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Encyclopedia > Cape Wind

The Cape Wind Project is a controversial proposed offshore wind farm on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound off Cape Cod in Massachusetts (41.542° N 70.321° W). If the project moves forward on schedule, it would become one of the first offshore wind farms in the United States. A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location. ... Nantucket Sound is a roughly triangular area of the Atlantic Ocean offshore from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Cape Cod (or simply the Cape) is an hook-shaped peninsula nearly coextensive with Barnstable County, Massachusetts and forming the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ...

Contents

Overview

Cape Wind is a $900 million renewable energy project proposed by a private developer, Cape Wind Associates. The project will build the first offshore wind energy plant in the United States. If constructed, it would also be the largest such project to date. Cape Wind Associates is a Limited Liability Company (LLC) set up as a joint business venture between Energy Management Inc. ...


The footprint for the proposed project covers 24 square miles, 13.8 miles from the island town of Nantucket. The project envisions 130 wind turbines, each 247 feet in height — about 80% of the height the Statue of Liberty, which stands at 305 feet. The highest blade tip height will be 417 feet above the surface of the water. [1] The turbines would be sited between 4-11 miles offshore depending on the shoreline and would be visible on the horizon as half a degree high. At peak generation, the turbines will generate 420 megawatts of renewable electricity. This is enough to meet the needs of 420,000 homes. The project is expected to produce an average of 170 megawatts of electricity at any given time, about 75% of the average electricity demand for Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket island.[2] It could offset close to a million tons carbon dioxide every year and should produce enough electricity to offset the consumption of 113 million gallons of oil annually. [3] Horizontal-axis wind turbine, the Enercon model E-66 wind energy converter, in Germany. ... Liberty Enlightening the World (French: La liberté éclairant le monde), known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté), is a large statue that was presented to the United States by France in 1886, standing at Liberty Island, New York in the mouth of the Hudson River... Cape Cod (or simply the Cape) is an hook-shaped peninsula nearly coextensive with Barnstable County, Massachusetts and forming the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. ... Map of Marthas Vineyard. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ...


Currently 45% of the Cape region's electricity comes from the nearby Canal Power Plant in Sandwich [4], which burns bunker oil and natural gas.[5][6] The Cape Wind proposal is relatively unique in that it would directly offset petroleum usage unlike most of the country where electrical power generation from oil is rare. Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Barnstable County Settled 1637 Incorporated 1639 Government type Open town meeting Area    - Town  44. ... Residual fuel is any petroleum-based fuel which contains the undistilled residue from atmospheric or vacuum distillation of crude oil. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ...


One of the reasons supporters like this project has to do with the potential for less oil to be used or shipped to the Cape Cod power plant. Fuel for this plant has been part of two major oil spills, the first on December 15, 1976 when the tanker Argo Merchant ran aground southeast of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts spilling 7.7 million U.S. gallons (29,000 m³) of oil. [7] Another oil spill occurred in April 2003, when a Bouchard Company barge carrying oil for the Mirant Canal Generating Plant ran aground spilling 98,000 gallons of oil, which killed 450 birds and shutdown 100,000 acres (400 km²) of shell fishing beds.[8], [9] is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Argo Merchant, run aground northwest of Nantucket. ...


Controversy

Supporters of the project led by the non-profit grassroots organization Clean Power Now[10] focus on its ability to displace oil and gas consumption with clean, locally produced energy as well as the project being the best option for much needed new generating capacity. Also, noted is that the project is the single source of supply side reductions in global warming pollution currently proposed in the United States. It will supply 79% of the average electrical needs of Cape Cod and the Islands. The Massachusetts Audubon Society conditionally endorsed the project in March 2006 as safe for birds, but asked for further studies.[11] The Massachusetts Audubon Society, founded in 1896 and headquartered in Lincoln, Massachusetts, is a nonprofit organization dedicated to Protecting the nature of Massachusetts. ...


On March 29, 2007, Secretary Ian Bowles, Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Economic Affairs, determined that the Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Report submitted on the project adequately and properly complies with the Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act and with its implementing regulations.


Criticism has come mainly from the Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound who state that Nantucket Sound is known worldwide for its wildlife and natural beauty.[12] In addition, they state that the proposed wind farm would be located near shipping lanes. Other opponents include some prominent individuals who normally support sustainable energy. Proponents suggest that some of this opposition is motivated in part by ownership of real-estate on Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard or the mainland and that it raises issues of environmental justice. Robert Kennedy, Jr., whose family's Kennedy Compound is within sight of the proposed wind farm, wrote an essay stating his support for wind power in general, but opposing this project. It was published in the New York Times op-ed page on December 16, 2005.[13] // About The Alliance is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit environmental organization dedicated to the long-term preservation of Nantucket Sound. ... Nantucket Sound is a roughly triangular area of the Atlantic Ocean offshore from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... Map of Marthas Vineyard. ... Environmental justice Environmental justice (EJ) is a holistic effort to analyze and overcome the power structures that have traditionally thwarted environmental reforms. ... Robert Francis Kennedy Jr. ... The Kennedy Compound consists of about 6 acres (24,000 m²) of waterfront property along Nantucket Sound. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Current status

Cape Wind received final environmental approval from the Commonwealth of Massachusettes on March 30, 2007.[14] Federal review is still required.


Cape Wind originally applied for a permit under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 with the US Army Corps of Engineers in 2001. The Army Corps eventually presented a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). In a public comment period, many Federal agencies, local governments, and community groups found the draft EIS to have deficiencies. Due to passage of the 2005 Energy Bill, the regulatory authority for off-shore energy projects has been transferred from the Army Corps to the Minerals Management Service (MMS) within the Department of Interior. Whereas Cape Wind had expected to obtain approval quickly from the Army Corps, this transfer of authority to the MMS has delayed the project. The MMS should issue a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) in the spring of 2007 followed by a 60 day comment period and public hearings. The Final Environmental Impact Report (FEIR) should be completed in late 2007 and a final decision rendered in early 2008. United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... According to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) whenever the U.S. Federal Government takes a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment it must first consider the environmental impact in a document called an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). ... The purpose of the Minerals Management Service (MMS), as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, is to manage the mineral resources on the nations Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner, and to collect, verify, and distribute, in a timely fashion, mineral revenues...


2006 Coast Guard Authorization bill "poison pill" amendment

Rep. Don Young (R-Alaska) and U.S. Senator Edward M Kennedy (D-Massachusetts) added a section to a Coast Guard reauthorization bill that would have banned any offshore wind project that is sited within 1.5 miles of a shipping channel, effectively killing the project. Young suggested that Cape Wind could pose a hazard to navigation. Kennedy was accused of taking a NIMBY approach as he has a home on the Cape. [15] Donald Edwin (Don) Young (born June 9, 1933) has been the sole congressman from Alaska in the United States House of Representatives since 1973. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and is involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ... NIMBY (an acronym of Not In My Back Yard) describes the phenomenon in which residents oppose a development as inappropriate for their local area, but by implication do not oppose such development in anothers. ...


During conference on the Coast Guard bill, lawmakers agreed to a more narrow prohibition that would simply allow either the Coast Guard or the governor of Massachusetts to stop the Cape Wind project specifically. The break in the talks came after Republican Senator Gordon H. Smith (R-Oregon) backed the measure, breaking a stalemate. Gordon Harold Smith (born May 25, 1952) is a United States Senator from Oregon. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ...


The amendment has been attached to a broad Coast Guard authorization bill that faces floor votes in the House and the Senate, where its future remains unclear. [16] In a letter dated May 5, 2006, Under Secretary of Energy David K. Garman opposed the amendment on behalf of the Bush administration and said "singling out wind generation in this manner could have a chilling impact on the continued investment and growth of this promising renewable energy resource." (Boston Globe, May 6)


Some members of the Massachusetts delegation to the United States Congress and former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney are opposed to the Cape Wind project. However, current Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick has expressed strong support for the project in addition to other renewable energy projects. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947, better known as Mitt Romney), was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Deval Laurdine Patrick (born July 31, 1956) is an American politician and the current Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ...


2006 election

Cape Wind was an issue in the 2006 election for Governor of Massachusetts. The winner, Democrat Deval Patrick, supported the project; his Republican opponent, former Lieutenant Governor Kerry Healey, opposed it. [17] [18] The Massachusetts gubernatorial election of 2006 was held on November 7, 2006. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Deval Laurdine Patrick (born July 31, 1956) is an American politician and the current Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Kerry Murphy Healey, Ph. ...


Movies

In 2003 a documentary film entitled Wind Over Water about the controversy over the Cape Wind Project was released. The film by journalist Ole Tangen Jr. chronicled the debate as it unfolded on the Cape. An independent production, the filmmaker interviewed subjects from both sides of the debate including Jim Gordon of Cape Wind and Isaac Rosen, then director of the Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound. Focusing also on wind power in general, Wind Over Water features aerial footage of the offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in Denmark and footage from various wind farms in the U.S. On December 6, 2003 the film made its world and Cape Cod premiere at the Lillie Auditorium in Woods Hole. The Daily Show did a very funny skit on the Cape Wind project http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEaOkhWOZ1A&eurl=http://watthead.blogspot.com%2F2007%2F08%2Fdaily-show-skewers-cape-wind-opponents.html DVD Cover of the film Wind Over Water Wind Over Water - The Cape Wind Story is an independent documentary film which chronicles the controversy over the Cape Wind Project. ... // About The Alliance is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit environmental organization dedicated to the long-term preservation of Nantucket Sound. ... Horns Rev is a shallow area in the eastern North Sea, about 15 km / 10 miles off the west coast of Denmark, near the village of Blåvand. ... Wind turbines in Neuenkirchen, Dithmarschen (Germany). ... Cape Cod (or simply the Cape) is an hook-shaped peninsula nearly coextensive with Barnstable County, Massachusetts and forming the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. ... Woods Hole is a census-designated place and village within the town of Falmouth in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, at the extreme southwest corner of Cape Cod, near the island of Marthas Vineyard, and is the site of two famous scientific institutions: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Marine Biological...


Books

Book written about the Cape Wind Project include Cape Wind, Money, Celebrity, Class, Politics, and the Battle for Our Energy Future on Nantucket Sound written by Wendy Williams and Robert Whitcomb.[3]


Other Cape Cod wind projects

According to a report in the Boston Globe, May 24, 2006, Jay M. Cashman, owner of a large construction company that built part of the Big Dig, proposes to build a $750 million wind farm in Buzzards Bay, about 20 miles west of the proposed Cape Wind site. The Cashman farm would be closer (2 mi) to shore and would consist of 120 turbines, each 450 foot tall. The projected generation capacity is 300 MW. According to the Globe, some opponents of the Cape Wind project have expressed interest in the Cashman plan.[19] is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Metropolitan Highway System Big Dig is the unofficial name of the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), a megaproject which rerouted the Central Artery (Interstate 93), the chief controlled-access highway through the heart of Boston, Massachusetts, into a 3. ... Map of Buzzards Bay. ...


See also

Worldwide installed capacity and prediction 1997-2010, Source: WWEA Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into more useful forms, usually electricity, using wind turbines. ... NIMBY (an acronym of Not In My Back Yard) describes the phenomenon in which residents oppose a development as inappropriate for their local area, but by implication do not oppose such development in anothers. ... The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ Whitcomb, Robert; Wendy M. Williams, Robert F. Whitcomb (2007). Cape Wind, Money, Celebrity, Class, Politics, and the Battle for Our Energy Future on Nantucket Sound. Public Affairs, 326. ISBN 9781586483975. 

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