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Encyclopedia > Capital punishment
This article is part of the
Capital punishment series
Issues

Debate
Religious views
Wrongful execution Look up execution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital Punishment is an album by Big Pun, recorded in 1998. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is often the subject of controversy. ... Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of capital punishment. ... Capital punishment Wrongful execution is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. The possibility of wrongful executions is one of the arguments presented by the opponents of capital punishment; other arguments include failing to deter crime more than...

By region

Australia Brazil Canada China
Europe France Germany India
Italy Iraq Japan Malaysia
Pakistan Philippines
Russia Taiwan United Kingdom
United States
More... The only countries in Europe that havent abolished the death penalty yet is Albania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Russia. ...

Methods

Decapitation
Electrocution
Firing squad
Gas chamber
Hanging
Lethal injection
Shooting
More... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... The Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Execution by shooting is a form of capital punishment whereby an executed person is shot by a firearm or firearms. ... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ...

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Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the execution of a person by the state as punishment for a crime. Crimes that can result in a death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences. The term capital origins from Latin capitalis, literally "regarding the head" (Latin caput). Hence, a capital crime originally was to be punished by the loss of the head. For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ...


Historically, the execution of criminals and political opponents was used by nearly all societies—both to punish crime and to suppress political dissent. In most places that practice capital punishment today, the death penalty is reserved as punishment for premeditated murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery and sodomy, carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as apostasy (the formal renunciation of the State religion). In many retentionist countries (countries that use the death penalty), drug trafficking is also a capital offense. In China human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are also punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offenses such as cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny.[1] For other uses, see Crime (disambiguation). ... Individual rights Free speech, free press Soap box, Speakers corner (Hyde Park), blog (weblog) prior restraint, censorship, self-censorship, censor Right to assembly Gay rights, Stonewall Feminism, ERA, equal pay, Title IX Famous political dissenters Gandhi Steve Biko Nelson Mandela Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... At one time capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe, but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... Cowardice is a vice that is conventionally viewed as the corruption of prudence, to thwart all courage or bravery. ... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ...


Among countries around the world, almost all European and many Pacific Area states (including Australia, New Zealand and Timor Leste), and Canada have abolished capital punishment. In Latin America, most states have completely abolished the use of capital punishment, while some countries, such as Brazil, allow for capital punishment only in exceptional situations, such as treason committed during wartime. The United States (the federal government and 36 of its states), Guatemala, most of the Caribbean and the majority of democracies in Asia (e.g. Japan and India) and Africa (e.g. Botswana and Zambia) retain it. South Africa, which is probably the most developed African nation, and which has been a democracy since 1994, does not have the death penalty. This fact is currently quite controversial in that country, due to the high levels of violent crime, including murder and rape.[2] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, consisting of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, a political exclave of East Timor situated on the western side of... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Capital punishment is a contentious issue in some cultures. Supporters of capital punishment argue that it deters crime, prevents recidivism, that it is less expensive than life imprisonment[citation needed] and is an appropriate form of punishment for some crimes. Opponents of capital punishment argue that it has led to the execution of wrongfully convicted, that it discriminates against minorities and the poor, that it does not deter criminals more than life imprisonment, that it encourages a "culture of violence", that it is more expensive than life imprisonment[citation needed], and that it violates human rights. Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ... This article is about recidivism in criminology and penology. ... Capital punishment Wrongful execution is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. The possibility of wrongful executions is one of the arguments presented by the opponents of capital punishment; other arguments include failing to deter crime more than... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ... Life imprisonment is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, nominally for the entire remaining life of the prisoner, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 50 years) a prisoner may be incarcerated, or require the... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The latest countries to abolish the death penalty de facto for all crimes were Gabon, which announced on September 14, 2007 that they would no longer apply capital punishment[3] and South Korea in practice on December 31, 2007 after ten years of disuse. The latest to abolish executions de jure was Uzbekistan on January 1, 2008. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Criminal procedure
Criminal trials and convictions
Rights of the accused
Fair trial  · Speedy trial  · Jury trial
Counsel  · Presumption of innocence
Exclusionary rule (U.S.)
Self-incrimination  · Double jeopardy
Verdict
Acquittal  · Conviction
Not proven (Scot.)  · Directed verdict
Sentencing
Mandatory  · Suspended  · Custodial
Dangerous offender (Can.)
Capital punishment  · Execution warrant
Cruel and unusual punishment
Post-conviction events
Parole  · Probation
Tariff (UK)  · Life licence (UK)
Miscarriage of justice
Exoneration  · Pardon
Related areas of law
Criminal defenses
Criminal law  · Evidence
Civil procedure
Portals: Law  · Criminal justice

Contents

Image File history File links Scale_of_justice_2. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... Headline text The rights of the accused is a class of rights in that apply to a person in the time period between when they are formally accused of a crime and when they are either convicted or acquitted. ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jury. ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... In United States constitutional law, the exclusionary rule is a legal principle holding that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the U.S. Constitution is inadmissible for a criminal prosecution in a court of law (that is, it cannot be used in a criminal trial). ... Self-incrimination is the act of accusing oneself of a crime for which a person can then be prosecuted. ... For other uses, see Double jeopardy (disambiguation). ... In law, a verdict indicates the judgment of a case before a court of law. ... In criminal law, an acquittal is the legal result of a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict of guilty being entered against the accused. ... In law, a conviction is the verdict which results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of committing a crime. ... Not proven is a verdict available to a court in Scotland. ... In U.S. law, a directed verdict is an order from the judge presiding over a jury trial that one side or the other wins. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... A mandatory sentence is a judicial decision setting the punishment to be inflicted on a person convicted of a crime where judicial discretion is limited by law. ... A suspended sentence is a legal construct. ... A custodial sentence is a judicial sentence, imposing a punishment (and hence the resulting punishment itself) consisting of mandatory custody of the convict, either in prison (incarceration) or in some other closed therapeutic and/or (re)educational institution, such as a reformatory, (maximum security) psychiatry or drug detoxication (especially cold... In the Canadian legal system, the dangerous offender designation allows the courts to impose an indefinite sentence on a convicted person, regardless of whether the crime carries a life sentence or not. ... An execution warrant is a warrant which authorizes the execution or capital punishment of an individual. ... Cruel And Unusual redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Medical parole be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Under British criminal law, a tariff is the minimum period that a person serving an indefinite prison sentence must serve before that person becomes eligible for parole. ... Life licence is a term used in the British criminal justice system for the conditions under which a prisoner sentenced to life in jail may be released. ... A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that he or she did not commit. ... Exoneration occurs when a perason waho hars beoen convaicted osf ah crieme irs laeter proved to have been innocent of that crime. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ...

Contemporary use

Global distribution

Since World War II there has been a consistent trend towards abolishing the death penalty. In 1977, 16 countries were abolitionist. As of January 1 2008, 92 countries had abolished capital punishment altogether, 10 had done so for all offences except under special circumstances, and 33 others had not used it for at least 10 years - while 62 countries actively retained the death penalty. [4] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


At least 3,000 people (and probably considerably more) were sentenced to death during 2007, and at the end of the year around 25,000 were on death row around the world, with Pakistan and the USA accounting for about half this figure between them. China carries out by far the greatest number of actual executions - while Amnesty International has confirmed at least 470 executions there during 2007 the true figure has been estimated at up to 6,000. Outside China, at least 800 people were put to death in 23 countries during 2007, with Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iraq and the USA the main contributors. Iran, Saudi Arabia and Yemen executed people for crimes committed when they were juveniles, in contravention of international law. [5]


Executions are known to have been carried out in the following countries in 2007[6]:

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Botswana, China, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Kuwait, Libya, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, USA, Viet Nam, Yemen.

In 2007 the largest number of verifiable executions were carried out in the six countries listed below (note though that wih the exception of the US, the figures for other countries are believed to be under-estimates):


Most Executions carried out in 2007

Country Number
China 470+
Iran 317+
Saudi Arabia 143+
Pakistan 135+
USA 42
Iraq 33+
1. Based on publicly available reports. Other sources suggest the real tally in China for example may be as high as 6,000.[6]


The use of the death penalty is becoming increasingly restrained in retentionist countries. Singapore, Japan, Taiwan and the U.S. are the only fully developed countries that have retained the death penalty. The death penalty was overwhelmingly practiced in poor and authoritarian states, which often employed the death penalty as a tool of political oppression. During the 1980s, the democratization of Latin America swelled the rank of abolitionist countries. This was soon followed by the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, which then aspired to enter the EU. In these countries, the public support for the death penalty varies but it is decreasing [7].[citation needed] The European Union and the Council of Europe both strictly require member states not to practice the death penalty (see Capital punishment in Europe). On the other hand, rapid industrialization in Asia has been increasing the number of developed retentionist countries . In these countries, the death penalty enjoys strong public support, and the matter receives little attention from the government or the media. This trend has been followed by some African and Middle Eastern countries where support for the death penalty is high. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... // The flag of the Council of Europe and the European Union. ... The only countries in Europe that havent abolished the death penalty yet is Albania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Russia. ...


Some countries have resumed practicing the death penalty after having suspended executions for long periods. Notably, the United States suspended executions in 1973 but resumed them in 1977; there was no execution in India between 1995 and 2004; and Sri Lanka recently declared an end to its moratorium on the death penalty, although it has not yet performed any executions. The Philippines had re-introduced the death penalty in 1993 after abolishing it in 1987, but abolished it again in 2006. Look up Moratorium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Use of the death penalty around the world (as of Sep. 2007).      Abolished for all offenses (91)      Abolished for all offenses except under special circumstances (11)      Retains, though not used for at least 10 years (32)      Retains death penalty (64)* *Note that, while laws vary between U.S. states, it is considered retentionist because the federal death penalty is still in active use.
Use of the death penalty around the world (as of Sep. 2007).
     Abolished for all offenses (91)      Abolished for all offenses except under special circumstances (11)      Retains, though not used for at least 10 years (32)      Retains death penalty (64)* *Note that, while laws vary between U.S. states, it is considered retentionist because the federal death penalty is still in active use.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 106 KB) Alternate version with Belarus fixed and individual US states coloured. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 106 KB) Alternate version with Belarus fixed and individual US states coloured. ... At one time the death penalty was used in almost every part of the globe; but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...

In specific countries

See also: Use of capital punishment by nation

For further information about capital punishment in these nations, see: Australia · Belarus · Canada · People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Macau) · Denmark · Europe · France · India · Iraq · Japan · The Netherlands · New Zealand ·Pakistan· Philippines · Russia · Singapore · Sweden · Taiwan · United Kingdom · United States At one time capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe, but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ... The only countries in Europe that havent abolished the death penalty yet is Albania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Russia. ... Capital punishment (Doodstraf in Dutch) in the Netherlands was first abolished in 1870, though only in criminal law, by the Dutch justice minister Van Lilaar. ...


Juvenile offenders

The death penalty for juvenile offenders (criminals aged under 18 years at the time of their crime) has become increasingly rare. The only countries still officially supporting the practice are Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia,[citation needed]. Since 1990, nine countries have executed offenders who were juveniles at the time of their crimes; China, D.R. Congo, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, the United States and Yemen. China, Pakistan, the United States and Yemen have since raised the minimum age to 18.[8] Amnesty International has recorded 54 verified executions since then, in several countries, of both juveniles and adults who had been convicted of committing their offenses as juveniles.[9] China does not allow for the execution of those under 18; nevertheless, child executions have reportedly taken place.[10] The United States Supreme Court abolished capital punishment for offenders under the age of 16 in Thompson v. Oklahoma (1988), and for all juveniles in Roper v. Simmons (2005). Starting in 1642 within British America, an estimated 365[11] juvenile offenders were executed by the states and federal government of the United States.[12] In 2002, the United States Supreme Court declared unconstitutional the execution of individuals with mental retardation.[13] Teen redirects here. ... Motto: Justice – Paix – Travail(French) Justice – Peace – Work Anthem: Debout Congolais Capital (and largest city) Kinshasaa Official languages French Recognised regional languages Lingala, Kongo/Kituba, Swahili, Tshiluba Demonym Congolese Government Semi-Presidential Republic  -  President Joseph Kabila  -  Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga Independence  -  from Belgium June 30, 1960  Area  -  Total 2,344... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Holding The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 16 when their crimes were committed. ... Holding The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed. ... British America may refer to: British North America, former British possessions in North America north of the United States, eventually consolidating into Canada British overseas territories in the Americas; also see British West Indies This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ...


The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which forbids capital punishment for juveniles, has been signed and ratified by all countries except for the United States and Somalia.[14] The UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights maintains that the death penalty for juveniles has become contrary to a jus cogens of customary international law. UN redirects here. ... Convention on the Rights of the Child Opened for signature 20 November 1989 in - Entered into force September 2, 1990 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications or accessions (Article 49) Parties 193 (only 2 non-parties: USA and Somalia) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens, Latin for compelling law) is a fundamental principle of international law considered to have acceptance among the international community of states as a whole. ... Customary international law Unwritten law applied to the behaviour of nations. ...


Methods

Main article: List of methods of capital punishment

There are several methods of execution, including: decapitation, electrocution, the firing squad or other sorts of shooting, the gas chamber, hanging, and lethal injection. Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... The Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... Execution by shooting is a form of capital punishment whereby an executed person is shot by a firearm or firearms. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...


Wrongful executions

Main article: Wrongful execution

"Wrongful execution" is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment.[15] Many people have been heralded as innocent victims of the death penalty.[16][17][18] At least 39 executions have been carried out in the U.S. in face of compelling evidence of innocence or serious doubt about guilt.[19] Newly-available DNA evidence has allowed the exoneration of more than 15 death row inmates since 1992 in the U.S.,[20] but DNA evidence is only available in a fraction of capital cases. In the UK, reviews prompted by the Criminal Cases Review Commission have resulted in one pardon and three exonerations with compensation paid for people executed between 1950 and 1953, when the execution rate in England and Wales averaged 17 per year. Capital punishment Wrongful execution is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. The possibility of wrongful executions is one of the arguments presented by the opponents of capital punishment; other arguments include failing to deter crime more than... A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that he or she did not commit. ... Genetic fingerprinting, DNA testing, DNA typing, and DNA profiling are techniques used to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ... Exoneration occurs when a perason waho hars beoen convaicted osf ah crieme irs laeter proved to have been innocent of that crime. ... For information about the Record company see Death Row Records For information about the computer game see Deathrow (game) Death Row is a term that refers to the section of a prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. ... The Criminal Cases Review Commission is the independent public body set up to investigate possible miscarriages of justice in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ...


History

The use of formal execution extends at least to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records as well as various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing generally included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning, banishment and execution. However, within a small community, crimes were rare and murder was almost always a crime of passion. Moreover, most would hesitate to inflict death on a member of the community. For this reason, execution and even banishment were extremely rare. Usually, compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice.[citation needed] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain and suffering intended to change a persons behavior or to punish them. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... A crime of passion, in popular usage, refers to a crime in which the perpetrator commits a crime, specially assault or murder, against a spouse or other loved one due to sudden jealous rage or heartbreak rather than as a premeditated crime. ...

Waiting to be shot in Gulag. Painting by Nikolai Getman, provided by Jamestown Foundation

However, these are not effective responses to crimes committed by outsiders. Consequently, even small crimes committed by outsiders were considered to be an assault on the community and were severely punished.[citation needed] The methods varied from beating and enslavement to executions. However, the response to crime committed by neighbouring tribes or communities included formal apology, compensation or blood feuds. Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Getmans painting of Nagaevo, Magadans port Nikolai Getman (Russian: , Ukrainian: ), an artist, was born in 1917 in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and died in Orel, Russia, in 2004. ... The Jamestown Foundation (founded 1984) is an American think tank whose mission is to inform and educate policy makers about events and trends which are current strategic importance to the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organised religion. It may result from crime, land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies (as well as potential allies) that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished."[21] However, in practice, it is often difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ... A code of honour is an unwritten rule in a society, often influenced by culture, religion, and popculture. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


For most of recorded history, capital punishments were often cruel and inhumane. Severe historical penalties include breaking wheel, boiling to death, flaying, slow slicing, disembowelment, crucifixion, impalement, crushing (including crushing by elephant), stoning, execution by burning, dismemberment, sawing, decapitation, scaphism, or necklacing. The breaking at the wheel) was a form of punishment used during the english civil war. ... Boiling to death is a method of capital punishment. ... Michelangelos Last Judgment - Saint Bartholomew holding the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin Flaying is the removal of skin from the body. ... Slow slicing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , alternately transliterated Ling Chi or Leng Tche), also translated as the slow process, the lingering death, or death by/of a thousand cuts, is a form of execution used in China from roughly CE 900 to its abolition in 1905. ... Disembowelment is evisceration, or the removing of some or all of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see impale. ... Death by crushing or pressing is a method of execution which has a long history during which the techniques used varied greatly from place to place. ... A condemned prisoner being dismembered by an elephant in Ceylon. ... Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of capital punishment execution method carried out by an organized group throwing stones or rocks at the person they mean to execute. ... Jan Hus burned at the stake Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). ... Dismemberment is the act of cutting, tearing, pulling, wrenching or otherwise removing, the limbs of a living thing. ... Delinquent sawed in two (Drawing by Lucas Cranach the Elder) Delinquent sawed in two while other condemned watch (Mediaeval drawing) Example of a two-man saw used for execution This article describes the method of execution. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Scaphism, also known as the boats, is an ancient Persian method of execution designed to inflict torturous death. ... Necklacing (sometimes metonymically called Necklace) refers to the practice of execution carried out by forcing a rubber tire, filled with gasoline, around a victims chest and arms, and setting it on fire. ...


Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements often done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material (e.g. cattle, slave) compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution. The person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the system was based on tribes, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Viking things.[22] Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts (e.g. trial by combat). One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. Blood money is money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... 1540s depiction of a 1409 judicial combat in Augsburg (Paulus Hector Mair, Munich cod. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ...


In certain parts of the world, nations in the form of ancient republics, monarchies or tribal oligarchies emerged. These nations were often united by common linguistic, religious or family ties. Moreover, expansion of these nations often occurred by conquest of neighbouring tribes or nations. Consequently, various classes of royalty, nobility, various commoners and slave emerged. Accordingly, the systems of tribal arbitration were submerged into a more unified system of justice which formalised the relation between the different "classes" rather than "tribes". The earliest and most famous example is Code of Hammurabi which set the different punishment and compensation according to the different class/group of victims and perpetrators. The Torah (Jewish Law), also known as the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Christian Old Testament), lays down the death penalty for murder, kidnapping, magic, violation of the Sabbath, blasphemy, and a wide range of sexual crimes, although evidence suggests that actual executions were rare.[23] A further example comes from Ancient Greece, where the Athenian legal system was first written down by Draco in about 621 BC: the death penalty was applied for a particularly wide range of crimes. The word draconian derives from Draco's laws. An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Draco (IPA pronunciation: ; from Greek , IPA ) was the first legislator of ancient Athens, Greece, 7th century BC. // Very little is known of his life. ...


Similarly, in medieval and early modern Europe, before the development of modern prison systems, the death penalty was also used as a generalized form of punishment. For example, in 1700s Britain, there were 222 crimes which were punishable by death, including crimes such as cutting down a tree or stealing an animal.[24] Thanks to the notorious Bloody Code, 18th century (and early 19th century) Britain was a hazardous place to live. For example, Michael Hammond and his sister, Ann, whose ages were given as 7 and 11, were reportedly hanged at King's Lynn on Wednesday, the 28 September 1708 for theft. The local press did not, however, consider the executions of two children newsworthy.[25] Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ... The Bloody Code was a system of laws and punishments in England from between the 1700s to mid 1800s. ... , Kings Lynn is a town and port in Norfolk, England. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... A young waif steals a pair of boots Stealing redirects here. ...


Although many are executed in China each year in the modern age, there was a time in Tang Dynasty China when the death penalty was actually abolished altogether.[26] This was in the year 747, enacted by Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 712–756), who before was the only person in China with the authority to sentence criminals to execution. Even then capital punishment was relatively infrequent, with only 24 executions in the year 730 and 58 executions in the year 736.[26] Two hundred years later there was a form of execution called Ling Chi, slow slicing, or death by/of a thousand cuts, used in China from roughly 900 CE to its abolition in 1905. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Abolition is the act of formally destroying something through legal means, either by making it illegal, or simply no longer allowing it to exist in any form. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born LÄ­ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... Slow slicing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , alternately transliterated Ling Chi or Leng Tche), also translated as the slow process, the lingering death, or death by/of a thousand cuts, is a form of execution used in China from roughly CE 900 to its abolition in 1905. ...


Despite its wide use, calls for reform were not unknown. The 12th century Sephardic legal scholar, Moses Maimonides, wrote, "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent man to death." He argued that executing an accused criminal on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely "according to the judge's caprice." His concern was maintaining popular respect for law, and he saw errors of commission as much more threatening than errors of omission. In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... In the common law, burden of proof is the obligation to prove allegations which are presented in a legal action. ...


The last several centuries have seen the emergence of modern nation-states. Almost fundamental to the concept of nation state is the idea of citizenship. This caused justice to be increasingly associated with equality and universality, which in Europe saw an emergence of the concept of natural rights. Another important aspect is that emergence of standing police forces and permanent penitential institutions. The death penalty become an increasingly unnecessary deterrent in prevention of minor crimes such as theft. Additionally, in countries like Britain, law enforcement officials became alarmed when juries tended to acquit non-violent felons rather than risk a conviction that could result in execution.[citation needed] The 20th century was one of the bloodiest of the human history. Massive killing occurred as the resolution of war between nation-states. A large part of execution was summary execution of enemy combatants. Also, modern military organisations employed capital punishment as a means of maintaining military discipline. In the past, cowardice, absence without leave, desertion, insubordination, looting, shirking under enemy fire and disobeying orders were often crimes punishable by death. One method of execution since firearms came into common use has almost invariably been firing squad. Moreover, various authoritarian states—for example those with fascist or communist governments—employed the death penalty as a potent means of political oppression. Partly as a response to such excessive punishment, civil organisations have started to place increasing emphasis on the concept of human rights and abolition of the death penalty. For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ... Cowardice is a vice that is conventionally viewed as the corruption of prudence, to thwart all courage or bravery. ... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ...


Movements towards humane execution

In early New England, public executions were a very solemn and sorrowful occasion, sometimes attended by large crowds, who also listened to a Gospel message[27] and remarks by local preachers and politicians. The Connecticut Courant records one such public execution on December 1, 1803, saying, "The assembly conducted through the whole in a very orderly and solemn manner, so much so, as to occasion an observing gentleman acquainted with other countries as well as this, to say that such an assembly, so decent and solemn, could not be collected anywhere but in New England."[28] Portrait of Dr. Guillotine This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Portrait of Dr. Guillotine This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Portrait of Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin (May 28, 1738 – March 26, 1814) proposed on October 10, 1789 the use of a mechanical device to carry out death penalties in France . ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and is a morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Trends in most of the world have long been to move to less painful, or more humane, executions. France developed the guillotine for this reason in the final years of the 18th century while Britain banned drawing and quartering in the early 19th century. Hanging by turning the victim off a ladder or by dangling him from the back of a moving cart, which causes death by suffocation, was replaced by "hanging" where the subject is dropped a longer distance to dislocate the neck and sever the spinal cord. In the U.S., the electric chair and the gas chamber were introduced as more humane alternatives to hanging, but have been almost entirely superseded by lethal injection, which in turn has been criticized as being too painful. Nevertheless, some countries still employ slow hanging methods, beheading by sword and even stoning, although the latter is rarely employed.[citation needed] This article is about the decapitation device. ... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of capital punishment execution method carried out by an organized group throwing stones or rocks at the person they mean to execute. ...


Execution by nitrogen asphyxiation was proposed in 1995 and appears occasionally in online discussions, but as of 2008, it has not been used by any nation. Nitrogen asphyxiation is a theoretical method of capital punishment advocated by Stuart A. Creque in a 1995 article in National Review, Killing with kindness - capital punishment by nitrogen asphyxiation. The painful experience of suffocation is not caused by lack of oxygen intake but rather because of a buildup of carbon...

See also: Cruel and unusual punishment

Cruel And Unusual redirects here. ...

Abolitionism

The death penalty was briefly banned in China between 747 and 759. In England, a public statement of opposition was included in The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards, written in 1395. More recent opposition to the death penalty stemmed from the book of the Italian Cesare Beccaria Dei Delitti e Delle Pene ("On Crimes and Punishments"), published in 1764. In this book, Beccaria aimed to demonstrate not only the injustice, but even the futility from the point of view of social welfare, of torture and the death penalty. Influenced by the book, Grand Duke Leopold II of Habsburg, famous enlightened monarch and future Emperor of Austria, abolished the death penalty in the then-independent Granducato di Toscana (Grand Duchy of Tuscany), the first permanent abolition in modern times. On 30 November 1786, after having de facto blocked capital executions (the last was in 1769), Leopold promulgated the reform of the penal code that abolished the death penalty and ordered the destruction of all the instruments for capital execution in his land. In 2000 Tuscany's regional authorities instituted an annual holiday on 30 November to commemorate the event. The event is also commemorated on this day by 300 cities around the world celebrating the Cities for Life Day. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana (March 15, 1738 – November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology. ... The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards are preserved in their original English form (other Latin summaries survive) in Roger Dymoks Against the Twelve Heresies of the Lollards, an elaborate refutation of each of the heresies, written in 1396-97 for Richard II. The original conclusions were presented to parliament... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ... Social policy is the study of the welfare state, and the range of responses to social need. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... On the Cities for Life Day, November 30, 573 cities[1] around the world celebrate the first abolition of the death penalty by a European state, decreed by Peter Leopold Joseph of Habsburg-Lorraine in 1786 for his Grand Duchy of Tuscany. ...

Peter Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, by Joseph Hickel, 1769
Peter Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, by Joseph Hickel, 1769

Abolition of the death penalty was not common and was viewed as unnecessary. The Roman Republic went out on a limb and banned capital punishment. In 1849, this made the Roman Republic the first ever to ban capital punishment. However, Venezuela followed suit and in 1863 abolished the death penalty and San Marino did so in 1865. The last execution in San Marino had taken place in 1468. In Portugal, after two legislative proposals, in 1852 and 1863, the death penalty was abolished in 1867. Military flag of the Roman Republic. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ...


In Great Britain, it was abolished (except for cases of treason) in 1971; France abolished it in 1981. Canada abolished it in 1976; Australia 1985. In 1977, the United Nations General Assembly affirmed in a formal resolution that throughout the world, it is desirable to "progressively restrict the number of offenses for which the death penalty might be imposed, with a view to the desirability of abolishing this punishment".[29]


In the United States, the state of Michigan was the first state to ban the death penalty, on March 1, 1847. The 160-year ban on capital punishment has never been repealed. Currently, 12 states of the U.S. and the District of Columbia ban capital punishment. This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... ...


Controversy and debate

Capital punishment is often the subject of controversy. Opponents of the death penalty argue that it has led to the execution of innocent people, that life imprisonment is an effective and less expensive substitute,[30] that it discriminates against minorities and the poor, and that it violates the criminal's right to life. Supporters believe that the penalty is justified for murderers by the principle of retribution, that life imprisonment is not an equally effective deterrent, and that the death penalty affirms the right to life by punishing those who violate it in the most strict form. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is often the subject of controversy. ... Capital punishment Wrongful execution is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. The possibility of wrongful executions is one of the arguments presented by the opponents of capital punishment; other arguments include failing to deter crime more than... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... Retributive justice maintains that proportionate punishment is a morally acceptable response to crime, regardless of whether the punishment causes any tangible benefits. ...


Public opinion

Support for the death penalty varies widely. Both in abolitionist and retentionist democracies, the government's stance often has wide public support and receives little attention by politicians or the media. In some abolitionist countries, the majority of the public supports or has supported the death penalty. Abolition was often adopted due to political change, such as when countries shifted from authoritarianism to democracy, or when it became an entry condition for the European Union. The United States is a notable exception: some states have had bans on capital punishment for decades (the earliest is Michigan, where it was abolished in 1846), while others actively use it today. The death penalty there remains a contentious issue which is hotly debated. Elsewhere, however, it is rare for the death penalty to be abolished as a result of an active public discussion of its merits. This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Retentionist countries are countries that retain the death penalty for ordinary crimes. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Execution with a Garrote
Execution with a Garrote

In abolitionist countries, debate is sometimes revived by particularly brutal murders, though few countries have brought it back after abolishing it. However, a spike in serious, violent crimes, such as murders or terrorist attacks, has prompted some countries (such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica) to effectively end the moratorium on the death penalty. In retentionist countries, the debate is sometimes revived when a miscarriage of justice has occurred, though this tends to cause legislative efforts to improve the judicial process rather than to abolish the death penalty. Download high resolution version (593x640, 40 KB)Execution by garrote at Bilibid prison, Manila, The Phillippines. ... Download high resolution version (593x640, 40 KB)Execution by garrote at Bilibid prison, Manila, The Phillippines. ... A garrote or garrote vil (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, scarf, wire or fishing line used to strangle someone to death. ...


A Gallup International poll from 2000 claimed that "Worldwide support was expressed in favour of the death penalty, with just more than half (52%) indicating that they were in favour of this form of punishment." A number of other polls and studies have been done in recent years with various results. A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...


In the U.S., surveys have long shown a majority in favor of capital punishment. An ABC News survey in July 2006 found 65 percent in favour of capital punishment, consistent with other polling since 2000.[31] About half the American public says the death penalty is not imposed frequently enough and 60 percent believe it is applied fairly, according to a Gallup poll from May 2006.[32] Yet surveys also show the public is more divided when asked to choose between the death penalty and life without parole, or when dealing with juvenile offenders.[33] Roughly six in 10 tell Gallup they do not believe capital punishment deters murder and majorities believe at least one innocent person has been executed in the past five years.[34] ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... Life imprisonment is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, nominally for the entire remaining life of the prisoner, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 50 years) a prisoner may be incarcerated, or require the... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ...


International Organizations

The United Nations introduced a resolution during the General Assembly's 62nd session in 2007 calling for a universal ban.[35][36] The approval of a draft resolution by the Assembly’s third committee, which deals with human rights issues, voted 99 to 52, with 33 abstentions, in favour of the resolution on November 15, 2007 and was put to a vote in the General Assembly on December 18.[37][38][39] It passed a non-binding resolution (by a 104 to 54 vote, with 29 abstentions) by asking its member states for "a moratorium on executions with a view to abolishing the death penalty".[40] UN redirects here. ... The UN Moratorium on the Death Penalty is a proposal supported by several countries and NGOs before the General Assembly of the United Nation. ...

Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms the prohibition on capital punishment in the EU
Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms the prohibition on capital punishment in the EU

A number of regional conventions prohibit the death penalty, most notably, the Sixth Protocol (abolition in time of peace) and the Thirteenth Protocol (abolition in all circumstances) to the European Convention on Human Rights. The same is also stated under the Second Protocol in the American Convention on Human Rights, which, however has not been ratified by all countries in the Americas, most notably Canada and the United States. Most relevant operative international treaties do not require its prohibition for cases of serious crime, most notably, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This instead has, in common with several other treaties, an optional protocol prohibiting capital punishment and promoting its wider abolition.[41] The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... American Convention on Human Rights Opened for signature 1969 at San José, Costa Rica Entered into force 18 July 1978 Conditions for entry into force 11 ratifications Parties 24 The American Convention on Human Rights (also known as the Pact of San José) is an International human rights instrument. ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ...


Several international organisations have made the abolition of the death penalty (during time of peace) a requirement of membership, most notably the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe. The EU and the Council of Europe are willing to accept a moratorium as an interim measure. Thus, while Russia is a member of the Council of Europe, and practices the death penalty in law, it has not made public use of it since becoming a member of the Council. Other states, while having abolished de jure the death penalty in time of peace and de facto in all circumstances, have not ratified Protocol no.13 yet and therefore have no international obligation to refrain from using the death penalty in time of war or imminent threat of war (Armenia, Latvia, Poland and Spain[42]). France is the most recent to ratify it (October 10, 2007) with the effective date of February 1, 2008.[43][44] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Look up Moratorium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Turkey has recently, as a move towards EU membership, undergone a reform of its legal system. Previously there was a de facto moratorium on death penalty in Turkey as the last execution took place in 1984. The death penalty was removed from peacetime law in August 2002, and in May 2004 Turkey amended its constitution in order to remove capital punishment in all circumstances. It ratified Protocol no. 13 to the European Convention on Human Rights in February 2006. As a result, Europe is a continent free of the death penalty in practice (all states but Russia, which has entered a moratorium, having ratified the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights), with the sole exception of Belarus, which is not a member of the Council of Europe. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has been lobbying for Council of Europe observer states who practice the death penalty, namely the U.S. and Japan, to abolish it or lose their observer status. In addition to banning capital punishment for EU member states, the EU has also banned detainee transfers in cases where the receiving party may seek the death penalty.[citation needed] The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ...


Among non-governmental organisations, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch are noted for their opposition to capital punishment. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Religious views

Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of capital punishment. ...

Buddhism

There is disagreement among Buddhists as to whether or not Buddhism forbids the death penalty. The first of the Five Precepts (Panca-sila) is to abstain from destruction of life. Chapter 10 of the Dhammapada states: This article is about the Buddhist concept; see Pancasila Indonesia for the Indonesian state philosophy. ... The Dhammapada (Pali, translates as Path of the Dharma. ...

Everyone fears punishment; everyone fears death, just as you do. Therefore do not kill or cause to kill. Everyone fears punishment; everyone loves life, as you do. Therefore do not kill or cause to kill.

Chapter 26, the final chapter of the Dhammapada, states, "Him I call a brahmin who has put aside weapons and renounced violence toward all creatures. He neither kills nor helps others to kill." These sentences are interpreted by many Buddhists (especially in the West) as an injunction against supporting any legal measure which might lead to the death penalty. However, as is often the case with the interpretation of scripture, there is dispute on this matter. Thailand, where Buddhism is the official religion, practices the death penalty, as do all other countries where the majority of the population is Buddhist, i.e. Sri Lanka, Mongolia, and Myanmar, although the last has had a moratorium on executions since 1997. Moreover, throughout almost all history, countries where Buddhism has been the official religion (which includes most of the Far East and Indochina) have practiced the death penalty. One exception is the abolition of the death penalty by the Emperor Saga of Japan in 818. This lasted until 1165, although in private manors executions continued to be conducted as a form of retaliation. The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... This article is about the Asian regions. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Emperor Saga (嵯峨天皇, Saga tennō) (786–842) was the 52nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Judaism

The official teachings of Judaism approve the death penalty in principle but the standard of proof required for application of death penalty is extremely stringent, and in practice, it has been abolished by various Talmudic decisions, making the situations in which a death sentence could be passed effectively impossible and hypothetical. "Forty years before the destruction" of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD, i.e. in 30 AD, the Sanhedrin effectively abolished capital punishment, making it a hypothetical upper limit on the severity of punishment, fitting in finality for God alone to use, not fallible people.[45] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ...


In law schools everywhere, students read the famous quotation from the 12th century legal scholar, Maimonides, Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...

"It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death."

Maimonides argued that executing a defendant on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely "according to the judge's caprice." Maimonides was concerned about the need for the law to guard itself in public perceptions, to preserve its majesty and retain the people's respect.[46]


Islam

Scholars of Islam hold it to be permissible but the victim or the family of the victim has the right to pardon. In Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), to forbid what is not forbidden is wrong. Consequently, it is impossible to make a case for abolition of the death penalty which is explicitly endorsed. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Sharia Law or Islamic law may require capital punishment, there is great variation within Islamic nations as to actual capital punishment. Apostasy in Islam and Stoning to death in Islam are controversial topics. Furthermore, as expressed in the Qur'an, capital punishment is condoned. Although the Qur'an prescribes the death penalty for several hadd (fixed) crimes—including rape—murder is not among them. Instead, murder is treated as a civil crime and is covered by the law of qisas (retaliation), whereby the relatives of the victim decide whether the offender is punished with death by the authorities or made to pay diyah (wergild) as compensation.[47] Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... Rajm is an Arabic term that means to stone. ... Weregild (Alternative spellings: wergild, wergeld, weregeld, etc. ...


"If anyone kills a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he killed all people. And if anyone saves a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all people" (Qur'an 5:32). "Spreading mischief in the land" can mean many different things, but is generally interpreted to mean those crimes that affect the community as a whole, and destabilize the society. Crimes that have fallen under this description have included: (1) Treason / Apostasy (when one leaves the faith and joins the enemy in fighting against the Muslim community) (2) Terrorism - Land, sea, or air piracy (3) Rape (4) Adultery (5) Homosexual behavior.[48]


Christianity

Although some interpret that John 8:7 of the Bible condemns the death penalty, others consider Romans 13:3-4 to support it. Christian positions on this vary.[49] The sixth commandment (seventh in the Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches) is preached as 'Thou shalt not kill' by some denominations and as 'Thou shalt not murder' by others. As none of the denominations have a hard-line stance on the subject, Christians are free to make a personal decision.[50] For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...

Roman Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Church traditionally accepted capital punishment as per the theology of Thomas Aquinas (who accepted the death penalty as a necessary deterrent and prevention method, but not as the means of vengeance; see also Aquinas on the death penalty). Under the pontificate of Pope John Paul II, this position was refined. As stated in John Paul II's encyclical Evangelium Vitae, the Roman Catholic Church holds that capital punishment should be avoided unless it is the only way to defend society from the offender in question, and that with today's penal system such a situation requiring an execution is either rare or non-existent.[51] The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: Catholic Church redirects here. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...

Assuming that the guilty party's identity and responsibility have been fully determined, the traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor. If, however, nonlethal means are sufficient to defend and protect people's safety from the aggressor, authority will limit itself to such means, as these are more in keeping with the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person. Today, in fact, as a consequence of the possibilities which the state has for effectively preventing crime, by rendering one who has committed an offense incapable of doing harm - without definitely taking away from him the possibility of redeeming himself - the cases in which the execution of the offender is an absolute necessity are very rare, if not practically nonexistent.[52]

Anglican and Episcopalian

The Lambeth Conference of Anglican and Episcopalian bishops condemned the death penalty in 1988. The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ...


United Methodist Church

The United Methodist Church, along with other Methodist churches, also condemns capital punishment, saying that it cannot accept retribution or social vengeance as a reason for taking human life.[53] The Church also holds that the death penalty falls unfairly and unequally upon marginalized persons including the poor, the uneducated, ethnic and religious minorities, and persons with mental and emotional illnesses.[54] The General Conference of the United Methodist Church calls for its bishops to uphold opposition to capital punishment and for governments to enact an immediate moratorium on carrying out the death penalty sentence. This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The General Conference of The United Methodist Church is the denominations top legislative body for all matters affecting the United Methodist connection. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

In a 1991 social policy statement, the ELCA officially took a stand to oppose the death penalty. It states that revenge is a primary motivation for capital punishment policy and that true healing can only take place through repentance and forgiveness.[55]


Other Protestants

Several key leaders early in the Protestant Reformation, including Martin Luther and John Calvin, followed the traditional reasoning in favour of capital punishment, and the Lutheran Church's Augsburg Confession explicitly defended it. Some Protestant groups have cited Genesis 9:5–6, Romans 13:3–4, and Leviticus 20:1–27 as the basis for permitting the death penalty.[56] Reformation redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ...


On the other hand, the Mennonites and Friends have opposed the death penalty since their founding, and continue to be strongly opposed to it today. These groups, along with other Christians opposed to capital punishment, have cited Christ's Sermon on the Mount (transcribed in Mathew Chapter 5–7) and Sermon on the Plain (transcribed in Luke 6:17–49). In both sermons, Christ tells his followers to turn the other cheek and to love their enemies, which these groups believe mandates nonviolence, including opposition to the death penalty. The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Quaker redirects here. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... The Sermon on the Plain, said to be by Jesus according to Gospel of Luke 6:17-49, may be compared to the longer Sermon on the Mount. ... Turn the other cheek is a famous phrase taken from the Sermon on the Mount in the Christian New Testament. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ...


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (colloquially known as Mormons) holds a neutral position on the death penalty. For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ...


Esoteric Christianity

The Rosicrucian Fellowship and many other Christian esoteric schools condemn the capital punishment in all circumstances.[57][58] The Rosicrucian Fellowship Emblem The Rosicrucian Fellowship - An International Association of Christian Mystics - was founded in 1909/11 by Max Heindel as herald of the Aquarian Age and with the aim of promulgating the Rosicrucian teachings of the Mystery School of the West, the invisible Rosicrucian Order (which, according to... In fashion then as of a snow-white rose Displayed itself to me the saintly host, Whom Christ in his own blood had made his bride - The Divine Comedy, Paradiso, Canto XXXI “Esoteric Christianity” is a term which refers to an ensemble of spiritual currents which regard Christianity as a...


In arts and media

As a capital punishment forms a more important thematic element. Many of these works are abolitionist in nature, but sometimes capital punishment is used as a metaphor for some other theme, such as sacrifice or mortality.


Literature

  • The Gospels describe the execution of Jesus Christ at length, and these accounts form the central story of the Christian faith. Depictions of the crucifixion are abundant in Christian art.
  • Valerius Maximus' story of Damon and Pythias was long a famous example of fidelity. Damon was sentenced to death (the reader does not learn why) and his friend Pythias offered to take his place.
  • Victor Hugo's The Last Day of a Condemned Man (Le Dernier Jour d'un condamné) describes the thoughts of a condemned man just before his execution; also notable is its preface, in which Hugo argues at length against capital punishment.
  • William Burroughs' novel Naked Lunch also included erotic and surreal depictions of capital punishment. In the obscenity trial against Burroughs, the defense claimed successfully that the novel was a form of anti-death-penalty argument, and therefore had redeeming political value.
  • In The Chamber by John Grisham, a young lawyer tries to save his Klansman grandfather from being executed. The novel is noted for presentation of anti-death penalty materials.
  • Bernard Cornwell's novel Gallows Thief is a whodunit taking place in early 19th century England, during the so-called "Bloody Code" a series of laws making several minor crimes capital offenses. The hero is a detective assigned to investigate the guilt of a condemned man, and the difficulties he encounters act as a harsh indictment of the draconian laws and the public's complacent attitude towards capital punishment.

For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... In Greek mythology, the legend of Damon and Pythias (or Phintias) symbolizes trust and loyalty in a true friendship. ... For the Twilight Zone episode of the same name, see An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge (film). ... Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – 1914?) was an American editorialist, journalist, short-story writer and satirist, today best known for his Devils Dictionary. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (February 7, 1812 – June 9, 1870), pen-name “Boz”, was an English novelist of the Victorian era. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Anaïs Nin in the mid-1970s. ... Back Cover Copy One of contemporary literatures most important writers. ... William S. Burroughs. ... Naked Lunch is a novel by William S. Burroughs. ... The Chamber (1994) is a legal/suspense novel by noted American author John Grisham. ... Grisham redirects here. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English historical novelist. ... Gallows Thief is a 2003 mystery novel by Bernard Cornwell, which uses capital punishment as its backdrop. ... A whodunit or whodunnit (for Who done it? and sometimes referred to as a Golden Age Mystery novel) is a complex, plot-driven variety of the detective story in which the puzzle is paramount. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Bloody Code was a system of laws and punishments in England from between the 1700s to mid 1800s. ...

Film and television

  • The HBO series Oz focused on counter-perspectives for/against the death penalty.
  • Prison Break is a 2005 television series, whose protagonist attempts to save his brother from his execution by devising a plan that will help them escape from prison.

// Dead Man Walking is a work of non-fiction by Sister Helen Prejean, a Roman Catholic nun and one of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Medaille. ... Sister Helen Prejean, CSJ (b. ... This article is about the 1999 film adaptation. ... The Life of David Gale is a 2003 motion picture that tells the fictional story of a philosophy professor, David Gale, who was dedicated to the abolition of the death penalty and who was sentenced to death for the rape and murder of a colleague and fellow abolitionist. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Oz is an American television drama series created by Tom Fontana, who also wrote or co-wrote all of the series 56 episodes. ... This article is about a television series. ...

Music

  • The song "The Mercy Seat" by Nick Cave (also performed by Johnny Cash) describes a man being executed via the electric chair who maintains his innocence until he is about to die, when he admits to his guilt.
  • "Hallowed Be Thy Name" by Iron Maiden is about a man about be executed by hanging.
  • "Shock rock" star Alice Cooper will use three different methods of capital punishment for his stage shows. The three are the guillotine, the electric chair (retired) and hanging (first method/retired).

25 Minutes to Go is a song performed by Johnny Cash on his famous At Folsom Prison concert album. ... For the song of the same name, recorded by Tracy Byrd and later by Jason Aldean, see Johnny Cash (song). ... At Folsom Prison is a live album by Johnny Cash, recorded on January 13, 1968 at Folsom State Prison in Folsom, California. ... Sheldon Alan Shel Silverstein (September 25, 1930 – May 10, 1999) was an American poet, songwriter, musician, composer, cartoonist, screenwriter and author of childrens books. ... Nicholas Edward Cave (born 22 September 1957) is an Australian musician, songwriter, author, screenwriter, and occasional actor. ... For the song of the same name, recorded by Tracy Byrd and later by Jason Aldean, see Johnny Cash (song). ... For the album by Marshmallow Coast, see Ride the Lightning (Marshmallow Coast album). ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band from Leyton in the East End of London. ... Green Green Grass of Home is a country song which Tom Jones made popular in 1966 and since then has it been a popular cover song which Elvis Presley recorded 1975 and was one of his favorite songs. ... Shock rock is a very wide umbrella term for artists who combine rock music with elements of theatrical shock value in live performances. ... Alice Cooper (born Vincent Furnier February 4, 1948) is an American rock singer, songwriter and musician whose career spans five decades. ...

See also

The Capital Jury Project (CJP) is a consortium of university-based research studies on the decision-making of jurors in death penalty cases. ... Cruel And Unusual redirects here. ... Eye for an Eye is a movie starring Sally Field, Keifer Sutherland, Ed Harris, Beverly DAngelo and Joe Mantegna. ...

References

  1. ^ Shot at Dawn, campaign for pardons for British and Commonwealth soldiers executed in World War I. Shot at Dawn Pardons Campaign. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  2. ^ Definite no to Death Row - Asmal. Retrieved on 2008-03-08.
  3. ^ Gabon moves against death penalty - Afrique-Actualité - Informations, Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie, économie
  4. ^ Abolitionist and Retentionist Countries. Amnesty International. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  5. ^ Death sentences and executions in 2007. Amnesty International. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  6. ^ a b Death Sentences and Executions in 2007. Amnesty International website. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  7. ^ International Polls & Studies. The Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved on 2008-04-01.
  8. ^ Amnesty International
  9. ^ Amnesty International
  10. ^ Stop Child Executions! Ending the death penalty for child offenders. Amnesty International (2004). Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
  11. ^ Execution of Juveniles in the U.S. and other Countries
  12. ^ Rob Gallagher, Table of juvenile executions in British America/United States, 1642–1959
  13. ^ Supreme Court bars executing mentally retarded CNN.com Law Center. June 25, 2002
  14. ^ UNICEF, Convention of the Rights of the Child - FAQ: "The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most widely and rapidly ratified human rights treaty in history. Only two countries, Somalia and the United States, have not ratified this celebrated agreement. Somalia is currently unable to proceed to ratification as it has no recognized government. By signing the Convention, the United States has signaled its intention to ratify. but has yet to do so."
  15. ^ Innocence and the Death Penalty
  16. ^ Capital Defense Weeky
  17. ^ Executed Innocents
  18. ^ Wrongful executions
  19. ^ "Executing the Innocent," Northwestern Univ. School of Law Center on Wrongful Convictions
  20. ^ The Innocence Project - News and Information: Press Releases
  21. ^ Translated from Waldmann, op.cit., p.147.
  22. ^ Lindow, op.cit. (primarily discusses Icelandic things).
  23. ^ Schabas, William. The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81491-X. 
  24. ^ Almost invariably, however, sentences of death for property crimes were commuted to transportation to a penal colony or to a place where the felon was worked as an indentured servant/Michigan State University and Death Penalty Information Center
  25. ^ History of British judicial hanging
  26. ^ a b Benn, Charles. 2002. China's Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517665-0. Page 8.
  27. ^ Article from the Connecticut Courant (December 1, 1803)
  28. ^ The Execution of Caleb Adams, 2003
  29. ^ Death Penalty
  30. ^ "The High Cost of the Death Penalty," Death Penalty Focus
  31. ^ ABC News poll, "Capital Punishment, 30 Years On: Support, but Ambivalence as Well" (PDF, July 1, 2006)
  32. ^ Crime
  33. ^ [1] [2]
  34. ^ [3] [4]
  35. ^ Thomas Hubert (2007-06-29). Journée contre la peine de mort : le monde décide! (French). Coalition Mondiale.
  36. ^ Amnesty International
  37. ^ UN set for key death penalty vote. Amnesty International (2007-12-09). Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
  38. ^ Directorate of Communication - The global campaign against the death penalty is gaining momentum - Statement by Terry Davis, Secretary General of the Council of Europe
  39. ^ http://www.un.org/ga/news/news.asp?NewsID=24679&Cr=general&Cr1=assembly
  40. ^ U.N. Assembly calls for moratorium on death penalty | Reuters
  41. ^ Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR. Office of the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
  42. ^ Amnesty International
  43. ^ France abolishes the death penalty in all circumstances. Human Rights Education Associates (2007-10-11). Retrieved on 2008-02-13.
  44. ^ Directorate of Communication - France abolishes the death penalty in all circumstances
  45. ^ Jerusalem Talmud (Sanhedrin 41 a)
  46. ^ Moses Maimonides, The Commandments, Neg. Comm. 290, at 269–271 (Charles B. Chavel trans., 1967).
  47. ^ capital punishment - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  48. ^ Capital Punishment in Islam
  49. ^ What The Christian Scriptures Say About The Death Penalty - Capital Punishmen
  50. ^ BBC - Religion & Ethics - Capital punishment: Introduction
  51. ^ Papal encyclical, Evangelium Vitae, March 25, 1995
  52. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2267
  53. ^ The United Methodist Church: Capital Punishment
  54. ^ The United Methodist Church: Official church statements on capital punishment
  55. ^ ELCA Social Statement on the Death Penalty
  56. ^ http://www.equip.org/free/CP1303.htm http://www.equip.org/free/CP1304.htm
  57. ^ Heindel, Max (1910s), The Rosicrucian Philosophy in Questions and Answers - Volume II: Question no.33: Rosicrucian Viewpoint of Capital Punishment, ISBN 0-911274-90-1
  58. ^ The Rosicrucian Fellowship: Obsession, Occult Effects of Capital Punishment

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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Opposing

In favour

  • Off2DR.com is an Interactive pro death penalty information resource & place for discussions
  • Pro Death Penalty.com
  • Pro Death Penalty Resource Page
  • Capital Punishment - A Defense
  • 119 Pro DP Links
  • British National Party, A political party which advocates the use of the death penalty
  • Criminal Justice Legal Foundation
  • DP Info
  • Pro DP Resources
  • The Paradoxes of a Death Penalty Stance by Charles Lane in the Washington Post
  • Clark County, Indiana, Prosecutor's Page on capital punishment
  • In Favor of Capital Punishment - Famous Quotes supporting Capital Punishment

Charles Chuck Lane is a journalist who is currently a staff writer for the Washington Post. ... ...

Religious views

  • The Dalai Lama - Message supporting the moratorium on the death penalty
  • Buddhism & Capital Punishment from The Engaged Zen Society
  • Orthodox Union website: Rabbi Yosef Edelstein: Parshat Beha'alotcha: A Few Reflections on Capital Punishment
  • Jews and the Death Penalty - by Naomi Pfefferman (Jewish Journal)
  • Priests for Life - Lists several Catholic links
  • The Death Penalty: Why the Church Speaks a Countercultural Message by Kenneth R. Overberg, S.J., from AmericanCatholic.org
  • Wrestling with the Death Penalty by Andy Prince, from Youth Update on AmericanCatholic.org
  •   "Capital Punishment". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Capital Punishment (2583 words)
Furthermore, opponents of capital punishment candidly admit that they would oppose the death penalty even if it were an effective deterrent.(5) So while these are important social and political issues to consider, they are not sufficient justification for the abolition of the death penalty.
Opponents of capital punishment who accuse the government of committing murder by implementing the death penalty fail to see the irony of using Exodus 20 to define murder but ignoring Exodus 21, which specifically teaches that government is to punish the murderer.
Capital punishment is to be implemented because of the sanctity of human life.
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