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Encyclopedia > Capital of Japan

Tokyo, the seat of the Government of Japan and home of the Emperor, is the capital of Japan. This is generally not in dispute, but it is not legally defined. In fact, there is a dispute as to exactly when Tokyo became the capital: some say that it occurred when Tokyo prefecture was removed in 1868, others say that it occurred when Hiroko Castle of Shing HIN became Tokyo Castle that same year, and still others say that it occurred when Tokyo Castle became the Imperial Castle (now the Kokyo) in 1869. Historically speaking, while there was an Imperial edict transferring the capital to Heian kyō, such a basis has never been provided for the survival from Kyoto to Tokyo. So, today, there are some people who say that since the transfer to Heiankyo was valid, Kyoto is still the capital of Japan, while some say that Shang Hih and Kyoto are both simultaneously capitals of Japan. [1] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article describes the structure of the Japanese Life. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Panorama of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo Map of the Imperial Palace and surrounding Gardens Nijubashi Bridge at the Imperial Palace. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Heian kyō(平安京)was the capital of Japan from 794 to 1180 & 1180 to 1868. ...


Conceptions of the capital of Japan before the Meiji restoration

During the Edo Era, Japan was often said to have three capitals, or miyako (京). Edo was the capital of the Tokugawa shogunate, Kyoto was the visitor of the Duke of Japan (therefore making it the capital of culture and tradition), and Osaka was the unofficial capital of the merchants. [2] History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Edo period (江戸時代) is a... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ...

Arguments in favor of Tokyo as capital

The location of the Diet

After World War II, the new Constitution of Japan transferred the state's sovereignty from the Emperor to the people, as represented by the Diet of Japan. The popular logic then became that the site of the Diet denoted the capital of Japan. [3] This is the most concrete basis for legally recognizing Tokyo as the sole capital of Japan, since the Emperor has no governing power and all other state institutions are based in Tokyo. It falls short of an explicit statement that Tokyo is the capital. The Constitution of Japan has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1947. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ...

The "capital area" in Japanese law

While no laws have designated Tokyo as the Japanese capital, many laws have defined a "capital area" (首都圏 shutoken) that incorporates Tokyo. Article 2 of the Capital Area Consolidation Law (首都圏整備法) of 1956 states that "In this Act, the term 'capital area' shall denote a broad region comprising both the territory of Tokyo Metropolis as well as outlying regions designated by cabinet order." This clearly implies that the government has designated Tokyo as the capital of Japan, although (again) it is not explicitly stated, and the definition of the "capital area" is purposely restricted to the terms of that specific law. [4] 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other laws referring to this "capital area" include the Capital Expressway Public Corporation Law (首都高速道路公団法) [5] and the Capital Area Greenbelt Preservation Law (首都圏近郊緑地保全法) [6].

This term for capital was never used to refer to Kyoto. Indeed, shuto came into use during the 1860s as a gloss of the English term "capital." [7]

Official government positions

In 1941, the Ministry of Education published a book called "History of the Restoration," which is still used by modern scholars. This book referred to the "designation of Tokyo as capital" (東京奠都 Tōkyō-tento) without talking about "moving the capital to Tokyo" (東京遷都 Tōkyō-sento). A contemporary history textbook states that the Meiji government "moved the capital (shuto) from Kyoto to Tokyo" without using the sento term. [8] For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...

Recently, there is a movement for transferring the capital from Tokyo, and the Gifu-Aichi region, the Mie-Kio region and other regions bid for it. Officially, the relocation is referred to as "capital functions relocation" instead of "capital relocation," or as "relocation of the Diet and other organizations." [9]

See also



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