil, Tappet, Timing belt, Timing mark, Top dead centre, Underdrive pulleys, Valve float, Variable valve timing
Interior equipment Instruments Backup camera, Boost gauge, Buzzer, Car computer, Carputer, Check Engine light, Fuel gauge, Global Positioning System, Idiot light, Navigation system, Odometer, Speedometer, Tachometer, Trip computer
Controls Bowden cable, Cruise control, Electronic throttle control, Hand brake, Manettino dial, Steering wheel, Throttle, Gear stick
Motor vehicle theft deterrence Car alarm, ESITrack, Immobiliser, Klaxon, Vehicle tracking system, VIN etching
Passenger safety & seating Airbag, Armrest, Automatic seatbelt, Bench seat, Bucket seat, Child safety lock, Dicky seat, Passive safety, Rumble seat, Seat belt
Other Air conditioning, Ancillary power, Car audio, Car phone, Center console, Dashboard, Motorola connector, Power window, Rear-view mirror, TripSense
Powertrain Wheels and Tires All-terrain tyre, Bias-ply tire, Contact patch, Custom wheel, Drive wheel, Hubcap, Magnesium alloy wheel, Mud-terrain tyre, Paddle tires, Radial tire, Rostyle wheel, Run flat tires, Schrader valve, Slick tire, Spinner, Tire code, Tread, Treadwear rating, Whitewall tire, Wire wheels
Transmission Automatic transmission, Clutch, Continuously variable transmission, Differential, Driveshaft, Electrorheological clutch, Epicyclic gearing, Fluid coupling, Fully-automatic transmission, Gear stick, Gearbox, Hydramatic, Limited slip differential, Locking differential, Manual transmission, Roto Hydramatic, Saxomat, Semi-automatic transmission, Semi-automatic transmission, Super Turbine 300, Tiptronic Torque converter, Transmission (mechanics), Transmission Control Unit, Turbo-Hydramatic, Universal joint
Steering Ackermann steering geometry, Anti-lock braking system, Camber angle, Car handling, Caster angle, Oversteer, Power steering, Rack and pinion, Toe angle, Torque steering, Understeer
Suspension Axle, Beam axle, Coil spring, De Dion tube, Double wishbone, Electronic Stability Control, Hydragas, Hydrolastic, Hydropneumatic suspension, Independent suspension, Kingpin, Leaf spring, Live axle, MacPherson strut, Multi-link suspension, Panhard rod, Semi-trailing arm suspension, Shock absorber, Sway bar, Swing axle, Torsion beam suspension, Transaxle, Trailing arm, Unsprung weight, Watt's linkage, Wishbone suspension
Brakes Anti-lock braking system, Disc brake, Drum brake, Hand brake, Hydraulic brake, Inboard brake, Brake lining, Brake fade, Brake fluid, Hydraulic fluid, Brake bleeding, Engine braking, Electronic brakeforce distribution, Regenerative brake

Cars can come in a large variety of different body styles. ... Car classification is a somewhat subjective subject, as many vehicles fall between classes or even outside all of them. ... 2 plus 2 (2+2) The term 2 plus 2 (or 2+2) is a semi-slang phrase used to describe a car with seating for two passengers up front, plus two for occasional passengers in the rear. ... An antique car is generally defined as a car over 25 years of age, this being the definition used by the Antique Automobile Club of America and many other organisations worldwide. ... A Citroën 2CV with the roof up. ... Original meaning A cabriolet was a light, two-wheeled horse-drawn carriage with a folding calash top, seating two persons behind the drivers box. ... A City Car is a small, moderately powered vehicle (sometimes battery electric powered) intended for use in urban areas. ... Ford Model A Fordor 1948 Buick Eight convertible 1955 Chevrolet Nomad 1935 Plymouth PJ Touring Sedan 1948 Pontiac Streamliner Sedan Coupe 1959 Chevrolet Impala Classic car is a term frequently used to describe an older car, but what exactly is meant by that varies from person to person and organisation... The Rambler American introduced in the late 1950s was an early compact car. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sport compact. ... A compact, light, or mini SUV refers to a class of small sport utility vehicles, especially those with only 2 doors, and are between 3,60 and 4,00 metres long (under 3,40 meter cars are called in Japan midgets). ... Saab 900 Convertible Convertible can also refer to a convertible (security) A convertible (sometimes called cabriolet in British English) is a car body style with a folding or retracting roof. ... 1995 Buick Riviera coupé 1990 Mercedes-Benz 560SEC coupé, noted for its large, angular design A coupé (from the French for cut) or coupe is a car body style with a close-coupled interior offering either two seats or 2+2 seating (space for two passengers up front and for... The coupé convertible (in French coupé cabriolet) or retractable hardtop (more common US usage) is an evolution of car body style that involves the flexibility of a mobile roof (from the convertible) and of the rigid roof of a coupé. In the first years of the 2000s, car manufacturers started... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pickup. ... The Honda CR-V is a crossover SUV based on the Honda Civic platform. ... Plain paint on early hot rods Modern custom of mid-fifities Buick Modern steel Retro style $100,000+ custom body A custom car is phrase that became prominent in American pop culture in the 1950s, and has enjoyed special interest poplarity since that time. ... Saab 900 Convertible Convertible can also refer to a convertible (security) A convertible is an automobile with a folding or retracting roof. ... This classic Ford Mustang has a fastback body style. ... 2001 BMW 750iL A full-size car is a term used in North America for an automobile larger than a mid-size car, usually having a wheelbase greater than 2. ... A grand tourer (Italian: Gran Turismo), sometimes initialised GT, is a high-performance automobile designed for long distance driving. ... A hardtop is a term for a rigid, rather than canvas, automobile roof. ... Peugeot 306 Hatchback, with the hatch lifted and the parcel shelf tilted for access A hatchback is an automobile design, consisting of a passenger cabin which includes an integrated cargo space, accessed from behind by a hatch or flip-up window. ... Peugeot 205 GTI A hot hatch is an informal or slang term for a performance derivative of a European hatchback (in the US, Asian sports hatches are sometimes called Sport Compacts). ... T-Bucket hot rod Hot rods are older, often historical, cars. ... A Ford Focus, classed as a small family car. ... A leisure activity vehicle is a small van, generally related to a supermini, with a second or even a third seat row, and a large, tall boot. ... A hatchback is a type of automobile design, consisting of a passenger cabin which includes an integrated cargo space, accessed from behind by a hatch or flip-up window. ... 2006 Cadillac DTS Presidential Limousine A limousine (or limo) is a long luxury car, traditionally black in color. ... A luxury car is a relatively expensive car. ... This Smart car is now considered an example of a microcar, in spite of weighing as much as a Volkswagen Beetle A microcar is an extremely small automobile. ... A mid-size car, frequently referred to as an intermediate, is an automobile with a size between that of a compact and a full-size or standard-size car. ... Mini SUV is a class of small sport utility vehicles which are more or less under 4,15 m long. ... A modern minivan - 2004 Chrysler Town & Country Typical early minivan (a Dodge Caravan) A minivan, people carrier, multi utility vehicle (MUV),or multi purpose vehicle (MPV) is a type of vehicle which has a body that resembles a van, but which has rear side doors, rear side windows, and interior... An MPV or multi-purpose vehicle is a passenger-carrying vehicle based on a car platform, and is generally a one box design—neither a distinct bonnet (US: hood) nor boot (US: trunk), but rather a maximised interior space. ... The Pontiac GTO is a classic example of the muscle car. ... Notchback is a form of automobile body that is characterized by a sharp vertical drop-off from roof to trunk, as opposed to hatchback or fastback. ... Ford Thunderbird A personal luxury car is a highly styled, luxurious automobile intended for the comfort and satisfaction of its owner/driver, sacrificing passenger space, cargo capacity, and other practical concerns for the sake of style. ... Mazda compact Pickup truck with extended cabin and homebuilt lumber rack. ... 2003 Mercedes-Benz SL 500 A Retractable Hardtop (also known as a coupe convertible and coupe cabriolet) refers to a car with a movable roof for a convertible that is made of plastic or metal. ... 1923 Ford Model T roadster 1950 Jaguar XK120 roadster This article is about the roadster car body style. ... A Ford Taurus, a recognizable sedan. ... A Ford Taurus, a recognizable sedan. ... A Ford Focus, classed as a small family car. ... It has been suggested that Compact performance car be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Spyder or Spider is a term for a rear mid-engine rear wheel drive convertible car body style (see Porsche 550 Spyder). ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... A supermini can be: A car size class used in Europe. ... Targa top body style Targa top, or targa for short, is a semi-convertible car body style with a removable roof section and a full width roll bar behind the seats. ... Taxicab, short forms taxi or cab, is a type of public transport for single passenger or small group of passengers, typically for non-shared ride. ... Horatio Nelson Jackson in his 2-seat Winton touring car, The Vermont, drives across America A touring car was a popular car body style in the early 20th century, being a larger alternative to the runabout. ... ... Open sunroof in a Peugeot 206. ... Ute may refer to: The Ute, a tribe of Native Americans of the Uto-Aztecan language family. ... A van is a vehicle used for transporting goods or groups of people. ... Voiturettes are small three-wheeled cars produced in France, most notably in the years following World War II. Categories: Stub | Automobiles ... A gyrocar is a two-wheeled automobile. ... The Waterman Aerobile at the Smithsonian. ... A DUKW (commonly DUCK), during World War II Propeller on a French VAB An amphibian or amphibious vehicle, is a vehicle that, like an amphibian, can move on land as well as on water. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... General Motors EV1 // An electric vehicle, or EV, is a vehicle with one or more electric motors for vehicle propulsion. ... A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is an American term for a speed limited battery electric vehicle (usually 25 miles per hour in the U.S.A.) restricted by law to operation on roads with speed limits not exceeding 35 MPH. Often such vehicles are not built from scratch but instead... A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle using an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled propulsion power source for vehicle propulsion. ... The Toyota RAV4 EV is powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices. ... A fuel cell powered vehicle from GM A hydrogen vehicle is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006. ... The 1923 Stanley Steam Car A steam car is a car that is powered by a steam engine. ... Alternative fuel cars refers to cars run on Alternative fuel; any method of powering an engine that does not involve petroleum. ... Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent, processed fuel derived from biological sources. ... E10 or E-10 may refer to multiple things, including: The Northrop Grumman E-10 MC2A military aircraft based on the Boeing 767-400ER airframe E10 fuel, a common gasohol mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline The European route E10 E10 is the ESRB symbol for Everyone 10+ This... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to... Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, or HCCI, is a form of internal combustion in which well mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. ... A liquid nitrogen (LN2) economy is a hypothetical proposal for a future economy in which the primary form of energy storage and transport is liquid nitrogen. ... Gasoline direct injection or GDI is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern four stroke petrol engines. ... Two wheel drive or 2WD are terms used to describe vehicles with a drivetrain that allows two wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously. ... The Jeep Wrangler is a 4WD vehicle with a transfer case to select low range or high range 4WD. The Lamborghini Murciélago is a 4WD/AWD that powers the front via a VCU if the rear slips. ... Front-wheel drive is the most common form of engine/transmission layout used in modern passenger cars, where the engine drives the front wheels. ... Rear-wheel drive (or RWD for short) was a common engine/transmission layout used in automobiles throughout the 20th century. ... Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ... In Automobile design, an FF, or Front-engine, Front wheel drive, layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the front of the vehicle. ... In Automobile design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear wheel drive, layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. ... In Automobile design, an MR or Mid-engine, Rear wheel drive layout drives the rear wheels with an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. ... In automobile design, an FF, or Front-engine, Front wheel drive, layout places both the engine and driven wheels at the front of the vehicle. ... In automobile design, an FR, or front-engine, rear wheel drive means a layout where the engine is in the front of the vehicle and drive wheels at the rear. ... In automobile design, an MR or Mid-engine, Rear wheel drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. ... In automobile design, an MF or Mid-engine, Front wheel drive layout is one in which the front wheels are driven by an engine placed just behind them, in front of the passenger compartment. ... In Automobile design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear wheel drive, layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. ... Engine configuration is an engineering term for the layout of the major components of an internal combustion engine. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... The straight-6 (also inline 6, I-6, or I6) is an internal combustion engine with six cylinders aligned in a single row. ... A V engine is a common configuration for an internal combustion engine in which the pistons are aligned so that, if viewed along the line of the crankshaft, they appear to be in a V. Usually, two opposing pistons share one crank on the crankshaft. ... First Wankel Engine NSU KKM 57P Autovision und Forum, Germany Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... An inline engine is an internal-combustion engine with cylinders aligned in one or several rows. ... A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with its pistons parrallel to the ground. ... Ford flathead V8 engine, modified for power, depicted on cover of Hot Rod magazine Cover of Hot Rod magazine showing Ford Flathead V8 engine with centrifugal supercharger (on top) Flathead engine refers to an internal combustion engine that has the valves placed in the engine block beside the piston, instead... A Diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, it is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited by being suddenly exposed to the high temperature... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by having only two strokes (linear movements of the piston) instead of four, although the same four operations (intake, compression, power, exhaust) still occur. ... The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today (cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... A pushrod engine or overhead valve (OHV) engine is a type of piston engine that places the camshaft below the pistons (usually beside and slightly above the crankshaft in a straight engine or directly above the crankshaft in the V of a V engine) and uses pushrods or rods to... Usually found in 4 and 6 cylinder configurations, the straight engine (often designed as inline engine) is an internal-combustion engine with all cylinders aligned in one row, with no or only minimal offset. ... An H engine (or H-block) is an engine configuration in which the cylinders are aligned so that if viewed from the front appear to be in a horizontal letter H. An H engine can be viewed as two flat engines, one atop the other. ... A turbodiesel is a name for a turbocharged diesel engine. ... A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle using an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled propulsion power source for vehicle propulsion. ... A rechargeable energy storage system or RESS is a system that stores energy for delivery of electric energy and which is rechargeable. ... General Motors EV1 // An electric vehicle, or EV, is a vehicle with one or more electric motors for vehicle propulsion. ... A fuel cell powered vehicle from GM A hydrogen vehicle is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. ... An SUV with four pillars A Barracuda fastback has only two pillars A stretch limo with five pillars When looking at the side of a vehicle, the A-pillar is the pillar that attaches to the windshield and supports the roof. ... A bumper is a part of a car designed to allow one vehicle to push another and to withstand the impact from collisions. ... A Citroën 2CV with the roof up. ... A chassis (plural: chassis) consists of a framework which supports an inanimate object, analogous to an animals skeleton; for example in the construction of an automobile or of a firearm. ... The crumple zones of an automobile are a structural feature designed to compress during an accident to absorb energy from an impact. ... Body-on-frame is an automobile construction technology. ... 1958 promotional image of the Cadillac Eldorado Brougham also illustrates its bumper/grille design, also known as Dagmar bumpers Television personality Dagmar in one of her famous low cut gowns Dagmar bumpers, also known simply as Dagmars (D-HAG-mar) is a slang term for the artillery shell shaped styling... A fender is a portion of an automobile body that frames a wheel well. ... Fenders skirts are pieces of sheet metal that cover the upper portions of the rear tires of an automobile. ... In automotive engineering, a grille is an opening in the bodywork of a vehicle to allow air to enter. ... The hood (US) or bonnet (UK) is the hinged cover over the engine of motor vehicles. ... A hood scoop is an air vent on a car hood which usually sends air over an intercooler. ... Monocoque (French for single shell) is a construction technique that uses the external skin of an object to support some or most of the load on the structure. ... Pontoon fenders are a type of fender for an automobile. ... On an automobile, a quarter panel is a body panel that covers the section between the door and the hood (for the front quarter panels), or the door and the trunk (for the rear quarter panels). ... A shaker scoop (sometimes, inaccurately, called a shaker hood scoop or a shaker hood) is an automobile term for an air intake scoop for combustion air that is mounted directly on top of the engines air cleaner and protrudes through a hole in the hood. ... A spoiler is an aerodynamic device attached to an automobile to decrease lift, decrease drag, or increase the amount of force pushing the vehicles tires to the road surface (also called downforce). ... A subframe is a structural component of a vehicle, such as an automobile or an aircraft, that uses a discrete, separate structure within a larger body-on-frame or unit body to carry certain components, such as the engine, drivetrain, or suspension. ... 1903 Ford Model A rear-door Tonneau Tonneau is an archaic term for an open rear passenger compartment on an automobile and, by extension, a body style incorporating such a compartment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scissor doors. ... A De Lorean DMC-12 with its doors open A Bricklin SV-1 with its doors open The term gull-wing door is used to describe automobile doors which are hinged at the roof. ... Scissor doors, also called Jackknife doors, are automobile doors that rotate up and forward on a hinge near the front of the door. ... Rear suicide door on a 1967 Ford Thunderbird suicide doors in a 1952 Saab 92B Suicide doors are automobile doors that are hinged on the edges closer to the back of the vehicle. ... Open sunroof in a Peugeot 206. ... The greenhouse (or glasshouse) of a car comprises the windscreen, rear and side windows, the more or less vertical pillars separating them (designated A-pillar, B-pillar and so on, starting from the cars front), and the cars roof. ... The windshield or windscreen of an aircraft, automobile, or motorcycle, is the front window. ... A vindle is an antenna accessory originally found on bicycles and more recently on automobiles. ... A hood ornament is the name given to a specially crafted model of something which symbolises a car company like a badge. ... Japan Black is the name of a lacquer used extensively in the production of automobiles in the early 20th century in the United States. ... A 2002 Ford Explorer Sport Trac with black nerf bars A nerf bar is a tubular device fitted to the side of a Pickup truck or a Sport utility vehicle to act as a step to ease entry and exit from the vehicle. ... A Truck Accessory is an aftermarket part that is used to enhance the style or function of the original OEM pickup truck. ... A bumper sticker is an adhesive label or sticker with a message, meant to be attached to the bumper of an automobile for the purpose of being read by the driver or passengers in other vehicles. ... The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated to the front, sides and rear of the vehicle. ... Daytime Running Lamps (DRL, also Daylight Running Lights) are lights on the front of roadgoing motor vehicles, automatically switched on when the vehicle is moving forward, and intended to increase the visibility of the vehicle during daylight conditions. ... A headlight or headlamp is a light, usually attached to the front of a vehicle such as a car, with the purpose of illuminating the road ahead during periods of low visibility, such as night or precipitation. ... Beyond the technical aspects of headlights for automobiles there is the consideration of the various ways these are arranged in a car for appearances sake. ... 1937 Cord 812 with hidden headlights Promotional art for the 1942 DeSoto, the first mass produced American car with hidden headlights 1967 Ford Thunderbird with hidden headlights Pop-up headlights on a 1973 SAAB Sonett III. Hidden headlamps are an automotive styling feature that conceals an automobiles headlights when... Retroreflectors are clearly visible in a pair of bicycle shoes. ... A burnt-out sealed beam, broken open to show internals. ... Trafficators are the internally lit semaphores springing out from the door pillars on some older (pre 1950s) motor vehicles to signal left and right turns. ... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium, low-pressure sodium and less common, xenon short-arc lamps. ... In the United Kingdom, all motor-powered road vehicles, including cars (but excepting the official cars of the reigning monarch) have had to carry registration plates (more commonly known as number plates) since 1904. ... A distance sensor is a autos electromechanical device, that translate each rotation of the transimission into a several electronics pulses. ... A sample standard-issue California license plate. ... Photo illustration of a banned Florida license plate A vanity plate (US), prestige plate, personalised registration (UK) or personalised plate (Australia) is a special type of number plate (license plate in America), on an automobile or other vehicle. ... A license plate from Michigan. ... A windscreen wiper (windshield wiper in North America) is a device used to wipe rain and dirt from a windscreen. ... Windshield washer fluid is a fluid for cars that goes in the windshield washer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Internal combustion engine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with air cleaner. ... Automatic Performance Control (APC) is a system that was introduced on turbo charged Saab H engines in 1982. ... A blowoff valve (also known as a bypass valve, compressor relief valve, or sometimes hooter valve) is a vacuum operated valve that is located in the intake tract on an internal combustion engine after a turbocharger, but before the throttle body butterfly valve and intake manifold. ... Boost in automotive engineering is a positive manifold pressure in cars with turbochargers or superchargers. ... A boost controller is a device in a turbocharged or supercharged car that regulates boost pressure. ... A Butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, used to make a fluid start or stop flowing through a section of pipe. ... Stromberg side-draft carburetor The carburetor, carburettor, or carburetter (see spelling differences), also called carb (in North America) or carbie (chiefly in Australia) for short, is a device that mixes air and fuel for an internal-combustion engine. ... A charge cooler system is a type of intercooler where the cooler uses a form of heat exchanger in line with the turbo, this cools the charge air temperature before entering the engine. ... Cover of Hot Rod magazine showing Ford Flathead V8 engine with centrifugal supercharger (on top) The centrifugal type supercharger is practically identical in operation to a turbocharger, with the exception that instead of exhaust gases driving an impeller, there is only a compressor housing, and that is driven from the... A cold air intake is a system used to bring down the temperature of the air going into a car for the purpose of increasing the power of the internal-combustion engine. ... In automotive electronics, an electronic control unit (ECU) is an embedded microcomputer that controls one or more of the electrical subsystems in a vehicle. ... An Engine Control Unit (ECU), also known as Engine Management System (EMS) is an electronic device, fundamentally a computer, that is part of an internal combustion engine, which reads several sensors in the engine and uses the information to control the ignition systems of the engine. ... Forced induction is a term used to describe internal combustion engines that are not naturally aspirated. ... Front mounted intercooler, an IC mount position, which involves mounting the intercooler at the front of the engine, usually in the bumper. ... Found in most internal combustion engines, a fuel filter is a filter in the fuel line that screens out dirt and rust particles from the fuel. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... mechanical fuel pump, fitted to cylinder head Electric fuel pump Petro-Canada Fuel Pump used to transfer fuel at a gas station. ... A fuel tank is part of an engine system in which the fuel is stored and released into the engine. ... Gasoline direct injection or GDI is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern four stroke petrol engines. ... In an internal combustion engine, the term indirect injection refers to a fuel injection method which does not inject fuel directly into the combustion chamber. ... An intake is an air intake for an engine. ... A front-mounted intercooler on a Mitsubishi Eclipse An intercooler is a device used on turbocharged and supercharged internal combustion engines to improve the volumetric efficiency, increase the amount of charge in the engine, and lower charge air temperature thereby increasing power and reliability. ... Left side of a Ford Cologne V6 engine, clearly showing a (rusty) cast iron exhaust manifold - three exhaust ports into one pipe. ... Manifold vacuum, or engine vacuum in an internal combustion engine is the difference in air pressure between the engines intake manifold and Earths atmosphere. ... A mass flow sensor responds to the amount of material flowing through a chamber containing the sensor. ... A naturally-aspirated engine or normally-aspirated engine (NA - aspiration meaning breathing) refers to an internal combustion engine (normally petrol or diesel powered) that is neither turbocharged nor supercharged. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The scroll-type supercharger is a positive displacement supercharger, first invented by L. Creux of France in 1905 for aircraft use. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to compress air into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine. ... Fuel injection is a technology used in internal combustion engines to mix the fuel with air prior to combustion. ... A top mounted intercooler (TMIC) is an automotive intercooler mounted within the engine bay, above the engine. ... Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc. ... VWs common I4 1. ... Twin-Turbo is turbo aspirated engine, usually V6 or V8 (but not always), on which each block has it own turbine (turbo charger). ... Variable Length Intake Manifold (VLIM) is an automobile engine manifold technology. ... Variable geometry turbocharger improves upon turbocharger design by automatically changing the size of the vanes in the turbine housing, allowing control of boost by controlling exhaust turbine inlet pressure. ... A warm air intake is a system to increase the amount of the air going into a car for the purpose of increasing the power of the internal-combustion engine. ... Catalytic converter on a Saab 9-5. ... Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... An exhaust pipe is usually a pipe used to guide waste exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. ... An exhaust system conveys burnt gases from an internal combustion engine and typically includes a collection of pipes. ... A glasspack is a kind of automobile muffler in which the exhaust gas passes straight through the center of the muffler. ... A muffler (USA name) or silencer (name in the United Kingdom and other areas) is a device for reducing the amount of noise emitted by a machine such as an internal combustion engine or a gun. ... An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... Aircooling (also: air cooling) is one method of dissipating heat. ... A man pouring antifreeze into his vehicle. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Radiator is a common term for several types of heat exchangers. ... Bi-metallic thermostat for buildings A thermostat is a device for maintaining the temperature of a system within a range by controlling, either directly or indirectly, the flow of heat energy into or out of the system. ... The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... Image:Turbo starter. ... Lead-acid car battery // A car battery is a type of electric battery that supplies electric energy to the starter motor and the ignition system of a vehicle’s engine. ... Breaker arm with contact points at the left. ... This article is about distributors in internal combustion engines. ... An automotive (ignition system) ballast resistor An electrical ballast (sometimes called control gear) is a device intended to control the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit. ... An ignition coil (also called a spark coil) is an electrical device in a automobiles ignition system which transforms a storage batterys 12 volts to the thousands of volts needed to spark the spark plugs. ... A sealed lead acid battery. ... A magneto provides pulses of electrical power to the spark plugs in some gasoline -powered internal combustion engines where batteries are not available, most commonly those in 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines used in small motorcycles, lawnmowers and chainsaws, as well as in most small aircraft and some racing... The term spark-ignition is normally used to refer to internal combustion engines where the fuel-air mixture is ignited with a spark. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... In piston engine engineering, a balance shaft is an eccentric weighted shaft which offsets the vibrations of unbalanced engines. ... A block heater is an electric heater that heats the engine of a car. ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ... A cam is a projecting part of a rotating wheel or shaft that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. ... Double overhead cams control the opening and closing of a cylinders valves The camshaft is an apparatus used in piston engines to operate poppet valves. ... piston + connecting rod In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod or con rod connects the piston to the crank or crankshaft. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... Piston and connecting rod from an automobile engine, showing the big end bearing at the bottom. ... Crankshaft, pistons, and flywheel Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 For the comic strip about an old, curmudgeonly bus driver, see Crankshaft (comic strip). ... A crossflow cylinder head is a cylinder head that features the intake and exhaust ports on opposite sides. ... The crossplane or cross-plane is a crankshaft design for V8 engines with a 90° angle between the cylinder banks. ... Desmodromic valves are those which are positively closed by a cam and leverage system, rather than relying on the more conventional springs to close the valves. ... It has been suggested that Detonation internal combustion engine be merged into this article or section. ... The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any internal-combustion engine. ... A crank sensor is a component used in an engine (or occasionally on a bicycle) to monitor crank position and/or rotational speed. ... A piston and cylinder from a steam engine A cylinder in an internal combustion engine is the space within which a piston travels. ... Piston engines are typically arranged with their pistons in rows, moving inside individual cylinders. ... The cylinder block is a machined casting (or sometimes an assembly of modules) containing cylindrically bored holes for the pistons of a multi-cylinder reciprocating internal combustion engine, or for a similarly constructed device such as a pump. ... The cylinder head from a GMC van. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dump valves are fitted to the engines of (usually older) turbo charged cars and sit between the turbo outlet and the throttle body. ... Engine balance is the design, construction and tuning of an engine to run smoothly. ... Many items requiring lubrication by petroleum products need this lubricant to be highly clean. ... The firing order is the sequence of sparking of the spark plugs in a reciprocating engine, or the sequence of fuel injection in each cylinder in a Diesel engine. ... Freeze plugs are a subset of the plugs on a car engine cylinder block or cylinder head. ... This article is about mechanical seals. ... Different kinds of gaskets, #4 indicating a head gasket The head gasket sits between the engine block and cylinder head in an internal combustion engine. ... Hypereutectic pistons are cast internal combustion engine pistons made from aluminum with over 16% silicon content for strength and durability. ... In automotive terminology, a hydrolock is the immobilization of an engines pistons by a liquid (usually water, hence the prefix hydro-). Hydrolocking occurs when liquid fills a cylinder on the intake stroke and, due to the incompressibility of a liquid, makes the compression stroke impossible. ... Lean burn is an internal combustion of lean air-fuel mixtures. ... In a piston engine, the main bearings are the bearings on which the crankshaft rotates. ... Motor oil is a type of liquid oil used for lubrication by various kinds of motors, especially internal combustion engines. ... In automotive engineering, an engine is referred to as multi-valve (or multivalve) when each cylinder has more than two valves. ... Numerous late-model piston engines from many manufacturers have suffered from failures due to oil sludge contamination. ... Overhead camshaft (OHC) valvetrain configurations place the camshaft within the cylinder heads, above the combustion chambers, and drive the valves or lifters directly instead of using pushrods. ... The Positive Crankcase Ventilation valve, or PCV Valve, is a one-way valve that ensures continual refreshment of the air inside a gasoline internal combustion engines crankcase. ... piston + connecting rod Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Piston ring A piston ring is an open-ended ring that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of the piston. ... Pneumatic Valve Gear uses compressed air to spring valves closed in high-revving types of internal combustion engine. ... A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. ... The power band of an engine refers to the range of operating speeds under which the engine is able to operate efficiently. ... The tachometer, right, shows red lines above 5700 RPM. Redline refers to the maximum engine speed at which an internal combustion engine and its components are designed to operate without causing damage to the components themselves or other parts of the engine. ... A reverse-flow cylinder head is a cylinder head that locates the intake and exhaust ports on the same side of the engine. ... rocker arm This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Compression seal example A mechanical seal is a device which helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (eg. ... The sleeve valve is a type of valve for piston engines that has a number of advantages over the more common poppet valve, used in most engines, as well as disadvantages that have precluded its widespread adoption to date. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Synthetic oil is oil consisting of chemical compounds which were not originally present in crude oil (petroleum) but were artificially made (synthesized) from other compounds. ... In mechanical engineering, a tappet is a projection which imparts a linear motion to some other component within an assembly. ... Timing belt A timing belt, timing chain or cam belt is a part of an internal combustion engine that controls the timing of the engines valves. ... Timing mark on pulley at 6° before TDC. A timing mark is a mark used for setting the timing of the ignition system of an engine, typically found on the crankshaft pulley (as pictured) or the flywheel, being the largest radius rotating at crankshaft speed and therefore the place where... Look up top dead center in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An Underdrive pulley refers to an aftermarket crankshaft or accessory pulley (such as an alternator pulley) that is designed to drive a vehicles accessories at a slower rate than stock. ... Valve float is a condition which occurs when the valves on an internal combustion engine do not return to the fully closed position under high rpms due to valve springs incapable of overcoming the momentum of the valvetrain. ... Variable valve timing, or VVT, is a generic term for an automobile piston engine technology. ... Vehicle interior equipment generally inclues passive safety, dashboard, shifter for selecting gear ratios and ancillary. ... A backup camera is a special type of video camera that is produced specifically for the purpose of being attached to the rear of a vehicle to aid in backing. ... A boost gauge is a dashboard mounted instrument that indicates turbocharger or supercharger boost pressure in an internal combustion engine. ... A buzzer or a beeper is a signalling device, usually electronic, typically used in automobiles, household appliances such as a microwave oven, or game shows. ... We dont have an article called Car computer Start this article Search for Car computer in. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Check Engine or Service Engine Soon light is an indicator of the internal status of a car engine. ... A fuel gauge (or gas gauge) is an instrument used to indicate the level of fuel contained in a tank. ... GPS satellite in orbit, image courtesy NASA The Global Positioning System, usually called GPS, is the only fully-functional satellite navigation system. ... An idiot light is a method of displaying information about a system (e. ... An automotive navigation system is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. ... A modern non-digital odometer A Smiths speedometer from the 1920s showing odometer and trip meter An odometer is a device used for indicating distance traveled by an automobile or other vehicle. ... Speedometer gauge on a car, showing the speed of the vehicle in miles and kilometre per hour on the out– and inside respectively. ... A tachometer is a device used for measuring the speed of a moving body or substance (from Greek: tachos = speed, metron = measure). ... A trip computer is an onboard computer device fitted to cars which can generally record distance travelled, average speed, average fuel consumption, and display real time fuel consumption information. ... Invented by Frank Bowden, a bowden cable is a type of flexible cable used to transmit mechanical force or energy by the movement of an inner cable (most commonly of steel or stainless steel) relative to a hollow outer cable housing. ... Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or Autocruise) is a system to automatically control the speed of an automobile. ... Electronic throttle control (ETC) is an automobile technology which severs the direct link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. ... Emergency brake handle in a German train around 1920 An emergency brake is a brake system that is generally only to be used in emergency situations to slow or stop a machine. ... Manettino dials are part of modern super cars (like the new Ferrari 599 GTB and Ferrari Enzo). ... A modern road cars steering wheel A modern Formula One cars steering wheel has buttons and knobs to control various functions A steering wheel is a type of steering control used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles. ... In an engine, the throttle is the mechanism by which the engines power is increased or decreased. ... A gear stick (also gearstick, gear lever and gear shifter) is the lever used to change gear in a vehicle, such as an automobile, with manual transmission or automatic transmission. ... Motor vehicle theft is a crime of theft. ... A car alarm is a device installed in a car in an attempt to discourage theft of that car. ... // Corporate ESITrack is a Vehicle Tracking Device provider. ... An immobiliser or immobilizer is an electronic device fitted to an automobile which prevents the engine from running unless the correct key (or other token) is present. ... Klaxon is a trademark for an electromechanical horn or alerting device. ... Current vehicle tracking systems have their roots in the shipping industry. ... VIN etching is a countermeasure to car theft, which involves the use of a stencil and glass etching paste to etch a car’s VIN (vehicle identification number) onto its windshield and windows. ... An automobile airbag, like this one in a crashed SEAT Ibiza car, deflates after 0. ... The armrest in the backseat of a Lincoln Town Car, featuring cupholders. ... This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ... The traditional seat installed in American automobiles was the bench seat. ... A bucket seat is an upholstered seat in a car, truck, or motorboat that seats one person. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A dicky seat (dickie seat or dickey seat) is the name given to the third seat in the rear of an early two-seater automobile. ... Car safety is the avoidance of car accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. ... A rumble seat is an unupholstered exterior seat which hinges or otherwise opens out from the rear of an early automobile, and seats one or more passengers. ... A three-point seat belt. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... Several different methods of automobile ancillary power exist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... The center console (British English: centre console) in an automobile refers to the control-bearing surfaces in the center of the front of the vehicles interior. ... A dashboard from a 1940s car The dashboard of a modern car, a Bentley Continental GT A Hayabusas dash A modern Formula 1 car has all its gauges mounted on the steering wheel A dashboard or dash board in an automobile is a panel located under the windscreen and... Typical Motorola plug found on consumer auto accessory antenna coaxial cables A common coaxial cable connector used primarily in the automotive industry for connecting the coaxial feedline from the antenna to the radio receiver. ... Power windows or electric windows are windows which can be raised and lowered by depressing a button or switch of some sort, as opposed to using a hand-turned crank. ... The rear-view mirror of a Mazda 626. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A driving wheel on a steam locomotive. ... Firestone tire A tire or tyre (see spelling differences) is a device covering the circumference of a wheel. ... All-terrain tyre An All-terrain tyre is a type of automotive tyre most commonly found on Four wheel drive vehicles. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Contact patch is the name applied to the area of a vehicles tire that is in contact with the road surface. ... The term Custom wheel is used refer to the wheels of a vehicle which have either been modified from the vehicle manufacturers standard, or have replaced the manufacturers standard. ... A drive wheel is a wheel in an automotive vehicle that receives power from the power train. ... A reflective hubcap A hubcap or wheel cover is a decorative disk on an automobile wheel that covers at least a central portion of the wheel. ... Magnesium alloy wheels, or mag wheels, are sometimes used on racing cars, in place of heavier steel or aluminium wheels, for better performance. ... A Mud Terrain Tyre is a type of automotive tyre which may be fitted as an aftermarket option to four wheel drive vehicles. ... Paddle tires are off road vehicle tires specifically designed for use in sand. ... A radial tire (more properly, a radial-ply tire) is a particular design of automotive tire (in British English, tyre). ... Rostyle wheels are a particular design of wheels for cars made by the British firm of Rubery Owen, a diversified industrial company which made many car parts. ... A pneumatic vehicle tire that is designed to resist the effects of deflation and to enable the vehicle to continue to be driven - albeit at reduced speeds and for limited distances. ... A schrader valve on a bicycle tire. ... A wheel with a slick tire. ... A spinner (sometimes spinna or spinnaz) is an automotive accessory, popular with the hip-hop community. ... Automobile tires are described by an alphanumeric code which is generally molded into the side-wall of the tire. ... The tread of a tire refers to the pattern visible on its circumference that makes contact with the road. ... The Treadwear Grade of a tire is the numeric portion of the Uniform Tire Quality Grade Standards (UTQG) that are printed on the sidewall of a tire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with tire. ... Wire wheels, a. ... In mechanics, a transmission is the gear and/or hydraulic system that transmits mechanical power from a prime mover (which can be an engine or electric motor), to some form of useful output device. ... An automatic transmission is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the car or truck moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. ... Rear side of a Ford V6 engine, looking at the clutch housing on the flywheel Single, dry, clutch friction disc. ... A continuously variable transmission (CVT) is a type of automatic transmission that can change the gear ratio (gears are not generally involved) to any arbitrary setting within the limits. ... Input torque is applied to the ring gear, which turns the entire carrier (all blue), providing torque to both side gears (red and yellow), which in turn may drive the left and right wheels. ... Cardan driveshaft with universal joints A driveshaft or driving shaft or Cardan shaft is a mechanical device for transferring power from the engine or motor to the point where useful work is applied. ... A clutch is a mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be both engaged and disengaged. ... Epicyclic gearing is used here to increase output speed. ... A fluid coupling is a hydraulic device used for trasmitting mechanical shaft power from a rotating driver to a rotating driven load. ... An automatic transmission is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the car moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. ... A gear stick (also gearstick, gear lever and gear shifter) is the lever used to change gear in a vehicle, such as an automobile, with manual transmission or automatic transmission. ... A gearbox is an assembly of gears allowing the rotational speed of an input shaft to be changed to a different speed. ... Hydramatic (also known as Hydra-Matic) was an automatic transmission developed by General Motorss Oldsmobile division. ... In automotive applications, a limited slip differential (LSD) is a modified or derived type of differential gear arrangement that allows for some difference in rotational velocity of the output shafts, but does not allow the difference in speed to increase beyond a preset amount. ... A locking differential or locker is a modified type of automotive differential. ... A manual transmission (also known as a stick shift, straight drive, or standard transmission) is a type of transmission used in automotive applications. ... Roto Hydramatic (sometimes spelled Roto Hydra-Matic or Roto-Hydramatic) was an automatic transmission built by General Motors and used on some Oldsmobile and Pontiac models from 1961 to 1964. ... Saxomat was a type of automatic clutch available as an option on Saab 93, Volkswagen Beetle, Borgward, DKW, BMW, Opel, NSU and Glas. ... Semi-automatic transmission, or clutchless manual transmission, is a system which uses electronic sensors, processors and actuators to do gear shifts on the command of the driver. ... Semi-automatic transmission, or clutchless manual transmission, is a system which uses electronic sensors, processors and actuators to do gear shifts on the command of the driver. ... The Super Turbine 300 (abbreviated ST-300) was a two-speed automatic transmission built by General Motors. ... Tiptronic is a type of discrete automatic transmission developed by Porsche and used in its vehicles and those of its licensees. ... A torque converter is a hydraulic fluid coupling that is used to transmit power from one or more engines or electric motors to a driveshaft or other output shaft. ... Manual gearbox Gearbox redirects here. ... A Transmission Control Unit is a device that controls modern electronic automatic transmissions. ... Turbo-Hydramatic is the registered tradename of an automatic transmission developed and produced by General Motors. ... A universal joint A universal joint, U joint, Cardan joint or Hardy-Spicer joint is a joint in a rigid rod that allows the rod to bend in any direction. ... Steering is the term applied to the collection of components, linkages, etc. ... Ackermann steering geometry is a geometric arrangement of linkages in the steering of a car or other vehicle designed to solve the problem of wheels on the inside and outside of a turn needing to trace out circles of different radii. ... An anti-lock braking system (commonly known as ABS, from the German name Antiblockiersystem given to it by its inventors at Bosch) is a system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. ... A wheel with a negative camber angle Camber angle is the angle made by the wheel of an automobile; specifically, it is the angle between the vertical axis of the wheel and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear. ... Car handling and vehicle handling is a description of the way wheeled vehicles perform transverse to their direction of motion, particularly during cornering and swerving. ... θ is the caster angle, red line is the pivot line, grey area is the tire Caster (or castor) angle is the angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a steered wheel in a car or other vehicle, measured in the longitudinal direction. ... Oversteer is the phenomenon ocurred in an automobile when the rear-end of it doesn´t follow the trajectory of the front-end tending to overtake this one causing the car to spin. ... Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on cars by using an external power source to assist in turning the wheels. ... A rack and pinion is a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. ... In automotive technology toe is the symmetric angle that each wheel makes with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, as a function of static geometry, and kinematic and compliant effects. ... Torque steering is an effect in front wheel drive cars caused by large amounts of torque affecting steering in such a way as to make the front wheels squirm (oscillate) from side to side under heavy acceleration. ... Understeer is a term for a car handling condition during cornering in which the circular path of the vehicles motion is of a markedly greater diameter than the circle indicated by the direction its wheels are pointed. ... The front suspension components of a Ford Model T. Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... Solid axle and Panhard rod on a 2002 Mazda MPV A beam axle is a suspension system, also called a solid axle, in which one set of wheels is connected laterally by a single beam or shaft. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A de Dion tube is an automobile suspension technology. ... A double wishbone suspension is an automobile independent suspension design using two parallel wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel. ... Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is the generic term for systems designed to improve a vehicles handling, particularly at the limits where the driver might lose control of the vehicle. ... Hydragas is a type of automotive suspension system used in many cars produced by British Leyland and its successor companies. ... Hydrolastic is a type of automotive suspension system used in many cars produced by British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successor companies. ... Hydropneumatic is the name given to a suspension system invented by Citroën and fitted to Citroën cars, as well as being adapted by other car manufacturers, notably Rolls-Royce, Mercedes-Benz and Peugeot. ... An independent suspension is an automobile suspension system that allows the wheels on an axle to move independently of each other. ... Suspension, showing tie rod, steering arm, king pin (axis) ball joints The kingpin is the main pivot in the steering mechanism of a car or other vehicle. ... A leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. ... A live axle is a type of beam axle suspension system that uses the driveshafts that transmit power to the wheels to connect the wheels laterally so that they move together as a unit. ... A simple MacPherson strut suspension on the left front wheel of a rear-wheel drive vehicle. ... A multi-link suspension is a type of vehicle suspension design typically used in independent suspensions, using 3 or more lateral arms, and one or more longitudinal arms. ... A Panhard rod is a component of a car suspension system that provides lateral location of the axle. ... A trailing-arm suspension is an automobile suspension design in which one or more arms (or links) are connected between (and perpendicular to) the axle and the chassis. ... Gasfilled Shock absorber. ... A sway bar (also stabilizer bar, anti-sway bar, roll bar, or anti-roll bar, ARB) is an automobile suspension device. ... A swing axle suspension is a simple type of independent suspension used in automobiles. ... Torsion beam suspension, also known as a torsion bar or torsion spring suspension, is a vehicle suspension system. ... A transaxle, in the automotive field, is a component that combines the functionality of the transmission, the differential and the drive axle into one integrated assembly. ... A trailing-arm suspension is an automobile suspension design in which one or more arms (or links) are connected between (and perpendicular to) the axle and the chassis. ... Unsprung weight is a term used to describe that part of a vehicles mass that is directly connected to the wheels, and not isolated through the suspension. ... Watts Linkage The Watts linkage was invented by James Watt (1736--1819) to constrain the movement of a piston in a steam engine to move in a straight line. ... A double wishbone suspension is an automobile independent suspension design using two parallel wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel. ... For other uses, see Brake (disambiguation). ... An anti-lock braking system (commonly known as ABS, from the German name Antiblockiersystem given to it by its inventors at Bosch) is a system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. ... Close-up of a disc brake on a car On automobiles, disc brakes are often located within the wheel disc brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. ... A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or pads that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum. ... Emergency brake handle in a German train around 1920 An emergency brake is a brake system that is generally only to be used in emergency situations to slow or stop a machine. ... The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which uses hydraulic fluid, typically some type of light-viscosity petroleum oil, to transfer pressure from the controlling unit, which is usually near the operator of the vehicle, to the actual brake mechanism, which is usually at or near the wheel... An inboard braking system is an automobile technology where the brakes are not located in the wheels, as is common today, but instead near the differential. ... Brake linings are the consumable surfaces in braking systems, especially those used in vehicles. ... In automobiles, fade, or brake fade is the reduction in stopping power caused by a buildup of heat in the brake pads and rotors. ... Brake fluid is a type of hydraulic fluid used in brake applications in automobiles and light trucks. ... Hydraulic fluids are a large group of liquids made of many kinds of chemicals. ... Close-up of a disc brake on a car; the brake bleeding valve can be seen at the lower left Brake bleeding is the procedure performed on hydraulic brake systems whereby the brake lines (the pipes and hoses containing the brake fluid) are purged of any air bubbles. ... It has been suggested that Exhaust brake be merged into this article or section. ... Electronic Brake Force Distribution or EBD is an automobile brake technology that automatically varies the amount of force applied to each of a vehicles brakes. ... A regenerative brake is an apparatus, a device or system which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ...

See also

Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ... The following automobile manufacturers produce or have produced automobiles. ... This page lists superlatives of the automobile industry - that is, the smallest, largest, fastest, lightest, best-selling, and other such topics. ... Roadway air dispersion is applied to highway segments Roadway air dispersion modeling is the study of air pollutant transport from a roadway or other linear emitter. ... Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise Roadway noise is the collective sound energy emanating from motor vehicles. ... A 1979 Lincoln Continental with Town Car trim option. ... A4: 4-speed automatic transmission A5: 5-speed automatic transmission A6: 6-speed automatic transmission CAB 1493: California Assembly Bill 1493 AdvHEV: Advanced hybrid ARB and CARB: California Air Resources Board AMT: Automated Manual Transmission CCP: Coupled cam phasing CH4: Methane CNG: Compressed natural gas CO2: Carbon dioxide CVVL: Continuous...

Notes

  1. ^ Burgess Wise, D. (1970). Veteran and Vintage Cars. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-60000-283-7.
  2. ^ a b c Georgano, N. (2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. London: HMSO. ISBN 1-57958-293-1.

References and further reading

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Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  • Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
  • NHTSA.gov
  • WikiCars.org

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