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Encyclopedia > Cappadocia
Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Cappadocia in April 2006
State Party Turkey
Type Mixed
Criteria i, iii, v, vii
Reference 357
Region Europe
Inscription history
Inscription 1985  (9th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Cappadocia (or Capadocia, Turkish Kapadokya, from Greek: Καππαδοκία / Kappadokía, which in turn is from the Persian: Katpatuka meaning "the land of beautiful horses"[1]), was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). The name continued to be used in western sources and in the Christian tradition throughout history and is still widely used as an international tourism concept to define a region of exceptional natural wonders characterized by fairy chimneys and a unique historical and cultural heritage. The term, as used in tourism, roughly corresponds to present-day Nevşehir Province of Turkey. Cappadocia may also refer to: Cappadociawas an area of Asia Minor in modern Turkey. ... Göreme, located among the fairy chimneys rock formations, is a town in Cappadocia, a historical region of Turkey. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Farsi redirects here. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... — Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of archaeological and historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. ... A Fairy Chimney is a conical rock formation, typically found in the Cappadocia region of Turkey. ... Scene from southern Anatolia The History of Anatolia covers the civilizations, and states established in and around the Anatolia, a peninsula of Western Asia. ... Traditional Turkish coffee The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. ... Shows the Location of the Province NevÅŸehir NevÅŸehir is a province in central Turkey. ...


It is impossible to define Cappadocia's limits with any real accuracy. In the time of Herodotus, the Cappadocians are supposed to have occupied the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine (Black Sea). Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded in the south by the chain of Mount Taurus, to the east by the Euphrates, to the north by Pontus, and to the west vaguely by the great salt lake, Lake Tuz, in Central Anatolia. But Strabo, the only ancient author who gives any circumstantial account of the country, greatly exaggerated its dimensions. It is now believed that 400 km (250 mi) east-west by 200 km (120 mi) north-south is a more realistic appraisal of Cappadocia's extension.[1] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Taurus Mountains or simply the Taurus, (Turkish Toros, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range, forming the rugged southeastern rim of the Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates River descends into Syria. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Lake Tuz (Turkish: Tuz Gölü meaning Salt Lake) is the second biggest lake in Turkey, located in central Anatolian region, 105 km NE of Konya and 150 km SSE of Ankara. ... Central Anatolia Region Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) // Central Anatolia Region Aksaray Province Ankara Province Çankiri Province EskiÅŸehir Province Karaman Province Kayseri Province Kirikkale Province KırÅŸehir Province Konya Province NevÅŸehir Province NiÄŸde Province Sivas Province Yozgat Province Provinces of Turkey Category: ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

Contents

Etymology

The earliest record of the name of Cappadocia dates from the late 6th century BC when it appears in the trilingual inscriptions of two early Achaemenid kings, Darius I and Xerxes, as one of the countries (Old Persian dahyu-) which are part of the Persian Empire. In these lists of countries the Old Persian name is Katpatuka, but it is clearly not a native Persian word. The Elamite and Akkadian language versions of the inscriptions contain a similar name from Akkadian katpa "side" (cf. Heb katef) and a chief or ancestor's name, Tuka.[2] Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Xerxes may refer to these Persian kings: Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC, also known as Xerxes the Great. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ...


Herodotus tells us that the name of the Cappadocians was applied to them by the Persians, while they were termed by the Greeks "Syrians" or "White Syrians" (Leucosyri). One of the Cappadocian tribes he mentions are the Moschoi, associated by Flavius Josephus with the biblical figure Meshech, son of Japheth, "and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch; now they are Cappadocians". AotJ I:6. Also see Ketubot 13:11 in the Mishna. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Mushki (MuÅ¡ki) were an Iron Age people of Anatolia, known from Assyrian sources. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs/Mushki, Mushku in Akkadian, Moschoi in Greek) were an ancient, non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, indigenous tribe of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennias BC, said to be the offspring of Meshech, son of Japheth. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... A ketubah is a Jewish marriage contract. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ...


Cappadocia is also mentioned in the Biblical account given in the book of Acts 2:9, with the Cappadocians being named as one of the people groups hearing the Gospel account from Galileans in their own language on the day of Pentecost shortly after the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Acts 2:5 seems to suggest that the Cappadocians in this account were "God-fearing Jews". See Acts of the Apostles. For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ...


Under the later kings of the Persian Empire they were divided into two satrapies, or governments, with one comprising the central and inland portion, to which the name of Cappadocia continued to be applied by Greek geographers, while the other was called Pontus. This division had already come about before the time of Xenophon. As after the fall of the Persian government the two provinces continued to be separate, the distinction was perpetuated, and the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the inland province (sometimes called Great Cappadocia), which alone will be the focus of this article. Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... This article explores the history of geography. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ...


The kingdom of Cappadocia was still in existence in the time of Strabo as a nominally independent state. Cilicia was the name given to the district in which Caesarea, the capital of the whole country, was situated. The only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that appellation were Caesarea (originally known as Mazaca) and Tyana, not far from the foot of the Taurus. The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Caesarea Mazaca (modern Kayseri) is an ancient town of Anatolia which served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. ... Tyana (or Tyanna) was an ancient city of Anatolia, in modern south-central Turkey. ...


History

Fairy chimneys in Cappadocia
Fairy chimneys in Cappadocia
Location of Cappodocia (in the east)
Location of Cappodocia (in the east)
Photo of a 15th-century map showing "Capadocia"
Photo of a 15th-century map showing "Capadocia"
A rock-cut temple in Cappadocia
A rock-cut temple in Cappadocia
Uçhisar Hill and Castle, the highest point in Cappadocia, is in the triangle between the cities of Nevşehir, Ürgüp and Avanos.
Uçhisar Hill and Castle, the highest point in Cappadocia, is in the triangle between the cities of Nevşehir, Ürgüp and Avanos.
See also: Cappadocia (satrapy)

Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age, and was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. After the fall of the Hittite Empire, with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians (Mushki) after their defeat by the Lydian king Croesus in the 6th century, Cappadocia was left in the power of a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition, which later made them apt for foreign slavery. It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius, but long continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none apparently supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributary to the Great King. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 362 KB) I took this photo year 2006 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 362 KB) I took this photo year 2006 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Lydia_original_area_of_lydia. ... Image File history File links Lydia_original_area_of_lydia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 883 KB) Picture of a map of the region of what is now Turkey from the 15th Century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 883 KB) Picture of a map of the region of what is now Turkey from the 15th Century. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rock cut architecture refers to the practice of creating buildings, temples, etc. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixelsFull resolution (1021 × 751 pixel, file size: 230 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Uçhisar Hill and Castle, the highest point in Cappadocia, between the cities of NevÅŸehir, Ãœrgüp and Avanos, Turkey, Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixelsFull resolution (1021 × 751 pixel, file size: 230 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Uçhisar Hill and Castle, the highest point in Cappadocia, between the cities of NevÅŸehir, Ãœrgüp and Avanos, Turkey, Source: http://www. ... NevÅŸehir, formerly MuÅŸkara, ancient Nyssa, is a city and the capital district of NevÅŸehir Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. ... Ãœrgüp is a district of NevÅŸehir Province of Turkey. ... Avanos is a district of NevÅŸehir Province of Turkey. ... Cappadocia (from Old Persian Katpatuka) was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire used by the Achaemenids to administer the regions beyond the Taurus and Euphrates. ... Hatti is the reconstructed ancient name of a region in Anatolia inhabited by the Hattians between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, and later by the Hittites, who were at the height of their power ca 1400 BC–1200 BC. The capital city of both peoples was Hattusa (modern Bogazköy... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Hattusa (URUḪa-at-tu-Å¡a ; ḪattuÅ¡a) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... The Mushki (MuÅ¡ki) were an Iron Age people of Anatolia, known from and Assyrian sources. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Persia redirects here. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Darius I the Great (c. ... Myst franchise Games Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Myst V: End of Ages Uru: Ages Beyond Myst Ages of: Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Uru Novels Myst: The Book of Atrus   Tiana   Dni Comic Books #0   #1 Miscellaneous Dni Ages   The...


After bringing the Persian Empire to an end, Alexander the Great met with great resistance in Cappadocia. He tried to rule the area through one of his commanders named Sabictus, but the ruling classes and people resisted and declared Ariarathes, a Persian aristocrat, as king. This sent a message to Alexander that not all Persians would submit to his rule. Ariarthes I (332 - 322 BC) was a successful ruler, and extended the borders of the Cappadocian Kingdom as far as the Black Sea. The kingdom of Cappadocia lived in peace until the death of Alexander, when the kingdom fell, in the general partition of the empire, to Eumenes. His claims were made good in 322 BC by the regent Perdiccas, who crucified Ariarathes; but in the dissensions which brought about Eumenes's death, the son of Ariarathes recovered his inheritance and left it to a line of successors, who mostly bore the name of the founder of the dynasty. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Eumenes of Cardia (c. ... Perdiccas (d. ... This page lists Kings of Cappadocia, an ancient Kingdom in central Anatolia. ...


Under Ariarathes IV, Cappadocia came into relations with Rome, first as a foe espousing the cause of Antiochus the Great, then as an ally against Perseus of Macedon. The kings henceforward threw in their lot with the Republic as against the Seleucids, to whom they had been from time to time tributary. Ariarathes V marched with the Roman proconsul Publius Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus against Aristonicus, a claimant to the throne of Pergamon, and their forces were annihilated (130 BC). The imbroglio which followed his death ultimately led to interference by the rising power of Pontus and the intrigues and wars which ended in the failure of the dynasty. Ariarathes IV Eusebes (in Greek Aριαραθης Eυσεβης; reigned 220–163 BC), son of the king of Cappadocia Ariarathes III, was a child at his accession, and reigned 220—163 BC, about 57 years. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Coin of Perseus of Macedon Perseus was the last king of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in Macedon created upon the death of Alexander the Great. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator (in Greek Aριαραθης Eυσεβης Φιλoπατωρ; reigned 163–130 BC) was son of the preceding king Ariarathes IV. Previously called Mithridates, he reigned 33 years, 163–130 BC, as king of Cappadocia. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS·DIVES¹) (ca. ... Eumenes III (originally named Aristonicus) was the pretender to the throne of Pergamon. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by...


The Cappadocians, supported by Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, elected a native lord, Ariobarzanes, to succeed (93 BC); but in the same year Armenian troops under Tigranes the Great (Tigran) entered Cappadocia, dethroned king Ariobarzanes and crowned Gordios as the new client-king of Cappadocia, thus creating a buffer zone against the encroaching Romans.[3] It was not until Rome had deposed the Pontic and Armenian kings that the rule of Ariobarzanes was established (63 BC). In the civil wars Cappadocia was now for Pompey, now for Caesar, now for Antony, now against him. The Ariobarzanes dynasty came to an end and a certain Archelaus reigned in its stead, by favour first of Antony and then of Octavian, and maintained tributary independence until AD 17, when the emperor Tiberius, on Archelaus' death in disgrace, reduced Cappadocia at last to a Roman province. Much later it was a region of the Byzantine Empire. A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes. ... According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... For the Association football club based in Portsmouth, England also known as Pompey, see Portsmouth F.C.. For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Archelaus (died 17) was the last king of Cappadocia. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Cappadocia contains several underground cities (see Kaymaklı Underground City), largely used by early Christians as hiding places before they became a legitimate religion. The Cappadocian Fathers of the 4th century were integral to much of early Christian philosophy. It also produced, among other people, another Patriarch of Constantinople, John of Cappadocia, who held office 517–520. For most of the Byzantine era it remained relatively undisturbed by the conflicts in the area, first with the Sassanid Empire and later against the Islamic expansion led by Arabs. Part of Montreals underground city, a concourse in Bonaventure metro station, showing directional signs leading to buildings accessible through the underground city An underground city is a network of tunnels that connect buildings, usually in the downtown area of a city. ... Kaymaklı Underground City is contained within the hill named the Citadel of Kaymakli. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... The Cappadocian Fathers are the 4th century church fathers Basil the Great, Gregory Nazianzen, and Basils brother Gregory of Nyssa, who made major contributions to the definition of the Trinity finalized at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Nicene Creed. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ... For the prefect under Justinian I, see John the Cappadocian. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Cappadocia shared an always changing relation with the neighbouring Armenia, by that time a region of the Empire. The Arab historian Abu Al Faraj purports the following about Armenian settlers in Sivas, during the 10th century: "Sivas, in Cappadocia, was dominated by the Armenians and their numbers became so many that they became vital members of the imperial armies. These Armenians were used as watch-posts in strong fortresses, taken from the Arabs. They distinguished themselves as experienced infantry soldiers in the imperial army and were constantly fighting with outstanding courage and success by the side of the Romans in other words Byzantine".[4] As a result of the Byzantine military campaigns, the Armenians spread into Cappadocia and eastward from Cilicia into the mountainous areas of northern Syria and Mesopotamia. This immigration was increased further after the decline of the local imperial power and the establishment of the Crusader States following the 4th Crusade. Cappadocia became part of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, a state formed in the 12th century by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia and a close ally of the Crusaders. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Abu al-Faraj may refer to: Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, Arab scholar of the tribe of the Quraysh and a direct descendant of the last of the Umayyad caliphs, Marwan II Abu Faraj al-Libbi, nom de guerre of a Libyan alleged to be a senior member of al... The Armenians are a nation and an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus and eastern Asia Minor. ... Sivas is the provincial capital of Sivas Province in Turkey. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem by taking Egypt first, instead, in 1204, sacked and conquered the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ...


Following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, various Turkish clans under the leadership of the Seljuks began settling in Anatolia. With the rise of Turkish power in Anatolia, Cappadocia slowly became tributary to the Turkish states that were established to the east and to the west, and some of the population converted to Islam. By the end of the early 12th century, Anatolian Seljuks had established their sole dominance over the region. With the decline and the fall of the Konya-based Seljuks in the second half of the 13th century, they were gradually replaced by the Karaman-based Beylik of Karamanoğlu, who themselves were gradually succeeded by the Ottoman Empire over the course of the 15th century. Cappadocia remained part of the Ottoman Empire for the centuries to come, and remains now part of the modern state of Turkey. A fundamental change occurred in between when a new urban center, Nevşehir, was founded in the early 18th century by a grand vizier who was a native of the locality (Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha), to serve as regional capital, a role the city continues to assume to this day. Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... See also Clan (computer gaming) A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turkic descent[1][2][3][4] that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Karaman is a town in south central Turkey, located north of the Taurus Mountains, ca 100 km south of Konya. ... Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups In historical accounts, many Turkish and Persian leaders are titled bey, beg or beigh. ... Statue depicting Karamanogullu Mehmet Bey declaring Turkish as the official language of the state and all its institutions Beylik of Karaman or of KaramanoÄŸlu (KaramanoÄŸulları in plural), also called Karamanids was the first Turkic kingdom to accept Turkish as its official language. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Turkey is a successor state of the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic empire consolidated by gradual conquest during medieval and early modern times (1300-1700). ... NevÅŸehir, formerly MuÅŸkara, ancient Nyssa, is a city and the capital district of NevÅŸehir Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... NevÅŸehirli Damat Ä°brahim Pasha (??? – October 16, 1730) was the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire during the so-called Tulip Era. ...


In the meantime many former Cappadocians had shifted to a Turkish dialect (written in Greek alphabet, Karamanlıca), and where the Greek language was maintained (Sille, villages near Kayseri, Pharasa town and other nearby villages), it became heavily influenced by the surrounding Turkish. This dialect of Greek is known as Cappadocian Greek. Following the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, the language is now only spoken by a handful of the former population's descendants in modern Greece. This page contains special characters. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Cartoon depicting a Turk and a Greek arguing over the exchange. ...


Modern tourism

The area is a famous and popular tourist destination, as it has many areas with unique geological, historic and cultural features.


The region is southwest of the major city Kayseri, which has airline and railroad service to Ankara and Istanbul. Kayseri (Greek: Καισάρεια), in the antiquity Mazaka and later Caesarea, is an industrialized city in Turkey. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... Logo of the Turkish State Railways, TCDD Turkish Republic State Railways (TCDD, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları) is the state corporation that operates the public railway system in Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453...


The Cappadocia region is largely underlain by sedimentary rocks formed in lakes and streams, and ignimbrite deposits erupted from ancient volcanoes approximately 9 to 3 million years ago (late Miocene to Pliocene epochs). The rocks of Cappadocia near Göreme eroded into hundreds of spectacular pillars and minaret-like forms. The volcanic deposits are soft rocks that the people of the villages at the heart of the Cappadocia Region carved out to form houses, churches, monasteries. Göreme became a monastic center between 300-1200 AD. First period settlement in Göreme reaches to the Roman period from Christianity. Yusuf Koç, Ortahane, Durmus Kadir and Bezirhane churches in Göreme, houses and churches carved into rocks till to Uzundere, Bağıldere and Zemi Valley carries the mystical side of history today. The Göreme Open Air Museum is the most visited site of the monastic communities in Cappadocia and is one of the most famous sites in central Turkey. It is a complex comprising more than 30 rock-carved churches and chapels containing some superb frescoes, dating from the 9th to the 11th centuries. Ignimbrite is a volcanic pyroclastic rock, often of dacitic or rhyolitic composition. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Göreme, located among the fairy chimneys rock formations, is a town in Cappadocia, a historical region of Turkey. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ...


Mesothelioma

In 1975 a study from three small villages in central Cappadocia—Tuzköy, Karain and Sarhdr—found that mesothelioma cases caused 50% of all deaths. Initially, this was attributed to erionite, a mineral with similar properties to asbestos, but detailed epidemiological investigation demonstrated that the substance causes the disease mostly in families with a genetic predisposition to mineral fiber carcinogenesis. The studies are being extended to other parts of the region.[5][6] Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ...


In popular culture

  • In The Simpsons episode "Brother from Another Series", the character Sideshow Bob grudgingly acknowledges the Cappadocians as the only "civilization in history [that] considered 'chief hydrological engineer' a calling". This referred to the Cappadocians being famous for underground cities, although not specifically dams.[7]
  • Dama the Cappadocian merchant is a major character in several early heroic fantasy stories set around the third century A.D. written by David Drake, Latin scholar and science fiction and fantasy author. The physical and temporal locale was a Roman frontier society in Asia Minor exposed to new conflicts with Christianity and continuing old conflicts with bandits and Persian invaders, where a merchant could experience exotic cultures and find occasion to demonstrate some skill with personal arms.[8]
  • Wu tang Affiliate Darryl Hill styles himself as "Cappadonna" in reference to this civilization and also goes by the pseudonym "Lebanon don" in reference to Lebanon being a part of this civilization.
  • In the popular role playing game series Vampire: The Masquerade, a fallen Clan of Vampires known as the Cappadocians played an integral part in the existence of the modern clan known as the Giovanni. Their relation to Cappadocia seems to be only titular and possibly geographical.
  • The Fairy Chimneys of Cappadocia are shown in the film The Stone Merchant.
  • The Fairy Chimneys also appear in a short story featured in volume 28 of the manga series Red River.
  • In the computer game Rome: Total War, one can recruit a heavy cavalry unit called Cappadocian Cavalry, a Cataphract unit, but with weaker defence and attack, in comparison with the other Cataphracts (for example, the Armenian Cataphract).
  • Electronic musicians Autechre feature the Cappadocians on the cover of their second album, Amber.
  • In "The Last Days of Judas Iscariot" by Stephen Adly Guirgis, Satan appears to a drunk Judas claiming to be "Clementine from Cappadocia" which Judas mistakenly calls "Cappa-douche-ah" and belives it to be in Egypt.

Simpsons redirects here. ... Brother from Another Series is the sixteenth episode of The Simpsons eighth season and originally aired February 23, 1997. ... Robert Underdunk Terwilliger, better known by his stage name Sideshow Bob, is a recurring character in the animated television series The Simpsons. ... David Drake David Drake (born September 24, 1945) is a successful author of science fiction and fantasy literature. ... Darryl Hill redirects here. ... Vampire: The Masquerade (Revised Edition) cover. ... Vampire: The Masquerade (Revised Edition) cover. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... The Cappadocians are a clan of fictional vampires in the Vampire: The Masquerade role-playing game. ... The Giovanni is a fictional clan of vampires, from White Wolf Game Studios Vampire: The Masquerade books and role-playing games. ... Demographic Shōjo Magazine Sho-Comi Original run – Volumes 28 volumes Red River , Heaven by the Red River), is a shōjo manga series made by Chie Shinohara. ... Rome: Total War is a grand strategy computer game where players fight historical and fictious battles during the era of the Roman Republic, from 270 BCE to 14 CE. The game was developed by Creative Assembly and released on September 22, 2004. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... Autechre is an English electronic music group consisting of Rob Brown (born c. ... Amber, released by Warp Records in 1994 (see 1994 in music), is the second full-length album by the electronic music group Autechre. ...

Media

  • The terrain of Cappadocia

    Image:Cappadocia Goreme.ogg
    A video showing the terrain of Goreme and Cappadocia, from here


    Image File history File links Cappadocia_Goreme. ... Image File history File links Cappadocia_Goreme. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

See also

Ürgüp is a district of Nevşehir Province of Turkey. ... Mokissos is the formal name for a now inactive Diocese of the Greek Orthodox Church. ... — Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of archaeological and historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. ... Cappadocia (from Old Persian Katpatuka) was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire used by the Achaemenids to administer the regions beyond the Taurus and Euphrates. ... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... The Cappadocian Fathers are the 4th century church fathers Basil the Great, Gregory Nazianzen, and Basils brother Gregory of Nyssa, who made major contributions to the definition of the Trinity finalized at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Nicene Creed. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  1. ^ a b LexicOrient: Cappadocia[unreliable source?]
  2. ^ Room, Adrian. (1997). Placenames of the World. London: MacFarland and Company.
  3. ^ Nazaryan, Gevork (1999). King Tigran II - The Great. Prominent Armenians. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  4. ^ Schlumberger, Un Emperor byzantin au X siècle, Paris, Nicéphore Phocas, Paris, 1890, p. 251
  5. ^ Dogan, Umran (2003). "Mesothelioma in Cappadocian villages". Indoor and Built Environment 12 (6): 367–375. Ankara: Sage. ISSN: 1420-326X. Retrieved on 2008-03-04. 
  6. ^ Carbone, Michelle; et al (2007). "A mesothelioma epidemic in Cappadocia: scientific developments and unexpected social outcomes". Nature Reviews Cancer 7 (2): 147–54. doi:10.1038/nrc2068. ISSN 1474-175X. Retrieved on 2008-03-04. 
  7. ^ Weinstein, Josh. (2006). The Simpsons season 8 DVD commentary for the episode "Brother from Another Series" [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  8. ^ (2007) Balefires. Night Shade Books. 

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Gevork Nazaryan is a Armenian scholar specialized in Near Eastern history and the Hurrians. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A cover of Nature Reviews Cancer Nature Reviews Cancer [ISSN 1474-175X] is a highly respected cancer biology journal with an Impact Factor of 36. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up Cappadocia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cappadocia.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cappadocia

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Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Corsica et Sardinia was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted. ... Dalmatia province, Roman Empire Roman Dalmatia and surrounding areas Dalmatia was an ancient Roman province. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 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Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces | German history | Germany | History of the Germanic peoples ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. ... A portion of the Tabula Peutingeriana, a Roman map of the 4th century, depicting the southern part of Italia. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Cappadocia Turkey (707 words)
Cappadocia which is unique in the world and is a miraculous nature wonder is the common name of the field covered by the provinces of Aksaray, Nevsehir, Nigde, Kayseri and Kirsehir in the Middle Anatolian region.
In the period of Tiberius the Cappadocia gainded the status of Roman district.
Cappadocia is incorporates the provinces of Aksaray, Nevsehir, Nigde, Kayseri and Kirsehir cities.
Cappadocia - All About Turkey (530 words)
Cappadocia is generally regarded as the plains and the mountainous region of eastern central Anatolia around the upper and middle reaches of the river Kizilirmak (Red River).
This southern part of Cappadocia, the more densely populated, is often spoken of as the heart of the region and yet it lies in the extreme south-western corner.
Cappadocia thus became a melting pot of a variety of ethnic groups, all of which have influenced the culture and religious beliefs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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