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Encyclopedia > Capitalization

Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ...


Different language orthographies have different conventions for the use of capitalization. The systematic use of capitalized and uncapitalized words in running text is called "mixed case". Conventions for the capitalization of titles vary among languages and different style guides.


Capitalized words contrast with words in all caps. Mixed case text may also be written in capitals and small caps. In typography, all caps (short for all capitals or all capitalized; often written as ALL CAPS) refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters. ... In typography, small caps (short for small capitals) are uppercase (capital) characters that are printed in a smaller size than normal uppercase characters of the same font. ...


In some representations of certain writing systems, the notion of the "first letter" is subtle: for example, the Croatian digraph 'lj', for example, is considered as a single orthographic letter, and has a representation as a single Unicode character, but as a capitalized initial, it is written 'Lj', while in an all-caps text, it is written 'LJ'. The 'Lj' form is called title case. Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ...

Contents

What to capitalize

Capitalization custom varies with language. The full rules of capitalization for English are complicated. The rules have also changed over time, generally to capitalize fewer terms; to the modern reader, an 18th century document seems to use initial capitals excessively. It is an important function of English style guides to describe the complete current rules, although there is some variation from one guide to another. It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Style guides generally give guidance on language use. ...


Pronouns

  • In English, the nominative form of the singular first-person pronoun, "I", is capitalized, along with all its contractions (I'll, I'm, etc).
  • Many European languages capitalize nouns and pronouns used to refer to God: Hallowed be Thy name. Some English authors capitalize any word referring to God: the Lamb, the Almighty.
  • Some languages capitalize the formal second-person pronoun. German Sie is capitalized along with all its declensions (Ihre, Ihres, etc.), the informal pronoun Du (and its derivatives, such as Dein) may also be capitalized in letters. Italian also capitalizes its formal pronouns, Lei and Loro, and their cases (even within words, eg arrivederLa "good bye", formal). This is occasionally likewise done for the Dutch U. In Spanish, the abbreviation of the pronoun usted, Ud. or Vd., is usually written with a capital. Similarly, in Russian the formal second-person pronoun Вы with its cases Ваш, Вашего etc. is capitalized, but only when addressing someone personally (usually in personal correspondence).
  • In Danish, the plural second-person pronoun, I, is capitalized, but its other forms jer and jeres are not. This distinguishes it from the preposition i ("in").
  • In formally written Polish (the same rules apply also in Czech and Slovak), most notably in letters and e-mails, all pronouns referring to the addressee are capitalized. This includes not only ty (you) and all its declensions (twój, ciebie etc.), but also any plural pronouns encompassing the addressee, such as wy (plural you), including declensions. This principle extends to nouns used in formal third person (when used to address the letter addressee), such as Pan (sir) and Pani (madame)[citation needed].

The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun phrase. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up formal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A written language is a language that uses a writing system to convey meaning, or more generally the written form of any language that has such written components. ... Vintage German letter balance for home use Look up letter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Grammatical person, in linguistics, is used for the grammatical categories a language uses to describe the relationship between the speaker and the persons or things she is talking about. ...

Nouns

  • In German, all nouns and noun-like words are capitalized. This was also the practice in Danish before a spelling reform in 1948. It was also done in 18th Century English (as with Gulliver's Travels).
  • In nearly all European languages, single-word proper nouns (including personal names) are capitalized, e.g., France, Moses. Multiple-word proper nouns usually follow rules like the traditional English rules for publication titles (see below), e.g., Robert the Bruce.
    • Where placenames are preceded by the definite article, this is usually lowercased, as in the Sudan, the Philippines.
      • Sometimes the article is integral to the name, and so capitalized, as in Den Haag, Le Havre. However, in French this does not occur for contractions du and au, as in "Je viens du Havre" ["I come from Le Havre"].
    • A few English names may be written with two lowercase f's: ffrench, ffoulkes, etc. This ff fossilizes an older misreading of a blackletter uppercase F.
    • Some individuals choose not to use capitals with their names, such as k.d. lang or bell hooks. E. E. Cummings, whose name is often spelt without capitals, did not spell his name so; the usage derives from the typography used on the cover of one of his books.[1]
    • Most brand names and trademarks are capitalized (e.g., Coca-Cola, Pepsi) although some have chosen to deviate from standard rules (e.g., easyJet, id Software, eBay, iPod) to be distinctive.
  • In English, the names of days of the week, months and languages are capitalized, as are demonyms like Englishman, Arab. In other languages, practice varies[1].
  • Capitalization is always used for most names of taxa used in scientific classification of living things, except for species-level taxa or below. Example: Homo sapiens sapiens.
  • A more controversial practice followed by some authors, though few if any style guides, treats the common names of some animal and plant species as proper nouns, and uses initial majuscules for them (e.g., Peregrine Falcon, Red Pine), while not capitalizing others (e.g., horse or person). This is most common for birds and fishes. Botanists generally reject the practice of capitalizing the common names of plants, though individual words of plant names may be capitalized by another rule (e.g., Italian stone pine).[citation needed] See the discussion of official common names under common name for an explanation.
  • Common nouns may be capitalized when used as names for the entire class of such things, e.g. what a piece of work is Man. French often capitalizes such nouns as l'État (the state) and l'Église (the church) when not referring to specific ones.
  • The names of gods are capitalized, including Allah, Vishnu, and God. The word god is generally not capitalized if it is used to refer to the generic idea of a deity, nor is it capitalized when it refers to multiple gods, e.g., Roman gods. There may be some confusion because the Judeo-Christian god is rarely referred to by a specific name, but simply as God (see G-d#Laws of writing divine names). Other names for the Judeo-Christian god, such as Elohim and Lord, are also capitalized.
  • While acronyms have historically been written in all-caps, modern usage is moving towards capitalization in some cases (as well as proper nouns like Unesco).

Noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Spelling reform generally attempts to introduce a logical structure connecting the spelling and pronunciation of words. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, is a novel by Jonathan Swift that is both a satire on human nature and a parody of the travellers tales literary sub-genre. ... A proper noun is a noun that picks out a unique entity. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Robert I, King of Scots, usually known as Robert the Bruce (July 11, 1274 – June 7, 1329, reigned 1306 – 1329), was, according to a modern biographer (Geoffrey Barrow), a great hero who lived in a minor country. ... Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... This article is about the city in the Netherlands; there is also a region known as (the) Hague in France. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... In French, articles and determiners are required on almost every common noun; much more so than in English. ... Blackletter in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Kathryn Dawn Lang, OC (born November 2, 1961), best known by the stage name k. ... bell hooks (born Gloria Jean Watkins on September 25, 1952) is an African-American intellectual, feminist, and social activist. ... Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), abbreviated E. E. Cummings, was an American poet, painter, essayist, and playwright. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A brand is a customer experience represented by a collection of images and ideas; often, it refers to a symbol such as a name, logo, slogan, and design scheme. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by an individual, business organization or other legal entity to uniquely identify the source of its products and/or services to consumers, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Pepsi-Cola is a soft drink commonly called Pepsi, which is produced and manufactured by PepsiCo. ... easyJet (LSE: EZJ) is a low cost airline officially known as easyJet Airline Company Limited, based at London Luton Airport. ... id Software (IPA: officially, though originally ) is an American computer game developer based in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. ... eBay headquarters in San Jose eBay North First Street satellite office campus (home to PayPal) eBay Inc. ... iPod (fifth generation) in Apple Universal Dock, iPod nano (second generation) and iPod shuffle (second generation) iPod is a brand of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple and launched in 2001. ... For the TV station in the Peoria-Bloomington, Illinois market, see WEEK-TV. A week is a unit of time longer than a day and shorter than a month. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... In science, a common name is any name by which a species or other concept is known that is not the official scientific name. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... In science, a common name is any name by which a species or other concept is known that is not the official scientific name. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Roman mythology can be considered as two parts. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Adjectives

  • In English, adjectives derived from proper nouns (except the names of characters in fictional works) usually retain their capitalization – e.g. a Christian church, Canadian whisky, a Shakespearian sonnet, but a quixotic mission, malapropism, holmesian and pecksniffian. Where the original capital is no longer at the beginning of the word, usage varies: anti-Christian, but Presocratic or Pre-Socratic or presocratic (not preSocratic)
  • Such adjectives do not receive capitals in German (sokratisch, präsokratisch), French (socratique, présocratique), Swedish (sokratisk, försokratisk) or Polish (sokratejski, presokratejski). In German, if the adjective becomes a noun by using an article or numeral in front of it (das Bunte (the colorful), eine Schöne (a beautiful)), it is capitalized like any other noun. The same applies to verbs (das Laufen (the running), ein Spazierengehen (one / a walking)).
  • Adjectives referring to nationality or ethnicity are not capitalized in French, even though nouns are: un navire canadien, a Canadian ship; un Canadien, a Canadian. Both nouns and adjectives are capitalized in English.

In grammar, an adjective is a part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun, usually by describing it or making its meaning more specific. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ...

Others

Other uses of capitalization include:

  • In most modern languages, the first word in a sentence is capitalized, as is the first word in any quoted sentence.
    • In Ancient Greek they are not and sometimes not in Latin, if it is written with miniscules at all.
    • For some terms a capital as first letter is avoided by avoiding their use at the beginning of a sentence, or by writing it in lowercase even at the beginning of a sentence. E.g., pH looks unfamiliar written PH, and m and M may even have different meanings, milli and mega.
    • In Dutch, ’t, d’, or ’s in names or sayings are never capitalized, even at the start of sentences. (See Compound names below).
  • Most English honorifics and titles of persons, e.g. Doctor Watson, Mrs Jones, His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh.
    • This does not apply where the words are not titles; e.g. Watson is a doctor, Philip is a duke.
  • Traditionally, the first word of each line in a piece of verse, e.g.:
      Meanwhile the winged Heralds, by command
    Of sovereign power, with awful ceremony
    And trumpet's sound, throughout the host proclaim
    A solemn council forthwith to be held
    At Pandemonium, the high capital
    Of Satan and his peers. […]
    (Milton, Paradise Lost I:752–756)
  • The English vocative particle O, an archaic form of address, e.g. Thou, O king, art a king of kings.

In English, there even are few words whose meaning (and, sometimes, pronunciation) varies with capitalization. See: List of case sensitive English words. A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetical value. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Milli (symbol m) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-3, or 1/1,000. ... mega- (symbol M) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 106, i. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... Verse is a writing that uses meter as its primary organisational mode, as opposed to prose, which uses grammatical and discoursal units like sentences and paragraphs. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Title page of the first edition (1667) Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. ... Mountebanks ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ... This page lists pairs of English words (excluding proper names and abbreviations) with different meaning only distinguished by capitalization. ...


How to capitalize

Headings and publication titles

The Times of India front-page house style emphasizes main headlines through boldface and sub headlines through capitalization of all words. For the title, it uses both all-uppercase letters and boldface.

In English-language publications, different conventions are used for capitalizing words in publication titles and headlines, including chapter and section headings. The rules differ substantially between individual house styles. The main examples are (from most to least capitals used): Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1268 × 950 pixel, file size: 271 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Front page of the Mumbai edition of the Times of India, Friday 2007-01-12, which shows different house-style conventions for capitalizing main and sub... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1268 × 950 pixel, file size: 271 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Front page of the Mumbai edition of the Times of India, Friday 2007-01-12, which shows different house-style conventions for capitalizing main and sub... The Common Man featured on a commemorative stamp released by the Indian Postal Service on the 150th Anniversary of the Times of India - 1988. ... A publishing companys or periodicals house style is the collection of conventions in its manual of style. ... In typography, emphasis is the exaggeration of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text—to emphasize them. ... A headline is text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the article below it. ... Bold Bold, see Bold (disambiguation). ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... A headline is text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the article below it. ... The word heading has various meanings: A heading is used to provide hierarchical information about other information. ... A publishing companys or periodicals house style is the collection of conventions in its manual of style. ...

THE VITAMINS ARE IN MY FRESH BRUSSELS SPROUTS 
all-uppercase letters
The Vitamins Are In My Fresh Brussels Sprouts 
capitalization of all words ("Title Case"), regardless of the part of speech
The Vitamins Are in My Fresh Brussels Sprouts 
capitalization of all words, except for internal articles, prepositions and conjunctions
The Vitamins are in My Fresh Brussels Sprouts 
capitalization of all words, except for internal articles, prepositions, conjunctions and forms of to be
The Vitamins are in my Fresh Brussels Sprouts 
capitalization of all words, except for internal closed-class words
The Vitamins are in my fresh Brussels Sprouts 
capitalization of all nouns
The vitamins are in my fresh Brussels sprouts 
sentence-style capitalization (sentence case), only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized
the vitamins are in my fresh Brussels sprouts 
capitalization of proper nouns only
the vitamins are in my fresh brussels sprouts 
all-lowercase letters

Among U.S. publishers, it is a common typographic practice to capitalize additional words in titles. This is an old form of emphasis, similar to the more modern practice of using a larger or boldface font for titles. Most capitalize all words except for internal closed-class words, or internal articles, prepositions and conjunctions. Some capitalize longer prepositions such as "between", but not shorter ones. Some capitalize only nouns, others capitalize all words. In grammar, a part of speech or word class is defined as the role that a word (or sometimes a phrase) plays in a sentence. ... // An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... A closed word class, in linguistics, is a word class to which no new items can normally be added, and that usually contains a relatively small number of items. ... Noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Sentence case in a general sense describes the way that capitalization is used within a sentence. ... A proper noun is a noun that picks out a unique entity. ... A proper noun is a noun that picks out a unique entity. ... In typography, emphasis is the exaggeration of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text—to emphasize them. ...


The convention followed by many British publishers (particularly scientific publishers, like Nature and New Scientist, and newspapers, like The Guardian and The Times) is the same used in other languages (e.g. French), namely to use sentence-style capitalization in titles and headlines, where capitalization follows the same rules that apply for sentences. This is also widely used in the U.S., especially in bibliographic references and library catalogues. This convention is also used in the International Organization for Standardization and Wikipedia house styles. Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards bodies. ...


One of the very few British style guides that do actually mention a form of title case is R.M. Ritter's "Oxford Manual of Style" (2002), which suggests capitalising "the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs, but generally not articles, conjunctions and short prepositions".[2]


Book titles are often emphasized on cover and title pages through the use of all-uppercase letters. Both British and U.S. publishers use this convention.


In creative typography, such as music record covers and other artistic material, all styles are commonly encountered, including all-lowercase letters.


Compound names

  • In German, the particle "von" (meaning "of", pronounced "fonn") in a surname is not capitalized (unless it is the first letter of a sentence), e.g. Alexander von Humboldt.
  • In Dutch, the particle "van" in a surname is not capitalized, either, if a forename or initial precedes it (it is, however, capitalized in Flemish, except when introducing a title of nobility or when use of the lower case has been granted to some noble family). So
    • "Onder de Franse zuiderzon maakt Vincent van Gogh zijn meest ophefmakende werken." without the forename Vincent would be
    • "Onder de Franse zuiderzon maakt Van Gogh zijn meest ophefmakende werken."
  • In Dutch, ’t, d’, or ’s in names or sayings are never capitalized, even at the start of sentences. They are short for the articles het and de (or the old possessive form des). Capitalization (e.g. at the start of a sentence) applies to the next word. Examples: ’s Gravenhage (from des Graven Hage), d’Eendracht (from de Eendracht), ’t Theehuis (from het Theehuis).
  • In English, practice varies when the name starts with a particle with a meaning such as "from" or "the" or "son of".
    • Some of these particles (Mac, Mc, M, O) are always capitalized; others (L, Van) are usually capitalized; still others often are not (d', de, di, von). The compound particle de La is usually written with the 'L' capitalized but not the 'd'. [2]
    • The remaining part of such a name, following the particle, is always capitalized if it is set off with a space as a separate word, or if the particle was not capitalized. It is normally capitalized if the particle is Mc, M, or O. In other cases (including Mac), there is no set rule.

The term Flemish language can designate: the official language of Flanders, which is Dutch with only very small variations; any of the regional dialects of Dutch spoken in Belgium; these are more different from Dutch than the official language of Flanders; one of these dialects, the West Flemish. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... // An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ...

Accents

In most languages which use diacritics, these are treated the same way in uppercase whether the text is capitalized or all-uppercase. They may be always preserved (as in German) or always omitted (as, often, in French and Spanish, though this was due to the fact that diacritics on capital letters were not available earlier on typewriters and is now an uncommon practice). A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...

  • However, in the polytonic orthography used for Greek prior to 1982, accents were omitted in all-uppercase words, but kept as part of an uppercase initial (written before rather than above the letter). The latter situation is provided for by title-case characters in Unicode. When Greek is written with the present day monotonic orthography, where only the acute accent is used, the same rule is applied. The accent is omitted in all-uppercase words but it is kept as part of an uppercase initial (written before the letter rather than above it).

Example of polytonic text from a Byzantine manuscript, of 1020 AD Polytonic orthography for Greek uses a variety of diacritics (πολύ = many + τόνος = accent) to represent aspects of Ancient Greek pronunciation. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Monotonic orthography is the simplified way for spelling modern Greek introduced in 1982. ...

Digraphs and ligatures

Some languages treat certain digraphs as letters. In general, where one such is formed as a ligature, the corresponding uppercase form is used in capitalization; where it is written as two separate characters, only the first will be capitalized. Thus Oedipus or Œdipus are both correct, but OEdipus is not. Examples with ligature include Ærøskøbing in Danish, where Æ/æ is a letter rather than a merely typographic ligature; with separate characters include Llanelli in Welsh, where Ll is a single letter. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... Oedipus with the Sphinx, from an Attic red-figure cylix from the Vatican Museum, ca. ... Ærøskøbing is a town in central Denmark, located in Ærøskøbing municipality on the island of Ærø. Its geographical location is 54° 53′ 30″ N 10° 24′ 45″ E. Population was 978 in 2003. ... n. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Parish Church of St. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... LL may stand for: LL is the IATA code for Lineas Aeras Allegro airline LL is the production code for the Doctor Who serial The Evil of the Daleks. ...

  • An exception is the Dutch letter IJ. Originally a ligature (ij/IJ), both components are capitalized even though they are now usually printed separately, as in IJsselmeer. A less-used practice is the letter Y as an alternative to the ligature, e.g. Ysselmeer. This is still used in cursive writing and in inscriptions.
  • A converse exception exists in the Croatian alphabet, where digraph letters (Dž, Lj, Nj) have mixed-case forms even when written as ligatures[3]. With typewriters and computers, these "title-case" forms have become less common than 2-character equivalents; nevertheless they can be represented as single title-case characters in Unicode (Dž, Lj, Nj).

The words “ijsvrij” and “yoghurt” in various forms of handwriting. ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... Cursive is any style of handwriting which is designed for writing down notes and letters by hand. ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... The Croatian alphabet is a modified and extended version of the Latin alphabet which is used in Croatian language. ... Dž (lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Croatian and Serbian (Latin form) alphabets, after D and before Đ. It is pronounced as . ... Lj in uper- and lowercase LJ is also an abbreviation for LiveJournal Lj (lj in lower case) is a letter present in some Slavic languages such as Serbian and Croatian, where it is pronounced (IPA) . For example, the word ljiljan is pronounced . ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ...

Initial mutation

In languages where inflected forms of a word may have extra letters at the start, the capitalized letter may be the initial of the root form rather of than the inflected form. For example, Slievenamon is in Irish written Sliabh na mBan ("women's mountain", where mBan derives from Bean, "woman"), even though the B is in fact mute in the derived form. This article is in need of attention. ... Consonant mutation is the phenomenon in which a consonant in a word is changed according to its morphological and/or syntactic environment. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Irish, like all modern Celtic languages, is characterized by its initial consonant mutations. ... In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the words pronunciation. ...


Online use

Many online communities tolerate or encourage greater deviation from capitalization conventions than their members would use in non-electronic media. The most common variation is to use lowercase letters exclusively, often with the intention of conveying a relaxed, informal attitude, or eliminate the delays in typing the capitalized letters. More extreme styles also exist, ranging all the way to seemingly random capitalization of each individual letter (see StUdLyCaPs). A virtual community is a group whose members are connected by means of information technologies, typically the Internet. ... StudlyCaps (or perhaps StUdLyCaPs) is a variation of CamelCase in which the individual letters in a word (or many) are capitalized and not capitalized, either at random or alternating in some pattern. ...


See also

In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between majuscule (capital or upper-case) and minuscule (lower-case) letters. ... Sentence case in a general sense describes the way that capitalization is used within a sentence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ... Internet Capitalization Conventions refer to the long-standing debate on whether to write Internet or internet. In formal usage, Internet is traditionally written with a capital first letter. ...

References

  1. ^ Capitalization rules for days, months, demonyms and language-names in many languages from Wikimedia
  2. ^ a b Oxford Manual of Style, R. M. Ritter ed., Oxford University Press, 2002
  3. ^ Vladimir Anić, Josip Silić: "Pravopisni priručnik hrvatskog ili srpskog jezika", Zagreb, 1986 (trans. Spelling handbook of Croato-Serbian language)

The Wikimedia Foundation Inc. ... Zagreb (pronounced ) is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, was an official language of Yugoslavia (along with Slovenian and Macedonian). ...

External links


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