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Encyclopedia > Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
IUCN Category II (National Park)
Location: Utah, USA
Nearest city: Torrey, Utah
Coordinates: 38°12′0″N, 111°10′0″W
Area: 241,904.26 acres
  (241,233.87 federal)

978.95 km²
Established: December 18, 1971
Visitation: 550,255 (in 2005)
Governing body: National Park Service

Capitol Reef National Park is a United States National Park, in south-central Utah. It is 100 miles (160 km) long but fairly narrow. The park, established in 1971, preserves 378 mi² (979 km²) and is open all year, although May through September are the most popular months. The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales A national park is a reserve of land, usually owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Salt Lake City Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq. ... Torrey, Utah Torrey is a town located on State Route 24 in Wayne County, Utah, eight miles from Capitol Reef National Park. ... December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... The parks of the United States National Park system are one type of protected area in the United States and are operated by the U.S. National Park Service. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Salt Lake City Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ...


Called "Wayne Wonderland" in the 1920s by local boosters Ephraim P. Pectol and Joseph S. Hickman, Capitol Reef National Park protects colorful canyons, ridges, buttes, and monoliths. About 75 miles (120 km) of the long up-thrust called the Waterpocket Fold, extending like a rugged spine from Thousand Lake Plateau southward to Lake Powell, is preserved within the park boundary. Capitol Reef is the name of an especially rugged and spectacular park of the Waterpocket Fold near the Fremont River. The area was named for a line of white domes and cliffs of Navajo Sandstone, each of which looks somewhat like the United States Capitol building, that run from the Fremont River to Pleasant Creek on the Waterpocket Fold. The local word reef referred to any rocky barrier to travel. Lake Powell is a man-made reservoir on the Colorado River, straddling the border between Utah and Arizona. ... St Peters Basilica (topped with a lantern), Rome A dome is a common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. ... Cliffs on the banks of the River Severn, near Bristol, England In geography, a cliff is a significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure. ... The south facade of the United States Capitol Capitol Hill redirects here; for other uses, see Capitol Hill (disambiguation). ... The Fremont River in Utah flows from the Johnson Valley Reservoir near Fishlake southwest through Capitol Reef National Park to the Muddy Creek near Hanksville where the two rivers combine to form the Dirty Devil River, a tributary of the Colorado River. ... Waterpocket Fold - Looking south from the Strike Valley Overlook The Waterpocket Fold is a geologic landform that defines Capitol Reef National Park. ...


Only a few decades ago, Capitol Reef and the Waterpocket Fold country comprised one of the remote corners of the lower 48 U.S. states. Easy road access came only with the construction of a paved Utah State Route 24 through the Fremont River Canyon in 1962. A state of the United States (a U.S. state) is any one of the fifty states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, along with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ... Utah State Route 24 is a state highway in south central Utah which runs south from Salina through Sevier County then east through Wayne County and north east through Emery County. ...

Contents


Geography

Capitol Reef encompasses the Waterpocket Fold, a wrinkle in the earth's crust that is 65 million years old. In this fold, newer and older layers of earth folded over each other in an S-shape. This wrinkle, probably caused by the same colliding continental plates that created the Rocky Mountains, has weathered and eroded over millennia to expose layers of rock and fossils. The park is filled with brilliantly colored sandstone cliffs, gleaming white domes, and contrasting layers of stone and earth. Waterpocket Fold - Looking south from the Strike Valley Overlook The Waterpocket Fold is a geologic landform that defines Capitol Reef National Park. ... Earth is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... Plate tectonics (from the Greek word for one who constructs and destroys, τεκτων, tektoon) is a theory of geology developed to explain the phenomenon of continental drift and is currently the theory accepted by the vast majority of scientists working in this area. ... White Goat Wilderness Area, Alberta, Canada Longs Peak of the Rocky Mountains as depicted on the Colorado state quarter The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a broad mountain range in western North America. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and other particles) by the agents of wind, water, ice, movement in response to gravity, or living organisms (in the case of bioerosion). ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally having been dug up) are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. ... Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ...

Capital Reef and vicinity
Capital Reef and vicinity

The area was named for a line of white domes and cliffs of Navajo Sandstone, each of which looks somewhat like the United States Capitol building, that run from the Fremont River to Pleasant Creek on the Waterpocket Fold. Image File history File links Capitalreef. ... Image File history File links Capitalreef. ... St Peters Basilica (topped with a lantern), Rome A dome is a common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. ... Cliffs on the banks of the River Severn, near Bristol, England In geography, a cliff is a significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure. ... The south facade of the United States Capitol Capitol Hill redirects here; for other uses, see Capitol Hill (disambiguation). ... The Fremont River in Utah flows from the Johnson Valley Reservoir near Fishlake southwest through Capitol Reef National Park to the Muddy Creek near Hanksville where the two rivers combine to form the Dirty Devil River, a tributary of the Colorado River. ...


The fold forms a north-to-south barrier that even today has barely been breached by roads. Early settlers referred to parallel, impassable ridges as "reefs," from which the park gets the second half of its name. The first paved road was constructed through the area in 1962. Today, Utah State Route 24 cuts through the park traveling east and west between Canyonlands National Park and Bryce Canyon National Park, but few other paved roads invade the rugged landscape. Utah State Route 24 is a state highway in south central Utah which runs south from Salina through Sevier County then east through Wayne County and north east through Emery County. ... Canyonlands National Park, located near Moab, Utah and the Arches National Park, was designated as a National Park on September 12, 1964. ... Bryce Canyon National Park is a national park located in southwestern Utah in the United States. ...


The park is filled with canyons, cliffs, towers, domes, and arches. The Fremont River has cut canyons through parts of the Waterpocket Fold, but most of the park is arid desert country. A scenic drive shows park visitors some of the highlights, but it runs only a few miles from the main highway. Hundreds of miles of trails and unpaved roads lead the more adventurous into the equally scenic backcountry.


History

Native Americans and Mormons

Fremont culture Native Americans lived near the perennial Fremont River in the northern part of the Capitol Reef Waterpocket Fold around 1000 CE. They irrigated crops of lentils, maize, and squash and stored their grain in stone granaries (in part made from the numerous black basalt boulders that litter the area). In the 13th century, all Native American cultures in this area underwent sudden change, likely due to a long drought. The Fremont settlements and fields were abandoned. Categories: Native American tribes | Stub ... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara (, ) Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus The lentil (Lens culinaris) is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... This article is about grains in general. ... Basalt Basalt is a common gray to black volcanic rock. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A drought or an extreme dry periodic climate is an extended period where water availability falls below the statistical requirements for a region. ...


Many years after the Fremont left, Paiutes moved into the area. These Numic speaking people named the Fremont granaries moki huts and thought they were the homes of a race of tiny people or moki. Paiute (sometimes written as Piute) refers to two related groups — Northern Paiute and Southern Paiute — of Native Americans speaking languages belonging to the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan family of Native American languages. ... Numic is a branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. ...


In 1872 Alan H. Thompson, a surveyor attached to United States Army Major John Wesely Powell's expedition, crossed the Waterpocket Fold while exploring the area. Geologist Clarence Dutton later spent several summers studying the area's geology. None of these expeditions explored the Waterpocket Fold to any great extent, however. It was, as now, incredibly rugged and forbidding. The United States Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... John Wesley Powell (March 24, 1834 - September 23, 1902) was a American western explorer. ... Clarence Edward Dutton (May 15, 1841, Wallingford, CT – January 4, 1912, Englewood, NJ) was an American geologist and one of the founders of seismology, in which his chief contribution was the notion of isostasy: that the equilibrium in the crust of the earth is governed by the flow or yielding...


Following the American Civil War, Mormon church officials in Salt Lake City sought to establish "missions" in the remotest niches of the intermountain west. In 1866, a quasi-military expedition of Mormons in pursuit of marauding natives penetrated the high valleys to the west. In the 1870s, settlers moved into these valleys, eventually establishing Loa, Fremont, Lyman, Bicknell, and Torrey. Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties KIA: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... For other uses, see Mormon (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Crossroads of the West Official website: http://www. ...


Mormons settled the Fremont River valley in the 1880s and established Junction (later " Fruita"), Caineville and Aldridge were created. Fruita prospered, Caineville barely survived, Aldridge died. In addition to farming, lime was extracted from local limestone and uranium was extracted early in the 20th century. In 1904 the first claim to a uranium mine in the area was staked. The resulting Olyer Mine in Grand Wash produced uranium ore. Lime is a general term for various naturally occurring minerals and materials derived from them in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium predominate. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ...


By 1920, the work was hard but the life in Fruita was good. No more than ten families at one time were sustained by the fertile flood plain of the Fremont River and the land changed ownership over the years. The area remained isolated. The community was later abandoned and later still some buildings were restored by the National Park Service. Kilns once used to produce lime can still be seen in Sulphur Creek and near the campgrounds on Scenic Drive. The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ...

Some of the many white sandstone domes
Some of the many white sandstone domes

Capitol Reef Natl Park dome Photographer: Ellen Levy Finch, taken Sept 1990 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Capitol Reef Natl Park dome Photographer: Ellen Levy Finch, taken Sept 1990 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Early protection efforts

Local Ephraim Porter Pectol organized a "Boosters Club" in Torrey in 1921. Pectol pressed a promotional campaign, furnishing stories to be sent to periodicals and newspapers. In his efforts, he was increasingly aided by his brother-in-law, Joseph S. Hickman, who was Wayne County High School principal. In 1924, Hickman extended community involvement in the promotional effort by organizing a Wayne County-wide Wayne Wonderland Club. That same year, the educator was elected to the Utah State Legislature. Torrey, Utah Torrey is a town located on State Route 24 in Wayne County, Utah, eight miles from Capitol Reef National Park. ... The Utah State Capitol, home of the Utah State Legislature. ...


Pectol was elected to the presidency of the Associated Civics Club of Southern Utah, successor to the Wayne Wonderland Club. The club raised U.S. $150.00 to interest a Salt Lake City grapher in taking a series of promotional photographs. For several years, the grapher - J.E. Broaddus - traveled and lectured on "Wayne Wonderland".


In 1933, Pectol himself was elected to the legislature and almost immediately contacted President Franklin D. Roosevelt and asked for the creation of "Wayne Wonderland National Monument" out of the federal lands comprising the bulk of the Capitol Reef area. Federal agencies began a feasibility study and boundary assessment. Meanwhile, Pectol not only guided the government investigators on numerous trips, but escorted an increasing number of visitors. The lectures of Broaddus were having an effect. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ...


President Roosevelt signed a proclamation creating Capitol Reef National Monument on August 2, 1937. In Proclamation 2246, President Roosevelt set aside 37,711 acres (152 km²) of the Capitol Reef area. This comprised an area extending about two miles north of present Utah State Route 24 and about 10 miles (16 km) south, just past Capitol Gorge. The Great Depression years were lean ones for the National Park Service (NPS), the new administering agency. Funds for the administration of Capitol Reef were nonexistent; it would be a long time before the first rangers would arrive. August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Utah State Route 24 is a state highway in south central Utah which runs south from Salina through Sevier County then east through Wayne County and north east through Emery County. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 and lasting through most of the 1930s. ...


Administration of the monument

Administration of the new monument was placed under the control of Zion National Park. However, a stone ranger cabin and the Sulphur Creek bridge were built and some road work was performed by the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Works Project Administration. A local printer named Charles Kelly came to know NPS officials at Zion well and volunteered to "watchdog" the park for the NPS. In 1943, he was officially appointed "custodian-without-pay". He was to work without pay as a volunteer until 1950 when the NPS offered him a civil service appointment as the first superintendent. Zion National Park is a United States National Park located near Springdale, Utah in the southwestern United States. ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. ... The Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 with the signing of Executive Order 7034. ...


During the 1950s he was deeply troubled by NPS management acceding to demands of the Atomic Energy Commission that Capitol Reef National Monument be opened to uranium prospecting. He felt that the decision had been a mistake and destructive of the long term national interest. As it turned out, there was not enough ore to be worth mining in the monument. Almost a year after World War II ended, Congress established the United States Atomic Energy Commission to foster and control the peace time development of atomic science and technology. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ...


It was not until 1958 that Kelly got additional permanent help in protecting the monument and enforcing regulations; Park Ranger Grant Clark transferred from Zion. The year Clark arrived, fifty-six thousand visitors came to the park and "Charlie" Kelly retired for the last time, full of years and experiences.


During the 1960s (under the program name Mission 66), NPS areas nationwide received new facilities to meet the demand of mushrooming park visitation. At Capitol Reef, a 53-site campground at Fruita, staff rental housing, and a new visitor center were built, the latter opening in 1966.


Visitation climbed dramatically after the paved, all-weather Utah State Route 24 was built in 1962 through the Fremont River canyon near Fruita. Utah 24 replaced the narrow Capitol Gorge wagon road about 10 miles (16 km) to the south that frequently washed out. The old road has since only been open to foot traffic. In 1967, 146,598 persons visited the park. The staff was also growing. Utah State Route 24 is a state highway in south central Utah which runs south from Salina through Sevier County then east through Wayne County and north east through Emery County. ...


During the 1960s, the NPS proceeded to purchase private land parcels at Fruita and Pleasant Creek. Almost all private property passed into public ownership on a "willing buyer-willing seller" basis.


Preservationists successfully convinced President Lyndon B. Johnson to set aside an enormous area of public lands in 1968, just before he left office. In Presidential Proclamation 3888, an additional 215,056 acres (870 km²) were placed under NPS control. By 1970, Capitol Reef National Monument comprised 254,251 acres (1,028 km²) and sprawled southeast from Thousand Lake Mountain almost to the Colorado River. The action was very controversial locally, and NPS staffing at the monument was inadequate to properly manage the additional land. LBJ redirects here. ... Thousand Lake Mountain is in south central Utah just north and west of Capitol Reef National Park and north of Boulder Mountain. ... Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River is a river in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately 1,450 mi (2,333 km) long, draining a part of the arid regions on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. ...


National park status

The vast enlargement of the monument and diversification of the scenic resources soon raised another issue: Whether Capitol Reef should be a national park, rather than a monument. Two bills were introduced into the United States Congress. The parks of the United States National Park system are one type of protected area in the United States and are operated by the National Park Service. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...


A House bill (H.R. 17152) introduced by Utah Congressman Laurence J. Burton called for a 180,000-acre (728 km²) national park and an adjunct 48,000-acre (194 km²) national recreation area where multiple use (including grazing) could continue indefinitely. In the United States Senate, meanwhile, Senate bill S. 531 had already passed on July 1, 1970, and provided for a 230,000-acre (930 km²) national park alone. The bill called for a 25-year phase-out of grazing. Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Salt Lake City Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq. ... Grazing is the regular consumption of part of one organism without killing it by another organism. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...


In September 1970, United States Department of Interior officials told a house subcommittee session that they preferred that about 254 thousand acres (1,027 km²) be set aside as a national park. They also recommended that the grazing phase-out period be 10 years, rather than 25. They did not favor the adjunct recreation area. The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ...


It was not until late 1971 that Congressional action was completed. By then, the 92nd United States Congress was in session and S. 531 had languished. A new bill, S. 29, was introduced in the Senate by Senator Frank M. Moss of Utah and was essentially the same as the defunct S. 531 except that it called for an additional 10,834 acres (42 km²) of public lands for a Capitol Reef National Park. In the House, Utah Representative Gunn McKay (with Representative Lloyd) had introduced H.R. 9053 to replace the dead H.R. 17152. This time around, the House bill dropped the concept of an adjunct Capitol Reef National Recreation Area and adopted the Senate concept of a 25-year limit on continued grazing. The Department of Interior was still recommending a national park of 254,368 acres (1,029 km²) and a 10-year limit for grazing phase-out. Dates The first session convened on 21 January 1971, and adjourned on 17 December 1971. ...


S. 29 passed the Senate in June and was sent to the House. The House subsequently dropped its own bill and passed the Senate version with an amendment. Because the Senate was not in agreement with the House amendment, differences were worked out in Conference Committee. The Conference Committee issued their agreeing report on November 30, 1971. The legislation—"An Act to Establish The Capitol Reef National park in the State of Utah"—became Public Law 92-207 when it was signed by President Richard Nixon on December 18, 1971. November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Geology

Main article: Geology of the Capitol Reef area

The area including the park was once the edge of an ancient shallow sea that invaded the land in the Permian, creating the Cutler Formation. Only the sandstone of the youngest member of the Cutler Formation, the White Rim, is exposed in the park. The deepening sea left Carbonate deposits, forming the limestone of the Kaibab Limestone, the same formation that rims the Grand Canyon to the southwest. The Waterpocket Fold is the major geographic feature in the area of the park. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Cutler is a rock unit that is spread across the U.S. states of Arizona, northwest New Mexico, southeast Utah and southwest Colorado. ... Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... In inorganic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The Kaibab is a geologic formation that is spread across the U.S. states of northern Arizona, southern Utah, east central Nevada and southeast California. ... For other Grand Canyons see Grand Canyon (disambiguation). ...


During the Triassic, streams deposited reddish-brown silt, which later became the siltstone of the Moenkopi Formation. Uplift and erosion followed. Conglomerate, itself followed by logs, sand, mud, and wind-transported volcanic ash, then formed the uranium-containing Chinle Formation. The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 245 to 202 Ma (million years ago). ... A running stream. ... Silt refers to soil or rock particles of a certain very small size range (see grain size). ... Categories: Stub | Sedimentary rocks ... The Moenkopi is a formation that is spread across the U.S. states of New Mexico, northern Arizona, Nevada, southeastern California, eastern Utah and western Colorado. ... Biological uplift refers to the theoretic prospect of upgrading the capacities of non-human animals or other intelligences. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and other particles) by the agents of wind, water, ice, movement in response to gravity, or living organisms (in the case of bioerosion). ... A conglomerate with iron oxide cementing material A conglomerate is a rock consisting of other stones that have been cemented together. ... Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash is the term for very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ...

Navajo Sandstone domes at the crest of Capitol Reef, viewed from the east
Navajo Sandstone domes at the crest of Capitol Reef, viewed from the east

The members of the Glen Canyon Group were all laid down in the middle to late Triassic during a time of increasing aridity. They include: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x483, 422 KB) Summary Taken by Jesse Varner, April 2006 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x483, 422 KB) Summary Taken by Jesse Varner, April 2006 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Glen Canyon Group is a geologic group of formations that is spread across the U.S. states of Nevada, Utah, northern Arizona, north west New Mexico and western Colorado. ...

The San Rafael Group consists of four Triassic-era formations, from oldest to youngest: Wingate Sandstone is a geologic formation in the Glen Canyon Group that is spread across the Colorado Plateau province of the United States, including northern Arizona, northwest Colorado, Nevada, and Utah. ... This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ... The Kayenta Formation is a geologic layer in the Glen Canyon Group that is spread across the Colorado Plateau province of the United States, including northern Arizona, northwest Colorado, Nevada, and Utah. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Desert view in Saudi Arabia. ...

Hickman Bridge
Enlarge
Hickman Bridge

Streams once again laid down mud and sand in their channels, on lakebeds, and in swampy plains, creating the Morrison Formation. Early in the Cretaceous, similar nonmarine sediments were laid down and became the Dakota Sandstone. Eventually, the Cretaceous Seaway covered the Dakota, depositing the Mancos Shale. The Carmel Formation is a geologic formation in the San Rafael Group that is spread across the U.S. states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, north east Arizona and New Mexico. ... Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Chemical structure Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is an example of a class of materials called granular matter. ... Silt refers to soil or rock particles of a certain very small size range (see grain size). ... USGS image A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... Entrada Sandstone capped by Curtis Formation in Capitol Reef National Parks Cathedral Valley The Entrada Sandstone is a formation in the San Rafael Group that is spread across the U.S. states of Wyoming, Colorado, northwest New Mexico, northeast Arizona and southeast Utah. ... Sand bars in the Mississippi River at Arkansas and Mississippi A bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ... Summerville Formation near Torrey, Utah USA ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1136x852, 300 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Capitol Reef National Park ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1136x852, 300 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Capitol Reef National Park ... A freshwater swamp This article is about the wetland type (a landform). ... The Morrison Formation is a distinctive body of rock in the western United States and Canada that has been the most fertile source of fossils in North America. ... Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... The Western Interior Seaway, also called the Cretaceous Seaway and the North American Inland Sea, was a huge inland sea that split the continent of North America into two halves during most of the early and mid-Cretaceous period. ...


Only small remnants of the Mesaverde Group are found, capping a few mesas in the park's eastern section (see Geology of the Mesa Verde area). Several mesas near Los Alamos, New Mexico. ...


Near the end of the Cretaceous period, a mountain-building event called the Laramide orogeny started to compact and uplift the region, forming the Rocky Mountains and creating monoclines such as the Waterpocket Fold in the park. Ten to fifteen million years ago, the entire region was uplifted much further by the creation of the Colorado Plateaus. Remarkably, this uplift was very even. Igneous activity in the form of volcanism and dike and sill intrusion also occurred during this time. Mount McKinley (Denali) in Alaska (USA) has the largest visible base-to-summit elevation difference on Earth. ... The Laramide orogeny was a 30 million year period of mountain building in western North America that started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 million years ago, and ended in the Late Paleogene 40 million years ago. ... Rocky Mountain National Park (photo courtesy of NPS) View of Colorado Rockies. ... The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. ... Volcanic rock on North America Plutonic rock on North America Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... A dike in geology refers to a tabular intrusive igneous body. ... In geology, a sill is a tabular, often horizontal mass of igneous rock that has been intruded laterally between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or even along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock. ... Pluton redirects here. ...


The drainage system in the area was rearranged and steepened, causing streams to downcut faster and sometimes change course. Wetter times during the ice ages of the Pleistocene increased the rate of erosion. Erosional downcutting by the San Juan River in Utah. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Pleistocene epoch (pronounced like ply-stow-seen) is part of the geologic timescale. ...


Visiting the park

Tower and rock layers at Capitol Reef
Tower and rock layers at Capitol Reef

The town nearest Capitol Reef is Torrey, Utah, which lies eight miles west of the visitor's center on Highway 24. Torrey is very small, but has several motels and restaurants. The park itself has a large campground, but it often fills by early afternoon during busy summer weekends. Overnight camping within the park, requires a permit from the rangers at the visitor's center. Capitol Reef Natl Park tower Photographer: Ellen Levy Finch, taken Sept 1990 This is a merge of 2 photos and Im feeling rushed & didnt do it well. ... Capitol Reef Natl Park tower Photographer: Ellen Levy Finch, taken Sept 1990 This is a merge of 2 photos and Im feeling rushed & didnt do it well. ... Torrey, Utah Torrey is a town located on State Route 24 in Wayne County, Utah, eight miles from Capitol Reef National Park. ...


Activities in the park include hiking, horseback riding, mountain biking, and a driving tour.


References

  • Geology of National Parks: Fifth Edition, Ann G. Harris, Esther Tuttle, Sherwood D., Tuttle (Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Publishing; 1997) ISBN 0-7872-5353-7
  • "Legislation and Establishment of Capital Reef National Park", National Park Service (adapted public domain text)
  • Explore America: National Parks, Reader's Digest Association, 1993
  • Capitol Reef Official Map and Guide, National Park Service, 1989
  • The National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U.S. Department of the Interior.

The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ...

External links

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