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Encyclopedia > Capitoline Hill

Coordinates: 41.890873° N 12.483988° E The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. The English word capitol derives from Capitoline Hill. Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ... The Campus Martius, or Field of Mars, was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 km² (600 acres) in extent. ... The Seven Hills of Rome east of the Tiber form the heart of Rome. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,500 km²  (580 sq mi... Photo of the U.S. Capitol Building, Washington, DC, December 2003. ...

Contents

History

Ancient

It was the site of a temple for the Capitoline Triad, started by Rome's fifth king, Tarquinius Priscus. It was considered one of the largest and the most beautiful temples in the city (although little now remains) and was probably founded on an earlier, Etruscan temple of Veiovis, whose remains and cult statue still survive. The role of the Capitoline Hill in city legend is linked with the recovery during the Regal period of a human head (the word for head in Latin is caput) when the foundation trenches were being dug for the Temple of Jupiter. The Capitoline Triad was comprised of three deities of Roman mythology who were worshipped most famously in an elaborate temple on Romes Capitoline Hill. ... Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I) was the legendary fifth King of Rome, said to have reigned from 616 BC to 579 BC. According to Livy, Tarquinius Priscus came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii and was originally named Lucumo (it is now thought that... In Etruscan and Roman mythology Veiovis, Veive or Vediovis, was an old Italian or Etruscan deity. ...


At this hill the Sabines, creeping to the Citadel, were let in by the infamous Vestal Virgin Tarpeia, daughter of Spurius Tarpeius. For this she was the first to suffer the punishment for treachery of being thrown off the steep crest of the hill to fall on the dagger-sharp Tarpeian Rocks below, and therefore gave her name to them. When the Celtic Gauls raided Rome in 390 BC, the Capitoline Hill was the one section of the city to evade capture by the barbarians, it being fortified by the Roman defenders. Sabine (in Latin and in Italian, Sabina) is a sub-region of Latium, Italy, on the North-East of Rome toward Rieti. ... This article is about a type of fortification. ... A vestal Virgin, engraving by Sir Frederick Leighton, ca 1890: Leightons artistic sense has won over his passion for historical accuracy in showing the veil over the Vestals head at sacrifices, the suffibulum, as translucent, instead of fine white wool. ... A steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill, overlooking the Roman Forum, the Tarpeian Rock (rupes Tarpeia) was used during the Roman Republic as an execution site. ... Spurius Tarpeius is a mythological character. ... A steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill, overlooking the Roman Forum, the Tarpeian Rock (rupes Tarpeia) was used during the Roman Republic as an execution site. ... Celts redirects here. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 395 BC 394 BC 393 BC 392 BC 391 BC - 390 BC - 389 BC 388 BC 387...


When Julius Caesar suffered an accident during his Triumph, clearly indicating the wrath of Jupiter for his actions in the Civil Wars, he approached the hill and Jupiter's temple on his knees as a way of averting the unlucky omen (he was murdered six months later, and Brutus and his other assassins locked themselves inside the temple afterwards))[1]. Vepasian's brother and nephew were also besieged in the temple during the Year of Four Emperors (69). A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... Combatants Julius Caesar and supporters, the Populares faction, Roman senate, the Optimates faction, Commanders Julius Caesar Pompey, Titus Labienus†, Metellus Scipio†, Cato the younger†, Gnaeus Pompeius The Roman civil war of 49 BC, sometimes called Caesars Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic. ... Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on Capitoline Hill, 6th-1st century BC. The Temple of Jupiter in the ancient Pompeii. ... now. ... Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC, one of Julius Caesars assassins. ... See also Titus Flavius Sabinus for other men of this name. ... See also Titus Flavius Sabinus for other men of this name. ... The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68 AD, was followed by a brief period of civil war (the first Roman civil war since Antonys death in 31 BC) known as the Year of the four emperors. ... The Year of the four emperors: After Neros death, Galba, Otho and Vitellius all serve as emperor for a short time each before Vespasian takes over. ...


The Tabularium, located underground beneath the piazza and hilltop, occupies a building of the same name built in the 1st century BC to hold important Roman records of state. The Tabularium looks out from the rear onto the Roman Forum. The main attraction of the Tabularium, besides the structure itself, is the Temple of Veiovis. The Tabularium, on the right, with the medioeval Senate palace built upon. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ... In Etruscan and Roman mythology Veiovis, Veive or Vediovis, was an old Italian or Etruscan deity. ...


Medieval

The church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli is adjacent to the square, located adjacent to where the ancient arx or "citadel" atop the hill once stood. At its base are the remains of a Roman insula, with more than 4 stores visible from the street. Facade of Santa Maria in Aracoeli with the monumental ladder The basilica of Santa Maria in Aracoeli is on the Campidoglio, in Rome. ... Arx, arcis, f. ... In Roman architecture, insulae were large apartment buildings where the lower and middle classes of Romans (the plebs) dwelled. ...


In the Middle Ages the hill’s classical sacred function was largely obscured by its other role as the center of the civic government of Rome, revived as a commune in the 11th century. The city's government was now to be firmly under papal control, but the Campidoglio was the former scene of many movements of urban resistance, such as the dramatic scenes of Cola di Rienzo's revived republic. As a result, the piazza was already surrounded by existing buildings by the 16th century. A simplified plan of the city of Rome from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Cola di Rienzi (c. ...


Michelangelo

Michelangelo's systematizing of the Campidoglio, engraved by Étienne Dupérac, 1568.
Michelangelo's systematizing of the Campidoglio, engraved by Étienne Dupérac, 1568.

The existing design of the Piazza del Campidoglio (as Romans called it by the 16th century) and the surrounding palazzos was created by famed Renaissance artist and architect Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1536 - 1546. At the height of his fame he was commissioned by the Farnese Pope Paul III, who wanted a symbol of the new Rome to impress Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who was expected in 1538. Download high resolution version (946x602, 181 KB)Campidoglio, Rome. ... Download high resolution version (946x602, 181 KB)Campidoglio, Rome. ... For other uses, see Renaissance (disambiguation). ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 1534 to 1549. ... Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ...


Michelangelo's first designs for the piazza and remodelling of the surrounding palazzos date from 1536. He effectively reversed the classical orientation of the Capitoline, in a symbolic gesture turning Rome’s civic center to face away from the Roman Forum and instead in the direction of Papal Rome and the Christian church in the form of St. Peter’s Basilica, solving the intractable urbanistic, symbolic, political and propaganda program for the Campidoglio. Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter from Castel SantAngelo. ...


The unfolding sequence, Cordonata piazza and the central palazzo are the first urban introduction of the "cult of the axis" that will occupy Italian garden plans and reach fruition in France (Giedion 1962).


However, executing the design was slow work: little was actually completed in Michelangelo's lifetime (the ‘’Cordonata’’ was not in place when Emperor Charles arrived, and the imperial party had to scramble up the slope from the Forum to view the works in progress), but work continued faithfully to his designs and the Campidoglio was completed in the 17th century, except for the paving design, which was to be finished only three centuries later. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Piazza

The bird's-eye view of the engraving by Étienne Dupérac shows Michelangelo's solution to the problems of the space in the Piazza del Campidoglio. Even with their new facades centering them on the new palazzo at the rear, the space was a trapezoid, and the facades did not face each other squarely. Worse still, the whole site sloped (to the left in the engraving). Michelangelo's solution was radical. The three remodelled palazzi enclose a harmonious and urbanely-coherent trapezoidal space, approached by the ramped staircase called the "Cordonata". Since no "perfect" forms would work, his apparent oval in the paving is actually egg-shaped, narrower at one end than at the other. The travertine design set into the paving is perfectly level: around its perimeter, low steps arise and die away into the paving as the slope requires. Its center springs slightly, so that one senses that one is standing on the exposed segment of a gigantic egg all but buried at the center of the city at the center of the world, as Michelangelo's historian Charles de Tolnay pointed out (Charles De Tolnay, 1930). An interlaced twelve-pointed star makes a subtle reference to the constellations, revolving around this space called Caput mundi, the "head of the world." (This paving design was never executed by the popes, who may have detected a subtext of less-than-Christian import. Benito Mussolini ordered the paving completed to Michelangelo's design — in 1940.) The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Cordonata in Rome The Cordonata is a monumental stair to reach the high piazza of the hill Capitoline, the heart oft pagan Rome. ... Travertine A carving in travertine The rock travertine is a natural chemical precipitate of carbonate minerals; typically aragonite, but often recrystallized to or primary calcite; which is deposited from the water of mineral springs (especially hot springs) or streams saturated with calcium carbonate. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown from power. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


Marcus Aurelius

In the middle, and not to Michelangelo’s liking, stood the only equestrian bronze to have survived since Antiquity, that of Marcus Aurelius, the philosopher emperor. Michelangelo provided an unassuming pedestal for it. The only reason that this sculpture survived the Authorities of the Christian Church in the Middle Ages, is that it was thought to be a statue of Emperor Constantine, who was the first Emperor of Rome to legalize Christianity in the empire, and who was baptised into the Christian faith on his death-bed (337). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 82 KB) Description: Equestrian sculpture of Marco Aurelio on the Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 82 KB) Description: Equestrian sculpture of Marco Aurelio on the Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome. ... The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius is made of bronze and stands 11’ 6” tall. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ...


Palazzi

He provided new fronts to the two official buildings of Rome's civic government, which very approximately faced each other, the Palazzo dei Conservatori and the Palazzo Senatorio, and added one more. The sole arched motif in the entire Campodoglio design is the segmental pediments over their windows, which give a slight spring to the completely angular vertical-horizontal balance of the design. The three palazzi are now home to the important Capitoline Museums. The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ...


Palazzo dei Conservatori

The Palazzo dei Conservatori was the first use of a giant order that spanned two storeys, here with a range of Corinthian pilasters and subsidiary Ionic columns flanking the ground-floor loggia openings and the second-floor windows. Another giant order would serve later for the exterior of St Peter's Basilica. In Classical architecture, a giant order is an order whose columns or pilasters span two (or more) storeys. ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and... Villa Godi by Palladio. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ...


Palazzo Senatorio
Piazza del Campidoglio, on the top of Capitoline Hill, with the façade of Palazzo Senatorio.
Piazza del Campidoglio, on the top of Capitoline Hill, with the façade of Palazzo Senatorio.

This had been built over the Tabularium that had once housed the archives of ancient Rome. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 594 KB) Summary Description: Palazzo dei Senatori in the Piazza del Campidoglio Source: photograph taken by User:Wikibob Date: created 30. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 594 KB) Summary Description: Palazzo dei Senatori in the Piazza del Campidoglio Source: photograph taken by User:Wikibob Date: created 30. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... The Tabularium, on the right, with the medioeval Senate palace built upon. ...


Palazzo Nuovo

He gave the space a new building at the far end, to close the vista, called Palazzo Nuovo, "new palace," and its facade was thought by Michelangelo as an exact copy to that of Palazzo dei Conservatori. It was begun in 1603 and finished in 1654. The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Balustrade

A balustrade punctuated by sculptures atop the giant pilasters capped the composition, one of the most influential of Michelangelo's designs. The two massive ancient statues of Castor and Pollux which decorate the balaustra are not the same posed by Michelangelo, which now are in front of the Palazzo del Quirinale. Stairs, staircase, stairway, flight of stairs are all names for a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. ... The Quirinal Palace once housed popes, and then kings, and now presidents The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Quirinale) is the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic upon the Quirinal Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome. ...


Cordonata

The Cordonata
The Cordonata

Michelangelo devised a monumental wide ramped stair (the Cordonata) ascending the hill to reach the high piazza, so that the Campidoglio resolutely turned its back on the Roman Forum that it had once commanded. It was wide so that nobles on horseback could ascend the hill without dismounting. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (875x567, 98 KB) picture taken by Diana Kremer, Oct. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (875x567, 98 KB) picture taken by Diana Kremer, Oct. ... Cordonata in Rome The Cordonata is a monumental stair to reach the high piazza of the hill Capitoline, the heart oft pagan Rome. ... A piazza is an open square in a city, often used as a marketplace, found in Italy. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... Facade of Santa Maria in Aracoeli with the monumental ladder The basilica of Santa Maria in Aracoeli is on the Campidoglio, in Rome. ... The Tabularium, on the right, with the medioeval Senate palace built upon. ... In Ancient Rome, the Capitoline Games (Latin: Ludi Capitolini) were annual games, or combats instituted by Camillus, 387 BC, in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus, and in commemoration of the Capitols not being taken by the Gauls that same year. ... The Colossus head The Colossus of Constantine was a colossal acrolithic statue of Constantine the Great that once occupied the west apse of the Basilica of Maxentius in the Forum Romanum in Rome. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References

  • Giedion, Siegfried, (1941) 1962. Space, Time and Architecture

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Capitoline Hill: Information from Answers.com (1476 words)
Coordinates: 41.890873° N 12.483988° E The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome.
At this hill the Sabines, creeping to the Citadel, were let in by the infamous Vestal Virgin Tarpeia, daughter of Spurius Tarpeius.
In the Middle Ages the hill’s classical sacred function was largely obscured by its other role as the center of the civic government of Rome, revived as a commune in the 11th century.
The Capitoline (1095 words)
Thus the hill was entitled the Capitoline, or Capitol Hill in English (and Campidoglio in Italian).
It was the highest and rockiest hill in Rome, bordered on all sides by sharp cliffs.
Even at the height of Rome's power, the Capitoline was still considered the citadel of the city, and citizens could flee there in case the city's walls were breached by an invading army.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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