FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Capacitance Electronic Disc
Capacitance Electronic Discs

The CED disc, exposed from protective caddy
Media type: video playback media
Capacity: 60 minutes NTSC video per side, 27,000 frames per side[1]
Usage: Home video

The Capacitance Electronic Disc (or CED) was a video playback system developed by RCA, in which video and audio could be played back on a TV using a special analog needle and high-density groove system similar to phonograph records. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 670 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1145 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A half exposed CED. Showing the insides of the cover and the actual disk. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Playback could mean: Playback singing, a practice in Bollywood musicals. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... It has been suggested that video frame be merged into this article or section. ... The home video business rents and sells videocassettes and DVDs to the public. ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... “Tonearm” redirects here. ...


Introduced in 1981, the CED system was widely seen as a technological success which was able to increase the density of a long playing record by two orders of magnitude.[2] However, the CED system fell victim to poor planning, conflicts within RCA, and technical difficulties that stalled production of the system until 1981. Sales for the system were nowhere near projected estimates, and by 1986, RCA had discontinued the project, losing an estimated $600 million in the process. The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour (1967) as a 33 â…“ LP vinyl record A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove starting near the periphery and ending near the centre of the disc. ...


The format was commonly known as "videodisc", leading to much confusion with Laserdisc format, which is mutually incompatible with this format. Videodisc (or video disc) is a general term for a laser- or stylus-readable random-access circular disc that contains both audio and video signals recorded in an analog form. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ...


The name "SelectaVision" was RCA's brand name for the CED system. It was also used for some early RCA brand VCRs,[3] and other experimental projects at RCA.[4][5] The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ...

Contents

History

Beginnings and Release

RCA began videodisc research in 1964, in an attempt to produce a phonograph-like method of reproducing video. Research was slow in the early years of research and development, as the development team originally comprised only four men,[6] but by 1972, the CED team at RCA had produced a disc capable of holding ten minutes of color video (a portion of an episode of Get Smart).[7] Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Get Smart was an American comedy television series that satirized the secret agent genre. ...


The first CED prototype discs were multi-layered, implementing a nickel substrate within the platter. However, premature failure of the multilayer discs, usually from separation of the layers and resulting in damage to the player if a disc in such condition was played, forced RCA to search for solutions to the problem or alternative materials for constructing the disc.[8] The final disc would be crafted using PVC blended with carbon to allow the disc to be conductive. To preserve stylus and groove life, a thin layer of silicone was applied to the disc as a lubricant. [9] For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ...


CED videodiscs were originally meant to be handled by hand, but during testing, it was shown that people were likely to accidentally touch the signal surface of the disc, causing signal degradation at the touched area. Thus, an idea was developed in which the disc would be stored and handled in a caddy from which the CED would be extracted by the player.[10]


After seventeen years of research and development, the first CED player (model SFT100W) was released in March 1981. A catalog of approximately 50 titles was released at the same time.[11] Fifteen months later, RCA released the SGT200 and SGT250 players, both with stereo sound. Models with remote controls and random access hit the market in spring and fall, 1983, respectively. Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


Demise

Several problems doomed the new CED system almost from the start. From an early point in the development of the CED system, it was clear that VCRs and home videotape - with their longer storage capacity and recording capabilities - would pose a threat to the CED system.[12] However, development pushed ahead; to dispose of all the work done at RCA would have cost the company millions of dollars. Once finally released, sales for the new CED system were slow; RCA had expected to sell 200,000 players by the beginning of 1982, but only 100,000 had been sold, and throughout 1982 and '83, sales did not improve much.[2][13] The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ...

"...Machiavelli noted that '..there is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things...' At videodisc, I believe these words had special significance..."
Dr. Jay J. Brandinger, Vice President, RCA SelectaVision Videodisc Operations, June 27, 1986.[14]

The long period of development - caused in part by political turmoil and a great deal of turnover in the high command of RCA - also contributed to the demise of the CED system. RCA had originally slated the videodisc system for a 1977 release. However, the discs were still not able to hold more than thirty minutes of video per side, and the nickel-like material used by RCA to make discs was not sturdy enough to put into manufacturing. Signal degradation was also an issue, as the handling of the discs was causing them to deteriorate more rapidly than expected, baffling engineers. RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


RCA had hoped that by 1991 CED players would be in close to 50% of American homes,[2] but the sales of players continued to drop. RCA attempted to cut the prices of CED players and offer special incentives to consumers, but sales did not recover, and by 1984, executives realized that the system would not be as successful as projected and cancelled production of CED players.[13] In a strange twist, sales of the videodiscs themselves were twice the projected rate, so RCA announced that videodiscs would be produced for at least another three years after the discontinuation of players. After this announcement, the sale of discs declined severely, causing RCA to abandon disc production after only two years.[15] The last titles released were The Jewel of the Nile by CBS/Fox Video,[16] and Memories of VideoDisc, a commemorative CED given to many RCA employees involved with the CED project,[17] both in 1986. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... The Jewel of the Nile is a sequel to the 1984 romantic adventure Romancing the Stone featuring Michael Douglas, Kathleen Turner, and Danny DeVito, the stars of the first film. ... CBS/Fox Video was a home video company formed and established in 1982. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


How CEDs worked

CEDs were 12 inch (305 mm) conductive vinyl platters, with a spiral groove on both sides. A keel-shaped needle with a titanium electrode layer would ride in the groove with extremely light tracking force, and an electronic circuit was formed through the disc and stylus. The video and audio signals were stored on the Videodiscs using pits in the bottom of the groove; the stylus rode over these pits, but they affected the capacitance between the stylus and the conductive carbon-loaded PVC disc. This in turn altered the frequency of a resonant circuit, and this signal was then decoded from an FM state into video and audio signals. Capacitance is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. ... PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ... FreQuency is a music video game developed by Harmonix and published by SCEI. It was released in November 2001. ... Categories: Technology stubs ... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length...


The discs rotated at 450 rpm, and each revolution held 4 frames of interlaced video. (For PAL the discs spin at 500 rpm and 3 frames per revolution). The disc was stored inside a caddy. The disc itself was surrounded by a "spine", a plastic ring (actually square on the outside edge) with a thick, straight rim-like edge, which extended outside of, and latched into, the caddy. When the disc was inserted into the player, the player captured the spine, and both the disc and the spine were left in the player as the caddy was pulled out. On the inner edges of the outlet of the caddy, there were felt strips designed to catch any strands of fiber or dust that could be on the disc as it was extracted. Interlacing is a method of displaying images on a raster-scanned display device, such as a cathode ray tube (CRT). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ...


The player then lowered the disc onto the turntable (actually just a hub), spun it up, and moved the stylus onto the disc to start playing.


The stylus arm was surrounded by coils which sensed deflection, and moved it in steps as the groove pulled it across the disc. Other coils were used to deflect the stylus, to adjust for tracking errors. // Computer music Tracking is the art of creating tracking modules for the computer representation of music. ...


When STOP was pressed, the stylus was lifted from the disc and returned to its parking place, and the disc and spine lifted back up to align with the caddy slot. When ready the slot was unlocked, and the caddy could be inserted and withdrawn, now with the disc back inside.


Advantages of CEDs

CED players, from an early point in their life, appealed to a lower-class market than VHS, Betamax, and Laserdisc; although the video quality (approx 3MHz of luma bandwidth for CED [18]) was sub-par compared to Laserdisc (about 5Mhz of luma bandwidth), but about equal to VHS-SP and Beta-II videotape (approx 3 MHz luma bandwidth), and the players frequently skipped and exhibited other problems. CED players became very popular among middle- and lower-class families, especially after RCA dramatically slashed the prices of unsold CED players.[15] Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ...


Like VCRs, CED videodisc players had features like rapid forward/reverse and visual search forward/reverse. They also had a pause feature, though it blanked the screen rather than displaying a still image.


Since CEDs were a disc-based system, they did not require rewinding. Early discs were generally monaural but later discs included stereo sound. Other discs could be switched between two separate mono audio tracks, providing features such as bilingual audio capability. Label for 1. ... Label for 2. ...


Each side of a CED disc could be split into up to 63 "chapters", or bands. Two late RCA players (the SJT400 and SKT400) could access these bands in any given order. Novelty discs and CED-based games were produced whereby accessing the chapters in a specified order would string together a different story each time. However, only a few were produced before the halt of CED player manufacturing.[19]


Disadvantages of CEDs

In comparison to VCR and laserdisc technology, CEDs suffered from the fact that they were a phonograph-like contact media. RCA estimated that the number of times a CED could be played back, under ideal conditions, was 500,[20]. By comparison, a clean, laser rot-free laserdisc could be played an unlimited number of times. A VHS tape could be played a "reasonable"[citation needed] number of times in 20-25 years. Since the system used a stylus to read the discs, it was necessary to regularly change the stylus in the player to avoid damage to the videodiscs. The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Worn and damaged discs also caused problems for consumers. When a disc began to wear, video and audio quality would severely decline, and the disc would begin to skip more.[20] Several discs suffered from a condition called "video virus", where a CED would skip a great deal due to dust particles stuck in the grooves of the disc. However, playing the disc several times would generally solve this problem.[21]


Unlike VHS, CEDs required a disc flip at some point during the course of the film, due to the fact that only sixty minutes of video could be stored per side. If a feature ran over two hours, it was necessary to insert another disc. This problem was not unique to CEDs, as Laserdiscs presented the same difficulty.


Less significant disadvantages include lack of support for freeze-frame during pause since CEDs scanned four frames in one rotation versus one frame per rotation on CAV LaserDisc nor was computer technology advanced enough for framebuffers at the time. A freeze frame shot is used when one shot is printed in a single frame several times, in order to make an interesting illusion of a still photograph. ...


Available CED Material

Hardware

CED players were manufactured by four companies - RCA, Hitachi, Sanyo, and Toshiba, but seven other companies marketed players manufactured by these companies.[22][23] It has been suggested that Hitachi Works be merged into this article or section. ... Sanyo Electric Co. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ...

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

Software

Upon release, 50 titles were available for the CED; along with RCA, CBS Video Enterprises (later CBS/FOX Video) produced the first 50 titles[14]. Eventually, Disney, Paramount Pictures, MCA, MGM, Vestron Video, and other labels began to produce CED discs under their own home video labels, and did so until the end of disc manufacturing in 1986.


Milestones

Race For Your Life, Charlie Brown is a 1977 animated film produced by United Feature Syndicate for Paramount Pictures, directed by Bill Melendez and Phil Roman, and based on the Peanuts comic strip. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... A 2. ... Amarcord (1973), directed by Federico Fellini, is a semi-autobiographical coming-of-age tale that combines poignancy with bawdy comedy. ... This article is about the year. ...

See also

Videodisc (or video disc) is a general term for a laser- or stylus-readable random-access circular disc that contains both audio and video signals recorded in an analog form. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ...

Resources

  • Cowie, Jefferson R. Capital Moves: RCA's Seventy-Year Quest for Cheap Labor. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8014-3525-0.
  • Daynes, Rob and Beverly Butler. The VideoDisc Book: A Guide and Directory. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1984. ISBN 0-471-80342-1.
  • DeBloois, Michael L., ed. VideoDisc/Microcomputer Courseware Design. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications, 1982. ISBN 0-87778-183-4.
  • Floyd, Steve, and Beth Floyd, eds. The Handbook of Interactive Video. White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications. 1982. ISBN 0-86729-019-6.
  • Graham, Margaret B.W. RCA and the VideoDisc: The Business of Research. (Also as: The Business of Research: RCA and the VideoDisc.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-521-32282-0, ISBN 0-521-36821-9.
  • Haynes, George R. Opening Minds: The Evolution of Videodiscs & Interactive Learning. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1989. ISBN 0-8403-5191-7.
  • Howe, Tom. CED Magic: The RCA VideoDisc Collector's Guide. Portland, OR: CED Magic, 1999. ISBN 0-9670013-0-7. (CD-ROM)
  • Isailovi´c, Jordan. VideoDisc and Optical Memory Systems. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1985. ISBN 0-13-942053-3.
  • Lardner, James. Fast Forward: Hollywood, the Japanese, and the VCR Wars. (Also as: Fast Forward: Hollywood, the Japanese, and the Onslaught of the VCR.) New York: W. W. Norton & Co Inc., 1987. ISBN 0-393-02389-3.
  • Lenk, John D. Complete Guide to Laser/VideoDisc Player Troubleshooting and Repair. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1985. ISBN 0-13-160813-4.
  • Schneider, Edward W., and Junius L. Brennion. The Instructional Media Library: VideoDiscs, (Volume 16). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. ISBN 0-87778-176-1. 1981.
  • Sigel, Efrem, Mark Schubin and Paul F. Merrill. Video Discs: The Technology, the Applications and the Future. White Plains, N.Y. : Knowledge Industry Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-914236-56-3. ISBN 0-442-27784-9.
  • Sobel, Robert. RCA. New York: Stein and Day/Publishers, 1986. ISBN 0-8128-3084-9.
  • Sonnenfeldt, Richard. Mehr als ein Leben (More than One Life). ?, 2003. ISBN 3-502-18680-4. (In German.)
  • Journals:
    • The Videodisc Monitor
    • Videodisc News
    • Videodisc/Optical Disk Magazine
    • Video Computing

References

  1. ^ RCA SelectaVision VideoDisc FAQ - What are the technical specifications of the RCA VideoDisc system?. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  2. ^ a b c RCA SelectaVision VideoDisc FAQ - Why did the CED system fail to even come close to RCA's expected market penetration?. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  3. ^ VBT200 - The First RCA SelectaVision VHS Video Cassette Recorder (VCR). CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
  4. ^ HoloTape. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.
  5. ^ MagTape. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.
  6. ^ First Successful RCA SelectaVision VideoDisc Produced in 1972. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
  7. ^ Lum Fong - First Successful RCA VideoDisc Web Page. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.
  8. ^ Metallized (sic) Dielectric CED VideoDisc Cross Section from 1977. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  9. ^ CED Manufacturing 24 - Silicone Coating Applied to Disc Before Caddy Insertion. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  10. ^ Comparison of 1977 CED Media to Final Production Media. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  11. ^ Race For Your Life, Charlie Brown - The First RCA VideoDisc Title. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  12. ^ Richard Sonnenfeldt's "VIDEODISK" Book Chapter. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  13. ^ a b RCA SelectaVision VideoDisc FAQ - Why did RCA abandon further development of the CED system in April 1984?. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  14. ^ a b Jay J. Brandinger. Memories of VideoDisc [Capacitance Electronic Disc]. Rockville Road, Indiana: RCA, Inc..
  15. ^ a b Memories of VideoDisc - CED Retailing at G&M Video in Indiana. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  16. ^ Memories of VideoDisc - Milestones - The Last Production CED Title. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
  17. ^ Memories of RCA VideoDisc Main Page. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
  18. ^ RCA SelectaVision VideoDisc FAQ - What are the technical specifications of the RCA VideoDisc system?. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  19. ^ A Walk Through the Universe CED Web Page. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  20. ^ a b RCA SelectaVision VideoDisc FAQ - How long can I expect my CED VideoDiscs to last?. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
  21. ^ RCA SelectaVision VideoDisc FAQ - Why do some of my CED's skip, and what can I do to correct this?. CEDMagic.com.
  22. ^ RCA SelectaVision VideoDisc FAQ - Who manufactured CED Players, and how many different models are there?. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  23. ^ CED Player Name Brand Links. CEDMagic.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
SelectaVision - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1291 words)
First prototypes of CED discs were multilayered, implementing a nickel substrate within the platter.
The disc itself is surrounded by the "spine", a plastic ring (actually squarish on the outside edge) with a thick, straight rimlike edge, which extends outside of and latches into the caddy, serving as a cover.
In order to flip a CED disc, the disc's sleeve would be inserted into the player to enclose and store the platter, and the sleeve would then be removed (with platter now inside), flipped over, and reinserted into the player (which would again extract the platter, now with the reverse side facing the stylus).
Videodisc (777 words)
The capacitance system was developed in the 1960s and was used in commercial broadcasting applications prior to the development of videotape.
Capacitance systems were able to play full bandwidth images by means of a stylus riding in the grooves of the videodisc that translated variations in electrical capacitance into video and audio signals.
Although the LD video disc's shiny acrylic surface resembles that of digital audio compact discs (CDs), the laser disc differs in that it may be encoded with both analog and digital data.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m