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Encyclopedia > Capillary
Blood flows from the heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. After the tissue has been perfused, capillaries widen to become venules and then widen more to become veins, which return blood to the heart.
Blood flows from the heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. After the tissue has been perfused, capillaries widen to become venules and then widen more to become veins, which return blood to the heart.

Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels, measuring 5-10 μm in diameter, which connect arterioles and venules, and enable the interchange of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and many other nutrient and waste chemical substances between blood and surrounding tissues.[1] Image File history File links Illu_capillary. ... Image File history File links Illu_capillary. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... An arteriole is a small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... In physiology, perfusion is the process of nutritive delivery of arterial blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... An arteriole is a small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... A venule is a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ...

Contents

Structure

When you get hot and go outside, it feels cold because your capillaries are constricting due to the overwhelming change in external temperature. The osmotic pressure is trying to increase, but the arteriole-venule anastomosis that originally shunted blood away from the capillaries will not let this process to develop, and so pain and heat become evident as tissue is deprived of oxygen. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An arteriole is a small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... A venule is a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins. ...


The walls of capillaries are composed of only a single layer of cells, the endothelium. This layer is so thin that molecules such as oxygen, water and lipids can pass through them by diffusion and enter the tissues. Waste products such as carbon dioxide and urea can diffuse back into the blood to be carried away for removal from the body. Capillaries are so small the red blood cells need to partially fold into bullet-like shapes in order to pass through them in single file. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ...


Capillary permeability can be increased by the release of certain cytokines, such as in an immune response. Vascular permeability characterizes the capacity of a blood vessel wall to pass through small molecules (ions, water, nutrients) or even whole cells (lymphocytes on their way to the site of inflammation). ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between immune system cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ...


Immune response

In an immune response, the endothelial cells of the capillary will upregulate receptor molecules, thus it signals the need for an immune response by the site of infection and aids extravasion of these cells into the tissue. A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm that binds to a specific factor (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


Capillary Bed

The "capillary bed" is the network of capillaries supplying an organ. The more metabolically active the cells, the more capillaries it will require to supply nutrients. In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


The capillary bed usually carries no more than 25% of the amount of blood it could contain, although this amount can be increased through auto regulation by inducing relaxation of smooth muscle. Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ...


The capillaries do not possess this smooth muscle in their own walls, and so any change in their diameter is passive. Any signaling molecules they release (such as endothelin for constriction and nitric oxide for dilation) act on the smooth muscle cells in the walls of nearby, larger vessels, e.g. arterioles. DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... Endothelin is a 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key part in vascular homeostasis. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... An arteriole is a blood vessel that extends and branchs out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ...


Capillaries have a wall consisting of endothelium and basement membrane only. Metarterioles provide direct communication between arterioles and venules. True capillaries branch mainly from metarterioles and provide exchange between cells and the circulation. The internal diameter of 8uM will just accommodate a red blood cell. Precapillary sphincters are rings of smooth muscles at the origin of true capillaries that regulate blood flow into true capillaries and thus control blood flow through a tissue. ...


Types

Capillaries come in three types:

  • Continuous - Continuous capillaries have a sealed endothelium and only allow small molecules, water and ions to diffuse. Continuous capillaries can be further divided into two subtypes: 1. containing numerous transport vesicles and with macula occludens junction (found in skeletal muscles, lung, gonads, and skin) 2. characterized with few vesicles and with zonula occudens junctions (primarily found in central nervous system).
  • Fenestrated - Fenestrated capillaries (derived from "fenestra," the Latin word for "window") have openings that allow small molecules [2] and limited amounts of protein to diffuse.
  • Sinusoidal - Sinusoidal (aka discontinuous) capillaries are special forms of fenestrated capillaries that have larger openings in the epithelium allowing red blood cells and serum proteins to enter.

For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A sinusoid is a small blood vessel similar to a capillary but with a fenestrated endothelium. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ...

History

Ibn al-Nafis theorized a "premonition of the capillary circulation in his assertion that the pulmonary vein receives what comes out of the pulmonary artery, this being the reason for the existence of perceptible passages between the two."[3] Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... The pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ...


Marcello Malpighi was the first to physically observe capillaries and accurately explain them in 1661.[4] Marcello Malpighi (March 10, 1628 - September 30, 1694) was an Italian doctor, who gave his name to several physiological features. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The blood-brain barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels in the central nervous system, and the central nervous system itself. ...

References

  1. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 
  2. ^ Histology at BU 22401lba
  3. ^ Dr. Paul Ghalioungui (1982), "The West denies Ibn Al Nafis's contribution to the discovery of the circulation", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. The West denies Ibn Al Nafis's contribution to the discovery of the circulation, Encyclopedia of Islamic World)
  4. ^ The history of the capillary wall: doctors, discoveries, and debates

For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Look up Cf. ...

External links

Look up Capillary in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... An arteriole is a small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... A venule is a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The superior and inferior venae cavae are the veins that return de-oxygenated blood from the body into the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The human lungs are the human organs of respiration. ... The pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Capillary - definition of Capillary in Encyclopedia (280 words)
Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels.
Capillaries have walls composed of a single layer of cells, the endothelium.
In some cases, vesicles contained in the capillary membrane use endocytosis and exocytosis to transport material between blood and the tissues.
capillary on Encyclopedia.com (848 words)
CAPILLARY [capillary], microscopic blood vessel, smallest unit of the circulatory system.
Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis associated with primary pulmonary hypertension; report of 2 new cases and review of 35 cases from the literature.
Capillary blood pressure in syngeneic rat islets transplanted under the renal capsule is similar to that of the implantation organ.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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