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Encyclopedia > Cape Horn
Cape Horn from the South.
Cape Horn from the South.
The Hermite Islands (center) and Cape Horn (lower right) as seen from space.
The Hermite Islands (center) and Cape Horn (lower right) as seen from space.

Cape Horn (Dutch: Kaap Hoorn; Spanish: Cabo de Hornos; named after the city of Hoorn in the Netherlands) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile. Cape Horn, taken January 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cape Horn, taken January 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 599 pixels Full resolution (3207 × 2503 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cape Horn Hermite Islands Cabo... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 599 pixels Full resolution (3207 × 2503 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cape Horn Hermite Islands Cabo... For other uses, see Hoorn (disambiguation). ... The bay at San Sebastián, Spain A headland is an area of land adjacent to water on three sides. ... Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for Land of Fire) (English pronunciation ; Spanish ) is an archipelago, 28,476 sq mi (73,753 km²), separated from the southernmost tip of the South American mainland by the Strait of Magellan. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ...


It is widely considered to be the southern tip of South America. Cape Horn is the most southerly of the great capes, and marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage; for many years it was a major milestone on the clipper route, by which sailing ships carried trade around the world. However, the waters around the cape are particularly hazardous, due to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs; these dangers have made it notorious as a sailors' graveyard. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The clipper route from England to Australia and New Zealand, by way of the great capes. ... Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica. ... The Clipper Route followed by ships sailing between England and Australia/New Zealand. ... Traditional wooden cutter under sail. ... Iceberg west of Ilulissat inlet, Greenland Iceberg, Tèmpanos, Patagonia, Argentina. ...


The need for ships to round the horn was greatly reduced by the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914. However, sailing around the Horn is widely regarded as one of the major challenges in yachting, and a few recreational sailors continue to sail this route, sometimes as part of a circumnavigation of the globe, almost all of these choosing routes through the canals to the north of the actual Cape, though many take a detour through the islands and anchor to wait for fair weather to actual visit Horn Island or even sail around it to replicate a rounding of this historical point. Several prominent ocean yacht races, notably the Vendée Globe, sail around the world via the Horn, and speed records for round-the-world sailing follow the same route. Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... Yachting is a physical activity involving boats. ... To circumnavigate a place, such as an island, a continent, or the Earth, is to travel all the way around it by boat or ship. ... Inshore yacht racing on Sydney Harbour, Australia Yacht racing is the sport of competitive sailing. ... The Vendée Globe is a single-handed non-stop round the world yacht race. ...

Contents

Geography

The southern part of South America, including Cape Horn, the Drake Passage, and the South Shetland Islands.
The southern part of South America, including Cape Horn, the Drake Passage, and the South Shetland Islands.

Cape Horn is the southernmost point of land closely associated with South America; it is located at 55°59′00″S, 067°16′00″W, on Isla Hornos in the Hermite Islands group, at the southern end of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago.[1][2] It marks the north edge of the Drake Passage, the strait between South America and Antarctica. The dividing line between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans runs along the meridian of Cape Horn, from Tierra del Fuego to the Southern Ocean.[3] It is located in Cabo de Hornos National Park. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 658 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (930 × 847 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Beagle conflict Cape... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 658 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (930 × 847 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Beagle conflict Cape... The South Shetland Islands or Iles Shetland du Sud or Islas Shetland del Sur or New South Britain or New South Shetland or Shetland Islands or South Shetlands or Sydshetland or Süd-Shetland Inseln are a chain of islands in the Southern Ocean lying about 120 kilometres northward of... Southern Chilean Island, part of Tierra del Fuego archipelago, famous for having Cape Horn. ... The Hermite Islands belong to Tierra del Fuego. ... Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... The Atlantic Ocean forms a component of the all-encompassing World Ocean and is directly linked to the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cabo de Hornos National Park is located in the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego. ...


Cape Horn was originally given the Dutch name "Kaap Hoorn", in honour of the Dutch city of Hoorn; in a typical example of false friends, the Hoorn became known in English as "Cape Horn", and in Spanish as "Cabo de Hornos" (which literally means "Cape of Ovens").[4] It is commonly known to sailors simply as The Horn.[5] False friends are pairs of words in two languages or letters in two alphabets that look or sound similar but differ in meaning. ...


While Cape Horn is widely considered to be the southernmost point of South America, it is actually the southernmost point of the South America landmass (the southernmost point of South America is Cape Froward on Brunswick Peninsula). Cape Horn is located on Isla Hornos, the most southerly of the Hermite Islands, which themselves are part of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago. [6] Tierra del Fuego is separated from the South America mainland by the Strait of Magellan. Also of note, the southernmost point of land on the South American continental shelf is on the Diego Ramirez Islands. On the other hand, 56 kilometers (35 mi) to the northwest from Cape Horn on Hoste Island lies False Cape Horn, which is so named because as sailors approaching from the west would confuse it with Cape Horn, and since the Wollaston Islands are due east of the false cape, this navigation error has led to several shipwrecks.[7] This is a list of the extreme points of South America, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location on the continent. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Cape Froward (, ) is the southernmost point on the mainland of South America. ... Brunswick Peninsula (Spanish: ) is a large peninsula in Magallanes y la Antártica Region, Patagonia, Chile, at . ... The Hermite Islands belong to Tierra del Fuego. ... Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for Land of Fire) (English pronunciation ; Spanish ) is an archipelago, 28,476 sq mi (73,753 km²), separated from the southernmost tip of the South American mainland by the Strait of Magellan. ... A true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image, the entire Strait is visible A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... Diego Ramirez Islands Diego Ramirez Islands The Diego Ramirez Islands (Sp. ... A view from the Tierra del Fuego National Park (Argentina) accross the Beagle Channel towards Isla Hoste. ... False Cape Horn or Falso Cabo de Hornos is a headland lying on Hoste Island, 35 miles (56 km) northwest of Cape Horn. ... Wollaston Islands is a group of islands in the extreme south of Chile near Cape Horn. ...

The main building of the Chilean lighthouse station.
The main building of the Chilean lighthouse station.

The cape lies within Chilean territorial waters, and the Chilean Navy maintains a station on Hoorn Island, consisting of a residence, utility building, chapel, and lighthouse;[8] the navy supports a lighthouse keeper and his family (the only residents of the island).[9] A short distance from the main station is a memorial, including a large sculpture featuring the silhouette of an albatross, in honour of the sailors who died while attempting to "round the Horn".[10] Photo of Chilean station at Cape Horn, taken February 2001 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 650px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo of Chilean station at Cape Horn, taken February 2001 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 650px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Genera Diomedea Thalassarche Phoebastria Phoebetria Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). ...


However, the Chilean Navy station, including the lighthouse, and the memorial are not located in the Cape Horn itself, that is rather inaccessible both by land and by sea, but in another land point about a mile farther east-northeast. In the real Cape Horn there is nevertheless a 4 m (13 ft) fiberglass light tower with a focal plane of 40 m (131 ft) and a range of about 21 km (13 mi)), which is the authentic Cape Horn lighthouse, but for unknown reasons it is not publicized as the end of the world light.


The terrain is entirely treeless, although quite lush due to the frequent precipitation.

The real Cape Horn, seen from the Chilean Navy station location

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1182 × 886 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cape Horn seen from the Chilean Station and Memorial location on 05/12/2006 at 08:00 AM I, the creator of this work, hereby... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1182 × 886 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cape Horn seen from the Chilean Station and Memorial location on 05/12/2006 at 08:00 AM I, the creator of this work, hereby...

Climate

The climate in the region is generally cool, due to the southern latitude. There are no weather stations in the group of islands including Cape Horn; however, a study in 1882-1883 found an annual rainfall of 1,357 millimetres (53.42 in), with an average annual temperature of 5.2 °C (41.4 °F). Winds were reported to average 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph), with squalls of over 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) occurring in all seasons.[11] A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...


Contemporary weather records for Ushuaia, 146 kilometres (91 mi) north, show that summer (January–February) average temperatures range from highs of 14 °C (57 °F) to lows of 5 °C (42 °F); in winter (July), average temperatures range from 4 °C (40 °F) to −2 °C (29 °F). Cloud cover is generally high, with averages from 5.2 eighths in May and July to 6.4 eighths in December and January.[12] Precipitation is high throughout the year: the weather station on the nearby Diego Ramirez Islands, 109 kilometres (68 mi) south-west in the Drake Passage, shows the greatest rainfall in March, averaging 137.4 millimetres (5.41 in); while October, which has the least rainfall, still averages 93.7 millimetres (3.69 in).[13] Wind conditions are generally severe, particularly in winter. In summer, the wind at Cape Horn is gale force up to 5% of the time, with generally good visibility; however, in winter, gale force winds occur up to 30% of the time, often with poor visibility.[14] Ushuaia (pronounced ) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego, and the worlds southernmost city. ... A gale is a wind of at least 28 knots, 32 MPH, or 51km/h; and up to 55 knots, 63 MPH, or 102km/h. ...


Political

The islands around Cape Horn.

Cape Horn is part of the commune of Cabo de Hornos (formerly Navarino), whose capital is Puerto Williams; this in turn is part of Antártica Chilena Province, whose capital is also Puerto Williams. The area is part of the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region of Chile.[15] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (906x546, 91 KB) Summary A map showing the location of Cape Horn, including part of the Drake Passage. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (906x546, 91 KB) Summary A map showing the location of Cape Horn, including part of the Drake Passage. ... A commune is an administrative subdivision of various European and African countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Poland, Romania, Senegal, and the Scandinavian countries. ... Puerto Williams in Tierra del Fuego Puerto Williams is a small Chilean port, located on Isla Navarino facing the Beagle Channel. ... Flag of the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region showing the southern cross. ... Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region is the southernmost, largest and second least populated region of Chile. ...


Puerto Toro, a few miles south of Puerto Williams, is the closest town to the cape, and the southernmost town in the world. Puerto Toro is a small Chilean town on Navarino Island. ... The southernmost settlements in the world, excluding research bases in Antarctica (there are already permanent settlements there), are: See also Northernmost settlements Extreme points of the world Category: ...


Sailing routes

There are a number of potential sailing routes around the tip of South America. The Strait of Magellan, between the mainland and Tierra del Fuego, is a major — although narrow — passage, which was in use for trade well before the Horn was discovered; the Beagle Channel, between Tierra del Fuego and Isla Navarino, offers a potential, though difficult route; and there are various passages around the Wollaston and Hermite Islands to the north of Cape Horn.[16] A true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image, the entire Strait is visible A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... Sea lions on La Isla de Los Lobos in the Beagle Channel Glacier on the north shore of the Beagle Channel Beagle Channel is a strait separating islands of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, in extreme southern South America. ... Isla Navarino is a Chilean island located strategically between Tierra del Fuego, by the north, and the Cape Horn, to the south. ...


All of these, however, are notorious for treacherous williwaw winds, which can strike a vessel with little or no warning;[17] given the narrowness of these routes, there is a significant risk of then being driven onto the rocks. The open waters of the Drake Passage, south of Cape Horn, provide by far the widest route, at about 650 kilometres (400 mi) wide; this passage offers ample sea room for maneuvering as winds change, and is the route used by most ships and sailboats, despite the possibility of extreme wave conditions.[4] A sudden blast of wind descending from a mountainous coast to the sea, in the Strait of Magellan or the Aleutian Islands. ...


Shipping hazards

Several factors combine to make the passage around Cape Horn one of the most hazardous shipping routes in the world: the fierce sailing conditions prevalent in the Southern Ocean generally; the geography of the passage south of the Horn; and the extreme southern latitude of the Horn, at 56° south. (For comparison, Cape Agulhas at the southern tip of Africa is at 35° south; Stewart Island at the south end of New Zealand is 47° south.) A marker at Cape Agulhas indicates the official dividing line between the Atlantic and Indian oceans. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Stewart Island is the third largest island of New Zealand. ...


The prevailing winds in latitudes below 40° south can blow from west to east around the world almost uninterrupted by land, giving rise to the "roaring forties" and the even more wild "furious fifties" and "screaming sixties". These winds are hazardous enough in themselves that ships traveling east would tend to stay in the northern part of the forties (i.e. not far below 40° south latitude); however, rounding Cape Horn requires ships to press south to 56° south latitude, well into the zone of fiercest winds.[18] These winds are further exacerbated at the Horn by the funneling effect of the Andes and the Antarctic peninsula, which channel the winds into the relatively narrow Drake Passage. The prevailing winds are the trends in speed and direction of wind over a particular point on the earths surface. ... The Roaring Forties is a name given, especially by sailors, to the latitudes between 40° and 50°, so called because of the boisterous and prevailing westerly winds. ... Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ...


The strong winds of the Southern Ocean give rise to correspondingly large waves; these waves can attain enormous size as they roll around the Southern Ocean, free of any interruption from land. At the Horn, however, these waves encounter an area of shallow water to the south of the Horn, which has the effect of making the waves shorter and steeper, greatly increasing the hazard to ships. If the strong eastward current through the Drake Passage encounters an opposing east wind, this can have the effect of further building up the waves.[19] In addition to these "normal" waves, the area west of the Horn is particularly notorious for rogue waves, which can attain heights of up to 30 metres (100 ft).[20] The Draupner wave, a single giant wave measured on New Years Day 1995, finally confirmed the existence of freak waves, which had previously been considered near-mythical Freak waves, also known as rogue waves or monster waves, are relatively large and spontaneous ocean surface waves which can sink even... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ...


The prevailing winds and currents create particular problems for vessels attempting to round the Horn against them, i.e. from east to west. Although this affects all vessels to some extent, it was a particularly serious problem for traditional sailing ships, which could make very little headway against the wind at the best of times;[21] modern sailing boats are significantly more efficient to windward and can more reliably make a westward passage of the Horn, as they do in the Global Challenge race. In recent times, only two small yachts have taken this route, John Kershmere did so on his 32 footer in the early 80's. Lin and Larry Pardey sailed west around the Cape in 2003 on an engineless 29 footer. The Global Challenge is a round the world yacht race run by Challenge Business, the company started by Sir Chay Blyth in 1989. ...


Finally, ice is a hazard to sailors venturing far below 40° south. Although the ice limit dips south around the horn, icebergs are a significant hazard for vessels in the area. In the South Pacific in February (summer in Southern Hemisphere), icebergs are generally confined to below 50° south; but in August the iceberg hazard can extend north of 40° south. Even in February, though, the Horn is well below the latitude of the iceberg limit.[22] These hazards have made the Horn notorious as perhaps the most dangerous ship passage in the world; many ships were wrecked, and many sailors died, attempting to round the Cape.


History

Discovery

Approaching Cape Horn from the south-west.

In 1525 the vessel San Lesmes commanded by Francisco de Hoces, member of the Loaísa Expedition, was blown south by a gale in front of the Atlantic end of Magellan Strait and reached 56º S where they thought to see Land's End. Photo of Cape Horn, taken January 2001 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 650px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo of Cape Horn, taken January 2001 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 650px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Francisco de Hoces (?, 1526?) was a Spanish sailor who in 1525 joined the Loaísa Expedition to the Spice Islands as commander of the vessel San Lesmes. ... Loaísa Expedition was a sea expedition between 1525 - 1526, to colonized the East Indies. ... The Strait of Magellan, near Punta Arenas The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland South America. ...


In September 1578, Sir Francis Drake, in the course of his circumnavigation of the world, passed through the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific Ocean. Before he could continue his voyage north his ships encountered a storm, and were blown well to the south of Tierra del Fuego. The expanse of open water they encountered led Drake to guess that far from being another continent, as previously believed, Tierra del Fuego was an island with open sea to its south. This discovery went unused for some time, as ships continued to use the known passage through the Strait of Magellan.[23] Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c. ...


By the early 1600s, the Dutch East India Company held a monopoly on all Dutch trade via the Strait of Magellan and the Cape of Good Hope, the only two known routes at the time to the Far East. In an effort to find an alternative route and hence break the monopoly, the Dutch merchant Jacob le Maire, together with navigator Willem Schouten, set off to investigate Drake's suggestion of a route to the south of Tierra del Fuego. Backed by the city leaders of the Dutch town of Hoorn, the expedition set off in two ships, Eendracht and Hoorn, in May, 1615. Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Jacob Le Maire (about 1585 to 1616) was a Dutch mariner, born in Antwerp, who circumnavigated the earth in 1615-16. ... Willem Cornelisz Schouten (1567?-1625) was a Dutch navigator. ...


Hoorn was accidentally destroyed in Patagonia, but in January, 1616, Eendracht passed through the Le Maire Strait, as it is now known, and sighted a high island to the south. They named the new cape "Kaap Hoorn", in honour of the expedition's sponsors.[4] At the time it was discovered, the Horn was believed to be the southernmost point of Tierra del Fuego; the unpredictable violence of weather and sea conditions in the Drake Passage made exploration difficult, and it was only in 1624 that the Horn was discovered to be an island. It is an interesting testament to the difficulty of conditions there that Antarctica, only 650 kilometres (400 mi) away across the Drake Passage, was discovered as recently as 1820, despite the passage having been used as a major shipping route for 200 years.[1] Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... The area around Cape Horn, including the Le Maire Strait. ...


Trade route

The clipper route followed by ships sailing between England and Australia/New Zealand passed around Cape Horn.

From the 1700s to the early 1900s, Cape Horn was a part of the clipper routes which carried much of the world's trade. Clipper ships sailed round the horn carrying wool, grain, and gold from Australia back to Europe;[24] much trade was carried around the Horn between Europe and the Far East; and trade and passenger ships travelled between the coasts of the United States via the Horn.[25][26] The Horn exacted a heavy toll from shipping, however, due to the extremely hazardous combination of conditions there. Image File history File links ClipperRoute. ... Image File history File links ClipperRoute. ... For other uses, see Clipper (disambiguation). ...


Traditionally, a sailor who had rounded the Horn was entitled to wear a gold loop earring — in the left ear, the one which had faced the Horn in a typical eastbound passage — and to dine with one foot on the table; a sailor who had also rounded the Cape of Good Hope could place both feet on the table.[27][28]


The transcontinental railroads in North America, as well as the Panama Canal in Central America, led to the gradual decrease in use of the Horn for trade. As steamships replaced sailing ships, Pamir became the last commercial sailing ship to round Cape Horn laden with cargo, en route from Australia to Finland in 1949. This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ... Paddle steamers — Lucerne, Switzerland. ... The Pamir on a 5p stamp of the Falkland Islands The Pamir was one of the Flying P-Liners, the famous sailing ships of the German shipping company F. Laeisz. ...


Recreational and sport sailing

Despite the opening of the Suez and Panama Canals, the Horn remains part of the fastest sailing route around the world, and so the growth in recreational long-distance sailing has brought about a revival of sailing via the Horn. Due to the remoteness of the location and the hazards there, a rounding of Cape Horn is widely considered to be the yachting equivalent of climbing Mount Everest, and so many sailors seek it out for its own sake.[29][30][31] Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... “Everest” redirects here. ...


The first small boat to sail around Cape Horn was the 42-foot (13 m) yacht Saoirse, sailed by Connor O'Brien with three friends, who rounded it during a circumnavigation of the world between 1923 and 1925.[1] In 1934, the Norwegian Al Hansen was the first to round Cape Horn single-handed from east to west — the "wrong way" — in his boat Mary Jane, but was subsequently wrecked on the coast of Chile.[32] The first person to successfully circumnavigate the world single-handed via Cape Horn was Vito Dumas, who made the voyage in 1942 in his 33-foot (10 m) ketch Lehg II; a number of other sailors have since followed him.[33] including Webb Chiles aboard "EGREGIOUS" who in December 1975 became the first American to round Cape Horn single-handed. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A boat sails by her self-steering system as the skipper tends her sails, while sailing in fine conditions off Key West. ... Vito Dumas was an Argentine single-handed sailor. ... Square Topsl Gaff Ketch Hawaiian Chieftain on San Francisco Bay A ketch is a sailing craft with two masts: A main mast, and a mizzen mast abaft the main mast. ...


Today, there are several major yacht races held regularly along the old clipper route via Cape Horn. The first of these was the Sunday Times Golden Globe Race, which was a single-handed race; this inspired the present-day Around Alone race, which circumnavigates with stops, and the Vendée Globe, which is non-stop. Both of these are single-handed races, and are held every four years. The Volvo Ocean Race is a crewed race with stops which sails the clipper route every four years. The Jules Verne Trophy is a prize for the fastest circumnavigation of the world by any type of yacht, with no restrictions on the size of the crew (no assistance, non-stop). Finally, the Global Challenge race goes around the world the "wrong way", from east to west, which involves rounding Cape Horn against the prevailing winds and currents. Robin Knox-Johnston finishing his circumnavigation of the world in Suhaili as the winner of the Golden Globe Race. ... The VELUX 5 Oceans Race is a round-the-world single-handed yacht race, sailed in stages. ... The Vendée Globe is a single-handed non-stop round the world yacht race. ... Volvo Ocean Race 2005 - 2006 logo Volvo Ocean Race (formerly the Whitbread Round the World Race) is a yacht race around the world, held every four years. ... The Jules Verne Trophy is a prize for the fastest circumnavigation of the world by any type of yacht with no restrictions on the size of the crew. ...


The Horn remains a major hazard for recreational sailors, however. A classic case is that of Miles and Beryl Smeeton, who attempted to round the Horn in their yacht Tzu Hang. Hit by a rogue wave when approaching the Horn, the boat pitchpoled (ie. somersaulted end-over-end). Although they survived, and were able to make repairs in Talcahuano, Chile, they attempted the passage again, only to be rolled over, and dismasted for a second time, by another rogue wave, which again they miraculously survived.[34] Talcahuano is a port city of Chile, lying near Concepción. ...


Literature and culture

Cape Horn has been an icon of sailing culture for centuries; it has featured in sea shanties[35] and in many books about sailing. One of the classic accounts of a working ship in the age of sail is Two Years Before the Mast, by Richard Henry Dana, Jr., in which the author describes an arduous trip from Boston to California via Cape Horn: Sea shanties (singular shanty, also spelled chantey; derived from the French word chanter, to sing) were shipboard working songs. ... Two Years Before the Mast a book by the American author Richard Henry Dana, Jr. ... Richard Henry Dana Jr. ...

Just before eight o'clock (then about sundown, in that latitude) the cry of "All hands ahoy!" was sounded down the fore scuttle and the after hatchway, and hurrying upon deck, we found a large black cloud rolling on toward us from the south-west, and blackening the whole heavens. "Here comes Cape Horn!" said the chief mate; and we had hardly time to haul down and clew up, before it was upon us. In a few moments, a heavier sea was raised than I had ever seen before, and as it was directly ahead, the little brig, which was no better than a bathing machine, plunged into it, and all the forward part of her was under water; the sea pouring in through the bow-ports and hawse-hole and over the knightheads, threatening to wash everything overboard. In the lee scuppers it was up to a man's waist. We sprang aloft and double reefed the topsails, and furled all the other sails, and made all snug. But this would not do; the brig was laboring and straining against the head sea, and the gale was growing worse and worse. At the same time sleet and hail were driving with all fury against us. We clewed down, and hauled out the reef-tackles again, and close-reefed the fore-topsail, and furled the main, and hove her to on the starboard tack. Here was an end to our fine prospects.[36]

Charles Darwin, in The Voyage of the Beagle, a journal of the five-year expedition upon which he based The Origin of Species, described his 1832 encounter with the Horn: For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... British naturalist Charles Darwins book, The Origin of Species, is one of the pivotal works in scientific literature and arguably the pre-eminent work in biology. ...

... we closed in with the Barnevelts, and running past Cape Deceit with its stony peaks, about three o'clock doubled the weather-beaten Cape Horn. The evening was calm and bright, and we enjoyed a fine view of the surrounding isles. Cape Horn, however, demanded his tribute, and before night sent us a gale of wind directly in our teeth. We stood out to sea, and on the second day again made the land, when we saw on our weather-bow this notorious promontory in its proper form — veiled in a mist, and its dim outline surrounded by a storm of wind and water. Great black clouds were rolling across the heavens, and squalls of rain, with hail, swept by us with such extreme violence, that the Captain determined to run into Wigwam Cove. This is a snug little harbour, not far from Cape Horn; and here, at Christmas-eve, we anchored in smooth water.[37]

Alan Villiers, a modern-day expert in traditional sailing ships, wrote many books about traditional sailing, including By way of Cape Horn.[38] More recent sailors have taken on the Horn singly, such as Vito Dumas, who wrote Alone Through The Roaring Forties based on his round-the-world voyage;[39] or with small crews. Captain Alan John Murray Villiers (1903-1982); Author, Adventurer, Photographer and Master Mariner. ... Vito Dumas was an Argentine single-handed sailor. ...


In the latter category, Hal and Margaret Roth did much to popularise ocean sailing with several books, including Two against Cape Horn, describing their voyage around the Horn;[40][41] and the father-son team of David and Daniel Hays describe their voyage as a bonding experience in My Old Man and the Sea.[42]


Bernard Moitessier made two significant voyages round the horn; once with his wife Françoise, described in Cape Horn: The Logical Route,[43] and once single-handed. His book The Long Way tells the story of this latter voyage, and of a peaceful night-time passage of the Horn: Bernard Moitessier (10 April 1925 Hanoi, Vietnam – 16 June 1994 near Paris, France) was a renowned French yachtsman and author of books about his voyages and sailing. ...

The little cloud underneath the moon has moved to the right. I look... there it is, so close, less than 10 miles away and right under the moon. And nothing remains but the sky and the moon playing with the Horn.

I look. I can hardly believe it. So small and so huge. A hillock, pale and tender in the moonlight; a colossal rock, hard as diamond.[44]

Further reading

  • Around Cape Horn: A Maritime Artist/Historian's Account of His 1892 Voyage, by Charles G. Davis and Neal Parker. Down East Books, 2004. ISBN 0-89272-646-6
  • Cape Horn. A Maritime History, by Robin Knox-Johnston. London Hodder&Stoughton ISBN 0-340-41527-4
  • Cape Horn: The Story of the Cape Horn Region, by Felix Riesenberg and William A. Briesemeister. Ox Bow Press, 1994. ISBN 1-881987-04-3
  • Cape Horn and Other Stories From the End of the World, by Francisco Coloane. Latin American Literary Review Press, 2003. ISBN 1-891270-17-6
  • Gipsy Moth Circles the World, Sir Francis Chichester; International Marine, 2001. ISBN 0-07-136449-8
  • Rounding the Horn: Being the Story of Williwaws and Windjammers, Drake, Darwin, Murdered Missionaries and Naked Natives - A Deck's-Eye View of Cape Horn, by Dallas Murphy. Basic Books, 2004. ISBN 0-465-04759-9
  • En el Mar Austral, by Fray Mocho. University of Buenos Aires Press (La Serie del Siglo y Medio), 1960. An incredible account of the southern tip of South American by an Argentine Journalist.
  • High Endeavours, by Miles Clark. Greystone, 2002. ISBN 1-55054-058-0 An account of the lives of the author's god-father Miles Smeeton, and his wife Beryl, including a couple of spectacular trips to the Horn.
  • Expediciones españolas al Estrecho de Magallanes y Tierra de fuego, by Javier Oyarzun. Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispánica ISBN 84-7232-130-4.
  • Storm Passage by Webb Chiles. Times Books ISBN 10-0812907035

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cape Horn

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Hermite Islands belong to Tierra del Fuego. ... The García de Nodal expedition was chartered in 1619 by King Philip II of Spain to reconnoitre the passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, south of Tierra del Fuego, just discovered by the Dutch merchants Jacob Le Maire and Willem Schouten. ... The Cabo de Hornos Biosphere Reserve is located in the extreme south of Chile, comprising marine areas, islands and forested coast. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... A marker at Cape Agulhas indicates the official dividing line between the Atlantic and Indian oceans. ... Cape Leeuwin Lighthouse, Western Australia The most south-westerly mainland point of the Australian Continent, in the state of Western Australia. ... A true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image, the entire Strait is visible A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... The 1984 Argentina and Chile Peace and Friendship Treaty (Spanish: Tratado de Paz y Amistad) was a agreement signed in 1984 between Argentina and Chile over the possession of the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands and sea located south of Tierra del Fuego resolving a serious border conflict between the... Map of Picton, Lennox and Nueva Picton, Lennox and Nueva is a group of three uninhabited islands (and their islets) located on the extreme south of South America, in the Chilean region Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena, near Navarino island and the southern coast of Isla Grande de Tierra...

References

  1. ^ a b c Cape Horn the Terrible, by Paolo Venanzangeli; from Nautical Web. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  2. ^ Cabo de Hornos, by Mariolina Rolfo and Giorgio Ardrizzi. From Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Nautical Guide, Editrice Incontri Nautici, 2004. ISBN 88-85986-34-X
  3. ^ Limits of Oceans and Seas. International Hydrographic Organization Special Publication No. 23, 1953.
  4. ^ a b c Perilous Cape Horn, by P.J. Gladnick; from eSsortment, 2002. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  5. ^ Rounding the Horn, by Dallas Murphy; Basic Books, 2004. ISBN 0-465-04759-9
  6. ^ Journeys in Time: Places, from Macquarie University Library, 2004. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  7. ^ Cape Horn, from Victory Cruises, 2005. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  8. ^ Isla Hornos Lighthouse, from Lighthouse Depot. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  9. ^ Around the Horn... Weather Permitting, by Michael DeFreitas; from TravelLady Magazine, 2003. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  10. ^ Cape Horn Memorial, by Roberto Benavente; from Fundacion Caphorniers Chile. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  11. ^ Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago, James C. Cokendolpher and Dolly Lanfranco L.; from Texas Tech University, 1985. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  12. ^ Ushuaia: Monthly Normals, from Weather Underground. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  13. ^ Isla Diego Ramirez: Monthly Normals, from Weather Underground. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  14. ^ U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World: Rounding Cape Horn, 1995. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  15. ^ (Spanish) Cabo de Hornos designado Reserva de la Biósfera, from CONAF. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  16. ^ Sailing the Patagonian channels, from Yachting Club CERN, 2005. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  17. ^ Winds of the World: The Williwaw, from Weather Online. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  18. ^ Along the Clipper Way, Francis Chichester; page 134. Hodder & Stoughton, 1966. ISBN 0-340-00191-7
  19. ^ Along the Clipper Way; pages 151-152.
  20. ^ Rogue waves, from Europa Research. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  21. ^ Along the Clipper Way; pages 72-73.
  22. ^ Atlas of Pilot Charts: South Pacific Ocean; Lighthouse Press, 2001. ISBN 1-57785-202-8
  23. ^ Voyage of the Golden Hind, from The Golden Hind. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  24. ^ Along the Clipper Way; page 7.
  25. ^ The Circumnavigators, by Don Holm; Around the Three Capes. Prentice-Hall, NY, 1974. ISBN 0131344528 Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  26. ^ North America and the Cape Horn Route, by Captain Harold D. Huycke; from Caphorniers Chile. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  27. ^ A Voyage for Madmen, by Peter Nichols; pages 4-5. Harper Collins, 2001. ISBN 0-06-095703-4
  28. ^ Covey Crump — "cape", Commander A. Covey-Crump, RN, 1955; from the Royal Navy. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  29. ^ Rob Duncan's Quest for Cape Horn, by Rob Duncan. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  30. ^ The Modern Cape Horner, from Victory Expeditions. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  31. ^ Cape Horn to Starboard, from Lin and Larry Pardey. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  32. ^ The Circumnavigators, by Don Holm; Chapter 15.
  33. ^ List Of Solo Circumnavigators, from the Joshua Slocum Society International. Retrieved February 12, 2006
  34. ^ Once Is Enough, by Miles Smeeton. International Marine Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-07-141431-2
  35. ^ Around Cape Horn, from Frank Petersohn. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  36. ^ Two Years Before the Mast: A Personal Narrative, by Richard Henry Dana; Chapter V, Cape Horn — A Visit. Signet Classics, 2000. ISBN 0-451-52759-3
  37. ^ The Voyage of the Beagle, by Charles Darwin. National Geographic, 2004. ISBN 0-7922-6559-9.
  38. ^ By way of Cape Horn, by Alan John Villiers. (Out of print.)
  39. ^ Alone Through The Roaring Forties, Vito Dumas; McGraw-Hill Education, 2001. ISBN 0-07-137611-9
  40. ^ Biography of Hal Roth, from Torresen Sailing. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  41. ^ Two against Cape Horn, by Hal Roth. Norton, 1978. ISBN 0-393-03223-X
  42. ^ My Old Man and the Sea: A Father and Son Sail Around Cape Horn, by David and Daniel Hays. Algonquin Books, 1995. ISBN 1-56512-102-3
  43. ^ Cape Horn: The Logical Route; 14,216 Miles Without Port of Call, by Bernard Moitessier. Sheridan House, 2003. ISBN 1-57409-154-9
  44. ^ The Long Way, by Bernard Moitessier; page 141. Sheridan House, 1995. ISBN 0-924486-84-8

February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links

68. Cape Horn to Starboard - Lin Pardey http://www.landlpardey.com Ellen MacArthur Dame Ellen Patricia MacArthur, DBE (born July 8, 1976) is an English sailor from Whatstandwell near Matlock in Derbyshire, now based in Cowes, on the Isle of Wight. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cape Horn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3467 words)
Cape Horn is the most southerly of the great capes, and marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage; for many years it was a major milestone on the clipper route, by which sailing ships carried trade around the world.
Cape Horn was originally given the Dutch name "Kaap Hoorn", in honour of the Dutch city of Hoorn; in a typical example of false friends, the Horn became known in English as "Cape Horn", and in Spanish as "Cabo de Hornos" (which literally means "Cape of Ovens").
Perilous Cape Horn, by P.J. Gladnick; from eSsortment, 2002.
Cape Horn - definition of Cape Horn in Encyclopedia (272 words)
Cape Horn is often said to be the southernmost point of South America.
The cape was first rounded by a European on January 26, 1616, by the Dutch expedition of Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire.
Cape Horn is notorious because of the poor weather conditions that made it difficult to round in sailing ships.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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