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Encyclopedia > Capsid

A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. It consists of several monomeric subunits made of protein. The capsid serves three main purposes : A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...

  • It protects the genetic material of the virus.
  • It determines if a cell is suitable for infection.
  • It starts the actual infection by attaching and "opening" the target cell and injecting the genetic material of the virus into the cell.

Once the virus has infected the cell, it will sooner or later start replicating itself, using the "infrastructure" of the infected cell. During this process, the capsid subunits are synthesized according to the genetic material of the virus, using the protein biosynthesis mechanism of the cell. Some viruses will also take a portion of the host cell's cell membrane with them when they depart, enclosing the proteinaceous capsid with viral proteins projecting through it. Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... An overview of protein synthesis. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ...

The majority of viruses come in three different structures; helical capsids, icosahedral (isometric) capsids, or enveloped. In helical symmetry, the protein subunits are arranged around the circumference of a circle to form a disk. In icosahedral symmetry, the subunits form a quasi-spherical structure. In enveloped viruses, the protein subunits are exposed to the external environment. This article is about the shape. ... An icosahedron [ˌaıkəsəhiːdrən] noun (plural: -drons, -dra [-drə]) is a polyhedron having 20 faces. ... The circumference is the distance around a closed curve. ... Many viruses (e. ...

Structural analyses of major capsid protein (MCP) architectures have been used to categorise viruses into families. For example, the bacteriophage PRD1, Paramecium bursaria Chlorella algal virus, and mammalian adenovirus have been placed in the same family. Khayat et al. classified Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) and Laurinmäki et al. classified bacteriophage Bam35 - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 3669 (2006); 102, 18944 (2005); Structure 13, 1819 (2005) A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ...

External links

  • [1] from the All the virology on the www website.

we learned this in biology by:derrick mullins

  Results from FactBites:
Capsid (228 words)
The capsid is the outer shell of the virus, and consists of monomeric subunits of protein.
Its three primary purposes are to protect the virus's genetic material, detect cells suitable for infection, and initiate the infection by "opening" the target cell to inject DNA into the cytoplasm.
Minor changes in the capsid pose significant challenges as well, as an antiviral specified for one structure won’t work on the new capsid structure and must be redeveloped.
Virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3388 words)
In addition to a capsid some viruses are able to hijack a modified form of the plasma membrane surrounding an infected host cell, thus gaining an outer lipid bilayer known as a viral envelope.
In the case of the Hepatitis B virus, the T-number is 4, therefore 240 proteins assemble to form the capsid.
The capsid of a phage, a bacterial virus, remains on the outside.
  More results at FactBites »



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