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Encyclopedia > Cao Cao
Names
Simplified Chinese: 曹操
Traditional Chinese: 曹操
Pinyin: Cáo Cāo
Wade-Giles: Ts'ao² Ts'ao¹
Zi: Mèngdé (孟德)
Infant name: A-Man (阿瞞)
Ji-Li (吉利)
Temple Name: Wudi (武帝) or Taizu (太祖)
Posthumous name: Wu (武)

Cáo Cāo (155March 15, 220, pronounced Ts'au Ts'au) was a regional warlord and the second last Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China. As one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms period, he laid down foundations for what was to become the Kingdom of Wei (also known as Cáo Wèi) and was posthumously titled Emperor Wu of Wei. Although often portrayed as a cruel and merciless tyrant, Cao Cao has also been praised as a brilliant ruler and military genius who treated his officers like his family. He was also skilled in poetry and the martial arts, and wrote many war journals. Image File history File links Portrait of Cao Cao by unknown artist File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name, is an extra name that could be used in place of the given name. ... Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... Events Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius starts a new war against the Parthians Pope Anicetus succeeds Pope Pius I First year of Yongshou era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Dio Cassius, Roman historian Cao Cao, future ruler of the Kingdom of Wei Deaths July 11 - Pope Pius I Saint Polycarp... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (75th in leap years). ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Chancellor of China 丞相 (Cheng Xiang) or 宰相 (Zai Xiang), was the highest rank in the imperial government in former China after the emperor (685 BC-6 BC, 189-1380). ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ...

Contents

Life

Early life

Cao Cao was born in the county of Qiao (譙, present day Bozhou, Anhui) in 155. His father Cao Song (曹嵩) was a foster son of Cao Teng (曹騰), who in turn was one of the favorite eunuchs of Emperor Huan. Some historical records, including Biography of Cao Man, claim that Cao Song was originally surnamed Xiahou (thus making Cao Cao a cousin of Xiahou Dun and Xiahou Yuan, two of his most prominent generals). In Romance of the Three Kingdoms, it states that Cao Cao's father was originally a Xiahou and was adopted into the Cao family. Bozhou (亳州; pinyin: Bózhōu) is a city in northwestern Anhui, China (Bozhou_shi). ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Events Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius starts a new war against the Parthians Pope Anicetus succeeds Pope Pius I First year of Yongshou era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Dio Cassius, Roman historian Cao Cao, future ruler of the Kingdom of Wei Deaths July 11 - Pope Pius I Saint Polycarp... Cao Song was the father of Cao Cao. ... Cao Teng (? - ?) was a eunuch who served the Han Dynasty in its later years. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) A eunuch is a castrated man; the term usually refers to those castrated in order to perform a specific social function, as was common in many societies of the past. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Xiahou Dun (? – 220) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Xiahou Yuan (? – 219) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ...


Cao Cao was known for his craftiness as a young man. According to the Biography of Cao Man, Cao Cao's uncle often complained to Cao Song regarding Cao Cao's childhood indulgence in hunting and music with Yuan Shao. To counter this, Cao Cao one day feigned a fit before his uncle, who hurriedly informed Cao Song. Cao Song rushed out to see his son, who was by then back to normal. When asked, Cao Cao replied, "I have never had such illness, but I lost the love of my uncle, and therefore he had deceived you." Henceforth, Cao Song ceased to believe the words of his brother regarding Cao Cao, and thus Cao Cao became even more blatant in his wayward pursuits. Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ...


At that time, there was a man living in Runan (汝南) named Xu Shao (許劭) who was famed for his ability to evaluate one's potentials and talents. Cao Cao paid him a visit in hopes of receiving the evaluation that will earn him some reputation politically. Originally Xu Shao pondered and refused to make a statement; however, under persistent questioning, he finally said, "You would be a capable minister in peaceful times and an unscrupulous hero in chaotic times." Cao Cao took this as a compliment and was very pleased as it was recorded that he "laughs and leaves" after receiving said comment. It is worth noting that there are two other versions of the comment in other unofficial historical records: "capable minister in peaceful times, righteous hero in chaotic times"[citation needed] and "sinister foe in peaceful times, great hero in chaotic times."[citation needed] Runan (Traditional Chinese:汝南縣; Simplified Chinese:汝南县) is a county in Zhumadian, Henan, China. ...


At twenty, Cao Cao was recommended to be a district captain of Luoyang. Upon taking up the post, Cao Cao placed rows of multicolored staffs outside his office and ordered his deputies to flog those who violated the law, regardless of their status. An uncle of Jian Shuo, one of the most powerful and influential eunuch under Emperor Ling, was once caught walking in the city beyond the evening curfew hour by Cao Cao and given his fair share of flogging. This prompted Jian Shuo and other higher authorities to "promote" Cao Cao to another position outside the imperial capital to remove his management. Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Jian Shuo was the leader of the Eunuch Faction of the Han Imperial Court in China, along with Zhang Rang. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


When the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in 184 Cao Cao was recalled to Luoyang and promoted to a captain of the cavalry (騎都尉) and sent to Yingchuan (潁川) to put down the rebels there. He was successful in his military exploits and was further promoted to Governor of Dong Commandery (東郡). Combatants Yellow Turbans Han Dynasty Commanders Zhang Jiao Zhang Bao Zhang Liang He Jin Huangfu Song Lu Zhi Zhu Jun Dong Zhuo Cao Cao Strength 360,000 Various Casualties Unknown Unknown The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a... Events The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out in China. ...


Alliance against Dong Zhuo

In 189, Emperor Ling died and was succeeded by his eldest son, though it was the empress dowager and the eunuchs who held true power. The two most powerful generals of that time, He Jin and Yuan Shao, plotted to eliminate the clan of influential eunuchs. He Jin summoned Dong Zhuo, governor of Liangzhou (凉州), to lead his army into the capital Luoyang to lay pressure on the empress dowager, despite numerous objections on account of Dong Zhuo's reputation and personality. Before Dong Zhuo arrived, however, He Jin was assassinated by the eunuchs and Luoyang fell into chaos as the supporters of Yuan Shao battled the army of Eunuchs. Dong Zhuo's elite army (elite soldiers had been assigned to him due to the importance of his position on safeguarding the border) easily rid the palace ground of opposition and deposed the emperor and placed in the throne the puppet Emperor Xian. While Dong Zhuo did desire personal power with this opportunity, he did want to restore the Han Dynasty and resolve the political conflicts. From a previous encounter, he deemed that Emperor Xian was more capable than the original puppet Emperor. [1] Combatants Anti-Dong Zhuo Coalition Dong Zhuo Commanders Yuan Shao Dong Zhuo The Campaign against Dong Zhuo (董卓討伐戰) in 190 was initiated by a coalition of regional officials hoping to end Chancellor Dong Zhuos influence in the ailing Han court in China. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... He Jin (? – 189) was the elder half-brother of Empress He, consort to Emperor Ling of the late Eastern Han Dynasty. ... Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ... Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: DÇ’ng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


After lying to Wang Yun and others about assassinating Dong Zhuo, Cao Cao left Luoyang for Chenliu (陳留, southeast of present day Kaifeng, Henan, Cao Cao's home town), where he raised his own troops. The next year, regional warlords combined their forces under Yuan Shao against Dong Zhuo. Cao Cao joined their cause. China fell into civil war when Dong Zhuo's own foster son, Lü Bu, eventually killed him in 192. Wang Yun was the father of Diao Chan, and is most famous for creating the great rift that led to the death of Dong Zhuo at the hands of Lu Bu. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... LÇš Bù (156 – 198) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Commodus assassinated by a wrestler named Narcissus at the behest of Commodus concubine, chamberlain and Praetorian prefect. ...


Securing the emperor

Through short-term and regional-scale wars, Cao Cao continued to expand his power.


In 196, Cao Cao found and convinced Emperor Xian to move the capital to Xuchang as per the suggestion from Xun Yu and other advisors (as Luoyang was ruined by war and Chang'an was not under Cao Cao's military control), and he was proclaimed Chancellor. Cao Cao was then instated as the General-in-Chief (大將軍) and Marquis of Wuping (武平侯), though both titles had little practical implication. While some viewed the Emperor as a puppet under Cao Cao's power, Cao Cao himself adhered to a strict personal rule to his death that he would not usurp the throne. Later in his life, when he was approached by his advisors to take over the Han Dynasty and start a new rule, he replied, "If heaven bestows such fate on me, let me be the King Wen of Zhou." [2] Events First year of Jianan era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Clodius Albinus, rival for Roman Emperor, leaves the province of Britain with all of the islands troops, and makes Gaul his headquarters. ... Xuchang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Xun Yu (荀彧) was one of Cao Caos greatest advisors during the Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... King Wen of Zhou (chinese: 周文王, pinyin: zhou1 wen2 wang2) (1099-1050 BC) was the founder of the later 周朝 Zhou Dynasty. ...


To maintain a good relationship with Yuan Shao, who had become the most powerful warlord in China when he united the northern four provinces, Cao Cao lobbied to have Yuan Shao named Chief Advisor (司空). This however had the exact opposite effect, as Yuan Shao believed that Cao Cao was trying to humiliate him after having the Emperor's support, since Chief Advisor technically rank lower than General-in-Chief, and thus Yuan Shao refused to accept the title. To calm Yuan Shao down, Cao Cao offered his own position, General-in-Chief, to Yuan Shao, while taking Chief Advisor role himself. While this temporarily resolved the conflict, it was nevertheless the catalyst for the Battle of Guandu later. The Battle of Guandu (官渡之戰) was a battle in Chinese history. ...


Uniting the North

See also: Cao Cao's unification of northern China

In 200, Yuan Shao amassed more than 100,000 troops and marched southwards on Xuchang in the name of rescuing the emperor. Cao Cao gathered 20,000 men in Guandu, a strategic point on the shore of the Yellow River. The two armies come to a standstill as neither side was able to make much progress. Cao Cao's lack of men did not allow him to make significant attacks, and the pride of Yuan Shao forced himself to target Cao Cao's force head-on. Despite Yuan Shao's overwhelming advantage in terms of manpower, Cao Cao's location and his own indecisive leadership made him unable to make full use of his resources. Cao Caos unification of northern China was an important transitionary period in Chinese history. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... The Battle of Guandu (官渡之戰) was a battle in Chinese history. ... Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hé ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the seventh longest in the world, at 3,395 miles long [1]. Originating in the...


Besides the middle battleground of Guandu, two lines of battles were present. The eastern line with Yuan Tan of Yuan Shao's army versus Xang Ba of Cao Cao's army was a one-sided battle in favor of Cao Cao, as Yuan Tan's own questionable leadership was no match for Xang Ba's local knowledge of the landscape and hit-and-run tactics. To the western side, Yuan Shao's cousin, Gao Gan, performed much better against Cao Cao's army and forced several reinforcements from Cao Cao's main camp to maintain the western battle. Liu Bei, who was at the time a guest in Yuan Shao's army, also suggested to induce uprising in the back of Cao Cao's lands as there were many connections to the Yuan family and their subordinates. The tactic was successful at first, but quickly countered due to Man Chong's diplomatic skills. Man Chong had been placed as an official there for this specific reason as foreseen by Cao Cao before the battle. Yuán Tán (Chinese: ; pinyin: yuán tán) (173 – 205) was the eldest son of the warlord Yuan Shao and served as a military commander under his father during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Man Chong (满宠; ? – 242) was an officer of Cao Cao and later the Kingdom of Wei. ...


Finally, with the help of a defector from Yuan Shao's army, Xu You, who informed Cao Cao of the location of Yuan Shao's army supply, Cao Cao broke the standstill and sent a special task force to burn all the supplies of Yuan Shao's army and won a decisive and seemingly impossible victory. Yuan Shao fell ill and died shortly after returning from the defeat, leaving his legacy to two of his sons – the eldest son, Yuan Tan and the youngest son, Yuan Shang (袁尚). As he had designated the youngest son, Yuan Shang, as his successor, rather than the eldest as tradition dictated, the two brothers consistently feuded against each other, as they fought Cao Cao. Because of their internal divisions, Cao Cao was easily able to defeat them by using their differences to his advantage. Henceforth Cao Cao assumed effective rule over all of northern China. He sent armies further out and extended his control past the Great Wall into northern Korea, and southward to the Han River. Yuán Tán (Chinese: ; pinyin: yuán tán) (173 – 205) was the eldest son of the warlord Yuan Shao and served as a military commander under his father during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Yuan Shang the third son of Yuan Shao. ... A section of the Great Wall near Beijing during winter The course of the Great Wall is shown in this map dated from 1805 The Great Wall (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally long city wall) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built between 5th century... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Han River is the name of four unrelated rivers: Han River, or Han Gang, is a river in Korea, passing through Seoul and entering the Yellow Sea Han River, or Han Shui, is a tributary of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in central China Han River, or Han Jiang, is...


However, Cao Cao's attempt to extend his domination south of the Yangtze River was unsuccessful. He received an initial great success when Liu Biao, ruler of Jing Zhou, died, and his successor, Liu Zong surrendered to Cao Cao without resistance. Delighted by this turn-out (Cao Cao, a devoted follower of Sun Zi's Art of War, also considered "defeating your enemy without battle" to be the highest form of achievement of war) he pressed on and hoped the same would happen despite the objections by his military advisors. His forces were then defeated by the first coalition of his archrivals Liu Bei and Sun Quan (who later founded the kingdoms of Shu and Wu respectively) at the Red Cliffs in 208. The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབྲི་ཆུ་; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: SÅ«n Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The Kingdom of Wu (Chinese: 吳, pinyin: wú) refers to a historical nation and several states in a region of China. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Summary of major events
155 Born in Qiao.
180s Led troops against Yellow Turban Rebellion in Yingchuan.
190 Joined the coalition against Dong Zhuo.
196 Received Emperor Xian in Xuchang.
200 Won the Battle of Guandu.
208 Lost the Battle of Red Cliffs.
213 Created the Duke of Wei and given ten commanderies as his dukedom.
216 Conferred the title of the Prince/King of Wei.
220 Died in Luoyang.
  Throned posthumously as Emperor Wu.

Combatants Yellow Turbans Han Dynasty Commanders Zhang Jiao Zhang Bao Zhang Liang He Jin Huangfu Song Lu Zhi Zhu Jun Dong Zhuo Cao Cao Strength 360,000 Various Casualties Unknown Unknown The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a... Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: Dǒng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Xuchang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Battle of Guandu (官渡之戰) was a battle in Chinese history. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Cao Caos position after/during the war. ...

The three kingdoms

In 213, Cao Cao was titled Duke of Wei (魏公), given the nine bestowments and given a fief of ten cities under his domain, known as the State of Wei. In 216, Cao Cao was promoted to Prince/King of Wei (魏王). Over the years, Cao Cao, as well as Liu Bei and Sun Quan, continued to consolidate their power in their respective regions. Through many wars, China became divided into three powers – Wei, Shu and Wu, which fought sporadic battles among themselves without the balance tipping significantly in anyone's favor. For other uses, see 213 (disambiguation). ... The nine bestowments (九錫) were awards given by Chinese emperors to extraordinary officials, ostensibly to reward them for their accomplishments. ... Events The Baths of Caracalla in Britain is divided into Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. ...


In 220, Cao Cao died in Luoyang at the age of 65, failing to unify China under his rule. His will instructed that he be buried in everyday clothes and without burial artifacts, and that his subjects on duty at the frontier to stay in their posts and not attend the funeral as, in his own words, "the country is still unstable". Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ...


His eldest surviving son Cao Pi succeeded him. Within a year, Cao Pi forced Emperor Xian to abdicate and proclaimed himself the first emperor of the Kingdom of Wei. Cao Cao was then posthumously titled Emperor Wu. Cáo Pī (曹丕, 187 - 226), formally Emperor Wen of (Cao) Wei (曹魏文帝), courtesy name Zihuan (子桓), was born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery (modern Bozhou, Anhui). ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... Cao Caos position after/during the war. ...


Major battles

Battle of Guandu

Main article: Battle of Guandu

In the spring of 200, Yuan Shao (袁紹), the most powerful warlord of the north, amassed more than 100,000 troops and marched from Ye on Xuchang. To defend against the invasion, Cao Cao placed 20,000 men at Guandu (官渡), a strategic landing point on the shore of the Yellow River which Yuan Shao's troops had to secure en route Xuchang (許昌). The Battle of Guandu (官渡之戰) was a battle in Chinese history. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ... Ye was a city in ancient China. ... Xuchang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hé ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the seventh longest in the world, at 3,395 miles long [1]. Originating in the...


With a few diversionary tactics, Cao Cao managed to disorient Yuan Shao's troops as well as kill two of Yuan Shao's most capable generals, Yan Liang and Wen Chou. The morale of Yuan Shao's troops suffered a further blow when Cao Cao launched a stealth attack on the former's food store, Wuchao. Many more of Yuan Shao's men surrendered or deserted than were killed during the ensuing battle. When Yuan Shao eventually retreated back to Ye in the winter of 201, he did so with little more than 800 light cavalry. Yan Liang (颜良) was a general serving under Yuan Shao during the Eastern Han Dynasty period of ancient China. ... Wen Chou was a great military general under Yuan Shao nearing the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China. ... Wu Chao was the location of the stores for Yuan Shaos army at the battle of Guandu. ... For the New Jersey area code, see Area code 201. ...


The Battle of Guandu shifted the balance of power in northern China. Yuan Shao (袁紹) died shortly after his retreat and his two sons were soon defeated by Cao Cao further in the northern regions of Liaodong (遼東). Since then, Cao Cao's dominance in the entirety of northern China was never seriously challenged. The battle has also been studied by military strategists ever since as a classic example of winning against an enemy with far superior numbers. The Liaodong Peninsula (sim. ...

Traditional site of the Red Cliffs, north of Wulin

Photo of the traditional site of Chibi, north of Wulin, taken in 2003. ... Photo of the traditional site of Chibi, north of Wulin, taken in 2003. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wulin is the fictional society of Chinese martial arts heroes in Wuxia fiction. ...

Battle of Red Cliffs

Main article: Battle of Chibi

The Battle of Chibi (literally, "Red Cliffs") was another classic battle where the vastly outnumbered emerged as victor through strategy. In this battle, however, Cao Cao was on the losing end. Battle of Red Cliffs Conflict Wars of the Three Kingdoms Date Winter, 208 Place Chi Bi (Red Cliffs), Chang Jiang Result Decisive Wu and Shu victory Battle of Red Cliffs (赤壁之戰 Battle of Chibi) was a decisive battle of the wars of the Three Kingdoms in China. ...


In the winter of 208, Liu Bei and Sun Quan – two warlords who later founded the kingdoms of Shu and Wu respectively – formed their first coalition against the southward expansion of Cao Cao. The two sides confronted at the Red Cliffs (northwest of present day Chibi City, Hubei). Cao Cao boasted 830,000 men (historians believe the realistic number was around 220,000), while the Liu-Sun coalition at best had 50,000 troops. hello my name is marco u ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: SÅ«n Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The Kingdom of Wu (Chinese: 吳, pinyin: wú) refers to a historical nation and several states in a region of China. ... Chibi City (赤壁市) is a Chinese city of about 133,000 in Hubei province. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


However, Cao Cao's men, mostly from the north, were ill-suited to the southern climate and naval warfare, and thus entered the battle with a disadvantage. Furthermore, a plague that broke out undermined the strength of Cao Cao's army. The decision by Zhou Yu, military advisor to Sun Quan, to use fire also worked effectively against Cao Cao's vessels, which were chained together and thus allowed the fires to quickly spread. A majority of Cao Cao's troops were either burnt to death or drowned. Those who tried to retreat to the near bank were ambushed and annihilated by enemy skirmishers. Cao Cao himself barely escaped the encounter. Zhou Yu (175 - 210) was a famous militarist and strategist of Eastern Wu of the Three Kingdoms period of China. ...


Other contributions

Agriculture and education

While waging military campaigns against his enemies, Cao Cao did not forget the basis of society – agriculture and education.


In 194, a locust plague caused a major famine across China. According to the Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, the people ate each other out of desperation. Without food, many armies were defeated even without fighting. From this experience, Cao Cao saw the importance of an ample food supply in building a strong military. He began a series of agricultural programs in cities such as Xuchang and Chenliu. Refugees were recruited and given wastelands to cultivate. Later, encampments not faced with imminent danger of war were also made to farm. This system was continued and spread to all regions under Cao Cao as his realm expanded. Although Cao Cao's primary intention was to build a powerful army, the agricultural program also improved the living standards of the people, especially war refugees. Events Roman Empire Pescennius Niger, competitor of Septimius Severus for the Roman Empire, is defeated in three successive battles at Battle of Cyzicus, Battle of Nicaea and Battle of Issus, and killed outside Antioch by Severus troops. ... The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三國志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms was the official and authoritative historical text compiled by Chen Shou during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420... Xuchang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


By 203, Cao Cao had eliminated most of Yuan Shao's force. This afforded him more attention on the constructional works within his realm. In autumn of that year, Cao Cao passed an order decreeing the promotion of education throughout the counties and cities within his jurisdiction. An official in charge of education matters was assigned to each county with at least 500 households. Youngsters with potential and talents were selected to undergo schooling. This prevented a lapse in the output of intellectuals in those warring years and, in Cao Cao's words, would benefit the people. Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus rebuilds Byzantium. ... Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ...


Poetry

Cao Cao was also an established poet. Although few of his works remain today, his verses, unpretentious yet profound, contributed to reshaping the poetry style of his time. Together with his sons Cao Pi and Cao Zhi, they are collectively known as the "Three Cao" in poetry. Along with several other poets of the time, their poems formed the backbone of what was to be known as the jian'an style (建安风骨; jian'an is the era name for the period from 196 to 220). The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Cáo PÄ« (曹丕, 187 - 226), formally Emperor Wen of (Cao) Wei (曹魏文帝), courtesy name Zihuan (子桓), was born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery (modern Bozhou, Anhui). ... Cao Zhi (曹植 192 – 232) was a Chinese poet during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ...


The civil strife towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty gave the jian'an poems their characteristic solemn yet heart-stirring tone, which frequently lament over the ephemerality of life. In the history of Chinese literature, the jian'an poems were a transition from the early folksongs into scholarly poetry. The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...


One of Cao Cao's most celebrated poems, written in the late years of his life, is Though the Tortoise Lives Long (龜雖壽).

《龜雖壽》

Though the Tortoise Lives Long

神龜雖壽,猶有竟時。

Though the tortoise blessed with magic powers lives long,
Its days have their allotted span;

騰蛇乘霧,終為土灰。

Though winged serpents ride high on the mist,
They turn to dust and ashes at the last;

老驥伏櫪,志在千里;

An old war-horse may be stabled,
Yet still it longs to gallop a thousand li; The li (里 lǐ) is a Chinese unit of distance, until recently usually considered to be about 576 metres, but is now standardised at a half a kilometre or 500 metres (547 yards). ...

烈士暮年,壯心不已。

And a noble-hearted man though advanced in years
Never abandons his proud aspirations.

盈縮之期,不但在天;

Man's span of life, whether long or short,
Depends not on Heaven alone;

養怡之福,可得永年。

One who eats well and keeps cheerful
Can live to a great old age.

幸甚至哉!歌以咏志。

And so, with joy in my heart,
I hum this song.

Cao Cao in Romance of the Three Kingdoms

The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a historical novel by Luo Guanzhong, was a romanticization of the events that occurred during the Three Kingdoms period. While staying true to history most of the time, the Romance of the Three Kingdoms inevitably gave Cao Cao a certain degree of dramatic make-up, in such a tone so as to suggest him as a cruel and suspicious character. On several occasions, Luo Guanzhong even made up fictional or semi-fictional events involving Cao Cao. These include: An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), written by Luó Guànzhōng in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220... Luo Guanzhong (Traditional Chinese: 羅貫中, Wade Giles: Lo Kuan-chung) was a 14th century Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms and editing Outlaws of the Marsh, two of the most revered adventure epics in Chinese literature. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese characters: 三國, Simplified Chinese characters: 三国, pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the History of China. ...

Cao Cao in the 84-episode television serial Romance of the Three Kingdoms played by Bao Guo'an
Cao Cao in the 84-episode television serial Romance of the Three Kingdoms played by Bao Guo'an

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (443x671, 74 KB)Cao Cao in the 84-episode television serial Romance of the Three Kingdoms played by Bao Guoan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (443x671, 74 KB)Cao Cao in the 84-episode television serial Romance of the Three Kingdoms played by Bao Guoan. ... In 1995, Central Chinese Television(CCTV) produced a adaptation of the novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. ...

Escape from Dong Zhuo

While in reality Cao Cao did leave Dong Zhuo (董卓), the tyrannical warlord who held the last Han emperor (漢獻帝) hostage in 190 to form his own army, the Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三國演義) went a step further to describe Cao Cao's attempted assassination of the latter: Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: DÇ’ng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


Since Dong Zhuo deposed the eldest son of the late Emperor Ling and placed in the throne Emperor Xian, his tyrannical behavior had angered many court officials. One of the officials, Wang Yun (王允), held a banquet one night. Halfway through the banquet, Wang Yun began to cry at the cruel deeds of Dong Zhuo. His colleagues, feeling the same anguish, joined him. Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Wang Yun was the father of Diao Chan, and is most famous for creating the great rift that led to the death of Dong Zhuo at the hands of Lu Bu. ...


Cao Cao, however, laughed and said, "All the officials of the court – crying from dusk till dawn and dawn till dusk – could you cry Dong Zhuo to his death?" He then borrowed from Wang Yun the Seven Gem Sword (七星劍) with the promise that he would personally assassinate Dong Zhuo.


The next day, Cao Cao brought the precious sword along to see Dong Zhuo. Having much trust in Cao Cao, Dong Zhuo received the guest in his bedroom. Lü Bu, Dong Zhuo's foster son, left the room for the stable to select a fast horse for Cao Cao, who complained about his slow ride. LÇš Bù (156 – 198) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ...


When Dong Zhuo faced away, Cao Cao prepared to unsheath the sword. However, Dong Zhuo saw the movement in the mirror and hastily turned to question Cao Cao's intention. At this time, Lü Bu had also returned. In his desperation, Cao Cao knelt and pretended that he wanted to present the sword to Dong Zhuo. He then rode away with the excuse of trying out the new horse, and headed straight out of the capital before Dong Zhuo, who grew heavily suspicious, could capture him.


Following the escape from Dong Zhuo is a legendary episode aimed at illustrating Cao Cao's near-Machiavellian tendencies for later characterizations of him as a villain. Though never exactly proven, it is said that Cao Cao escaped with one retainer, Chen Gong to the home of an old friend of his, perhaps his father's sworn brother, from whom he was able to beg shelter. He promised to protect him, and then set out to gather materials for an evening feast. Cao Cao and Chen Gong hid themselves in a back room, where they chanced to overhear a discussion by some servants involving some sort of murder plot. Assuming that his father's sworn brother had deceived him and intended to hand his corpse to Dong Zhuo for a reward, Cao Cao and Chen Gong burst in on the servants and proceeded to massacre the entire household, including the wife and children of his friend, whereupon he discovered that the "murder" he overheard pertained not to him, but to a pig intended as the centerpiece of the feast. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Cao Cao and Chen Gong immediately fled but encountered his father's sworn brother returning from his errand at the house's front gate. When questioned, Cao Cao gave him the excuse of fear of having been followed as the reason for his abrupt departure, and when he turned to continue toward the house, Cao Cao again unsheathed his sword and stabbed him through the back. When questioned by Chen Gong as to the reason for such a horrible action, Cao Cao explained that if he had returned to the house and see what had been done, he would have immediately run to the authorities desiring vengeance for his family, and their plight would be even more precarious than it already was. Cao Cao then lifted high his bloody sword and made the quote that would forever secure his place as the foremost villain in Chinese popular literature: Ningjiao wo fu tianxia ren, xiujiao tianxia ren fu wo (寧教我負天下人,休教天下人負我), meaning "Better that I should wrong the world than that the world should wrong me."

Portrait of Cao Cao from a Qing Dynasty edition of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the hunched figure clearly portraying him as a villain
Portrait of Cao Cao from a Qing Dynasty edition of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the hunched figure clearly portraying him as a villain

Image File history File links Portrait of Cao Cao from a Qing Dynasty edition of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the hunched figure clearly portraying him as a villain. ... Image File history File links Portrait of Cao Cao from a Qing Dynasty edition of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the hunched figure clearly portraying him as a villain. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), written by Luó Guànzhōng in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220...

Escape through Huarong Trail

After the fire started burning at the Red Cliffs, Cao Cao gathered all the men he could and escaped towards Jiangling, taking the shortcut through Huarong Trail. On top of the huge defeat and humiliation Cao Cao suffered, Luo Guanzhong decided to add one more pinch of salt to the getaway: This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jiangling is a city in Hubei, China. ...


During his perilous escape back to Jiangling, Cao Cao came to a fork in the road. Columns of smoke were seen rising from the narrower path. Cao Cao judged that the smoke was a trick by the enemy to divert him to the main road, where an ambush must have been laid. He then led his men towards the narrow path – the Huarong Trail.


The smoke was indeed a trick by Zhuge Liang, military advisor to Liu Bei. Grasping Cao Cao's psychology exactly, however, Zhuge Liang actually meant to direct him to Huarong Trail, where Guan Yu with 500 troops sat waiting. Upon being cut off, Cao Cao rode forward and pled to Guan Yu to remember kindness of the former days. Seeing the plight of the defeated men and recalling the former favors he received from Cao Cao, Guan Yu then allowed the enemy to pass through without challenge, risking his own life for disobeying military orders. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms period, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (關) Guan Yu (關羽) (160-219) was a Chinese military general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ...


However, in the official history, Cao Cao escaped through a muddy road, with a lot of shrubs around. Shortly after he escaped, Liu Bei's troops then came to the road and set fire to it. Cao Cao therefore teased him as "clever, but a little slow". This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ...


Death of Cao Cao and Hua Tuo

In 220, Cao Cao died in Luoyang due to an unrecorded illness. Legends had many explanations for the cause of his death, most of which were wrought with superstitions. The Romance of the Three Kingdoms included some of these legends, as well as Luo Guanzhong's own story about the involvement of Hua Tuo, a renowned Chinese physician. Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ...


When Cao Cao started complaining about splitting headaches during the last days of his life, his subjects recommended Hua Tuo, a physician whose skills were said to parallel the deities. Upon examination, Hua Tuo diagnosed Cao Cao's illness to be a type of rheumatism within the skull. He suggested giving Cao Cao a dose of hashish and then splitting open his skull with a sharp axe to extract the pus within. Rheumatism or Rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the heart, bones, joints, kidney, skin and lung. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


However, due to an earlier incident with another physician who attempted to take Cao Cao's life, Cao Cao grew very suspicious of any physician, as Cao Cao was the target of many plots against his life, including one by Dong Cheng, a relative of the Emperor. Cao Cao believed Hua Tuo intended to kill him to avenge the death of Guan Yu. He then threw Hua Tuo into jail, where the renowned physician died a few days later. Without proper treatment, Cao Cao soon died as well. Dong Cheng, was given the task to assasinate Cao Cao by the Emperor. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (關) Guan Yu (關羽) (160-219) was a Chinese military general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ...


Historically, Hua Tuo had died long before Cao Cao did.


Cao Cao in Chinese Opera

While historical records indicate Cao Cao as a brilliant ruler, he was represented as a cunning and deceitful man in Chinese opera, where the character of Cao Cao is given a white facial makeup to reflect his treacherous personality. When writing the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Luo Guanzhong took much of his inspiration from the opera. As a result, such unscrupulous depiction of Cao Cao had become much more popular among the common people than the real Cao Cao himself. Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), written by Luó Guànzhōng in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220... Luo Guanzhong (Traditional Chinese: 羅貫中, Wade Giles: Lo Kuan-chung) was a 14th century Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms and editing Outlaws of the Marsh, two of the most revered adventure epics in Chinese literature. ...


Modern references

Through to modern times, the Chinese equivalent of the English idiom "speak of the Devil" is "说曹操,曹操到" (Pinyin: Shuō Cáo Cāo, Cáo Cāo dào), which means "Speak of Cao Cao and Cao Cao arrives." The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... Speak of the Devil is a phrase or idiom used in both written and spoken English. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...

Cao Cao, as he appears in Dynasty Warriors 5.

In recent years the portrayal of Cao Cao as a prominent villain has been perpetuated in the commercially successful video game Dynasty Warriors series which have had a big impact on modern perception of Cao Cao as an individual, providing many outside of Asia with their first introduction to Cao Cao and his milieu. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (690x1011, 266 KB) Summary Art of Cao Cao (Dynasty Warriors). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (690x1011, 266 KB) Summary Art of Cao Cao (Dynasty Warriors). ... Dynasty Warriors 5 (真・三國無双4) is a Japanese beat em up video game and the fifth installment in the Dynasty Warriors series, developed by Omega Force and published by Koei, the game was released on the PlayStation 2 and Xbox. ... The Logo of Shin Sangoku Musou 4 (Dynasty Warriors 5) Dynasty Warriors ( 真・三國無双:Shin Sangokumusou in Japan; literally meaning True - Unrivaled (in the) Three Kingdoms) is a series of video games created by Koei based loosely around the Romance of the Three Kingdoms epic, and is a spinoff series of another...


The Cao clan

Direct male descendants

With Princess Bian

Cáo PÄ« (曹丕, 187 - 226), formally Emperor Wen of (Cao) Wei (曹魏文帝), courtesy name Zihuan (子桓), was born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery (modern Bozhou, Anhui). ... Cao Rui, ch. ... Cao Fang, ch. ... Cao Mao, ch. ... Cao Huan, ch. ... Cao Zhang (曹彰; styled Ziwen 子文) was a son of Cao Cao and a general of the Wei during the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Cao Zhi (曹植 192 – 232) was a Chinese poet during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period. ... Cao Xiong was the son of the powerful warlord Cao Cao, and lived during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. ...

With Lady Liu

  • Cao Ang (曹昂)
    • Cao Wan (succeeded Cao Ang but was the son of Cao Jun (曹均)) (曹琬)
      • Cao Lian (曹廉)
  • Cao Shuo (曹鑠)
    • Cao Qian (曹潛)
      • Cao Yan (曹偃)

Cao Ang (175 – 197) was the eldest son of the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ...

With Lady Huan

  • Cao Chong (曹冲)
    • Cao Cong (succeeded Cao Chong but was the son of Cao Ju (曹据)) (曹琮)
  • Cao Ju (曹据)
  • Cao Yu (曹宇)

Cao Chong 曹沖 (styled Cangshu 倉舒, 196 – 208) was a son of the great 3rd century Chinese warlord Cao Cao. ...

With Lady Du

  • Cao Lin (曹林)
    • Cao Wei (曹緯)
  • Cao Gun (曹袞)
    • Cao Fu (曹孚)

With Lady Qin

  • Cao Xuan (曹玹)
    • Cao Heng (曹恒)
  • Cao Jun (曹峻)
    • Cao Ao (曹澳)

With Lady Yin

  • Cao Ju (曹矩)
    • Cao Min (succeeded Cao Ju but was the son of Cao Jun (曹均)) (曹敏)
      • Cao Kun (曹焜)

With other consorts

  • Cao Gan (曹幹)
  • Cao Shang (曹上)
  • Cao Biao (曹彪)
    • Cao Jia (曹嘉)
  • Cao Qin (曹勤)
  • Cao Cheng (曹乘)
  • Cao Zheng (曹整)
    • Cao Fan (succeeded Cao Zheng but was the son of Cao Ju (曹据)) (曹范)
    • Cao Chan (younger brother of Cao Fan by birth, succeeded Cao Fan) (曹闡)
  • Cao Jing (曹京)
  • Cao Jun (曹均)
    • Cao Kang (曹抗)
      • Cao Chen (曹諶)
  • Cao Ji (曹棘)
  • Cao Hui (曹徽)
    • Cao Xi (曹翕)
  • Cao Mao (曹茂)

Extended family

  • Cao Ren (younger cousin) (曹仁)
    • Cao Tai (曹泰)
      • Cao Chu (曹初)
    • Cao Kai (曹楷)
    • Cao Fan (曹范)
  • Cao Chun (younger cousin) (曹純)
    • Cao Yan (曹演)
      • Cao Liang (曹亮)
  • Cao Hong (younger cousin) (曹洪)
  • Cao Xiu (distant nephew) (曹休)
    • Cao Zhao (曹肇)
  • Cao Zhen (distant nephew) (曹真)
    • Cao Shuang (曹爽)
    • Cao Xi (曹羲)
    • Cao Xun (曹訓)
    • Cao Ze (曹則)
    • Cao Yan (曹彦)
    • Cao Ai (曹皚)
  • Cao Anmin (nephew) (曹安民)

¹ For a complete list of Cao Pi's sons, see Cao Pi. Cao Ren (168 – 223) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Cao Chun (170 – 210) was a cavalry general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Cao Hong (169 - 233) was a warrior of the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Cao Xiu (? – 228) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao and succeeding rulers of the Kingdom of Wei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... ... Cao Shuang (曹爽) is the son of Cao Zhen. ... Cao Anmin (曹安民)(? - 197) was the nephew of the powerful Ancient Chinese warlord Cao Cao. ... Cáo PÄ« (曹丕, 187 - 226), formally Emperor Wen of (Cao) Wei (曹魏文帝), courtesy name Zihuan (子桓), was born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery (modern Bozhou, Anhui). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Emperor Xian and his brother, the original emperor, escaped Luoyang to the west as the battle waged between the generals and the eunuchs, and encountered Dong Zhuo's army. Dong Zhuo acted arrogantly, causing the original emperor to cower in fear; but Emperor Xian asked calmly with authority, "Are you here to protect or harm the Emperor? If you are here to protect the Emperor, why are you still on horse and not kneeling before him?" Dong Zhuo was surprised at the young Emperor Xian's wit and cool, and decided that he should be the Emperor instead.
  2. ^ King Wen of Zhou was a high official at the end of Shang Dynasty in ancient China. At the time, the corruption of King Zhou of Shang prompted many uprisings, including King Wen; but King Wen insisted that he would not take the throne himself as it is inproper for him, a subordinate, to do harm to his country, Shang Dynasty. Instead, he allowed his son to destroy the Shang Dynasty and establish the Zhou Dynasty after his own death, and thus fulfilling his personal code of honor but also rid the world of a terrible ruler. He was then named King Wen of Zhou posthumously by his son. Here, Cao Cao was inferring that if the Cao family is to come to rule and establish a new dynasty, it would be by his offsprings and not himself.

Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... King Di Xin of Shang of China, in chinese:帝辛, born Zi Shou, in chinese:子受. Was the last king of the Shang Dynasty. ... Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC (ref) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ...

References

  • Chen Shou (2002). San Guo Zhi. Yue Lu Shu She. ISBN 7-80665-198-5. 
  • Luo Guanzhong (1986). San Guo Yan Yi. Yue Lu Shu She. ISBN 7-80520-013-0. 
  • Lo Kuan-chung; tr. C.H. Brewitt-Taylor (2002). Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3467-9. 

See also

The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao... The End of Han Dynasty (漢朝末年 or 東漢末年, the End of Eastern Han Dynasty) refers to a period roughly coinciding with the reign of Han Dynastys final emperor Emperor Xian (r. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三国志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms, was the official and authoritative historical text on the Three Kingdoms Period compiled by Chen Shou during the Jin Dynasty (265-420). ... An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), written by Luó Guànzhōng in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220... The Art of War (Chinese: 孫子兵法 sūn zi bīng fǎ) was a Chinese military text written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. ... Kessen II is a strategy game based on the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... The Logo of Shin Sangoku Musou 4 (Dynasty Warriors 5) Dynasty Warriors ( 真・三國無双:Shin Sangokumusou in Japan; literally meaning True - Unrivaled (in the) Three Kingdoms) is a series of video games created by Koei based loosely around the Romance of the Three Kingdoms epic, and is a spinoff series of another... Souten Kouro (蒼天航路) is a Japanese manga serialized in publisher Kodanshas Shuukan Morning manga anthology magazine from 1994 to 2005 by Japanese manga artist King Gonta (王欣太), as adapted from an original story by 李學仁. Ever since 李學仁 died of cancer in September 1998, King Gonta wrote the story himself. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cao Cao
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Cao Cao
  • Cao Cao and the Three Kingdoms: A George Ernest Morrison lecture in Ethnology
  • Translations of poems by Cao Cao and Cao Zhi
  • Translations of ancient Chinese texts, including poems by Cao Cao
Preceded by
vacant
Chancellor of Han
208220
Succeeded by
Cao Pi


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Chancellor of China 丞相 (Cheng Xiang) or 宰相 (Zai Xiang), was the highest rank in the imperial government in former China after the emperor (685 BC-6 BC, 189-1380). ... hello my name is marco u ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Cáo Pī (曹丕, 187 - 226), formally Emperor Wen of (Cao) Wei (曹魏文帝), courtesy name Zihuan (子桓), was born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery (modern Bozhou, Anhui). ...

Prominent people of the Three Kingdoms Era
Rulers Han: Emperor Ling - Emperor Shao (Prince of Hongnong) - Emperor Xian
Wei: Cao Cao - Cao Pi - Cao Rui - Cao Fang - Cao Mao - Cao Huan
Shu: Liu Bei - Liu Shan
Wu: Sun Jian - Sun Ce - Sun Quan - Sun Liang - Sun Xiu - Sun Hao
Jin: Sima Yan

Others: Dong Zhuo - Gongsun Zan - Han Fu - Liu Biao - Liu Yao - Liu Zhang - Lü Bu - Ma Teng - Meng Huo - Yuan Shao - Yuan Shu - Zhang Jiao - Zhang Lu The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... Emperor Ling of Han, trad. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Cáo PÄ« (曹丕, 187 - 226), formally Emperor Wen of (Cao) Wei (曹魏文帝), courtesy name Zihuan (子桓), was born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery (modern Bozhou, Anhui). ... Cao Rui, ch. ... Cao Fang, ch. ... Cao Mao, ch. ... Cao Huan, ch. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Liu Shan, (commonly mispronounced as Liu Chan[1]), (207 – 271) was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... SÅ«n Jiān (155 – 191) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... SÅ«n Cè (175 – 200) was a military general and warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: SÅ«n Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... Sun Liang (孫亮) (243-260), courtesy name Ziming (子明), was an emperor of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Sun Xiu(235-264), the third emperor of the Kingdom of Wu. ... Sun Hao (å­«çš“) (242-284), courtesy name Yuanzong (元宗), originally named Sun Pengzu (孫彭祖) with the courtesy name Haozong (çš“å®—), was the fourth and final emperor of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Emperor WÇ” of Jìn, sim. ... Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: DÇ’ng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Gongsun Zan (公孫瓚 gong1 sun1 zan4), courtesy name Bogui, was a warlord of northern China active toward the end of the second century AD. He was commander of a cavalry force and served on the northern and eastern frontiers of the Han Dynasty empire fighting against various non-Chinese peoples. ... Han Fu (韓馥) was a bureaucrat during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Liú BiÇŽo (劉表 142 – 208) was the governor of the Jing province in China towards the end of the Han Dynasty. ... Liu Yao (劉曜) (d. ... This article is about the late Eastern Han warlord. ... LÇš Bù (156 – 198) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Meng Huo (孟獲), the Great King of Nan Zhong. ... Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ... Yuan Shu (袁术; style name Gonglu 公路) (?? - 199) was a major warlord of the Later Han Dynasty who rose to prominence following the collapse of the Han court in 189. ... Zhang Jiao or Zhang Jue (140-188) (Simplified Chinese: 张角; Traditional Chinese: 張角; Pinyin: Zhāng JiÇŽo or Zhāng Jué) was the leader of the Yellow Turbans during the period of the late Eastern Han Dynasty in China. ... Zhang Lu (? - ?) was a warlord during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ...

Advisors Wei: Guo Jia - Jia Xu - Sima Shi - Sima Yi - Sima Zhao - Xu You - Xu Shu - Xun You - Xun Yu - Dong Zhao - Mi Heng
Shu: Fei Yi - Jiang Wan - Jiang Wei - Pang Tong - Zhuge Liang
Wu: Gu Yong - Lu Su - Lu Kang - Lu Xun - Zhang Zhao - Zhou Yu - Zhuge Jin - Zhuge Ke
Others: Chen Gong - Li Ru - Li Su - Tian Feng
Generals Wei: Dian Wei - Xiahou Dun - Xiahou Yuan - Xu Chu - Xu Huang - Zhang He - Zhang Liao
Shu: Guan Ping - Guan Xing - Guan Yu - Huang Zhong - Ma Chao - Wei Yan - Zhang Fei - Zhao Yun
Wu: Gan Ning - Huang Gai - Ling Tong - Lü Meng - Taishi Ci - Xu Sheng - Zhou Tai - Zhu Ran
Others: He Jin - Hua Xiong - Ji Ling - Wen Chou - Yan Liang
Others Diaochan - Guan Lu - Hua Tuo - Sima Hui - Sun Shangxiang

Guō Jiā (郭嘉)(170-207), courtesy name Fèngxiào (奉孝), was a famous strategist and advisor for the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China. ... Jia Xu (147 - 224 AD) was an advisor to the Wei Kingdom. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sima Yi (179 - 251) was a general, military strategist, and politician of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Sima Zhao (司馬昭) (211-264) was the son of Prime Minister Sima Yi of the Kingdom of Wei, during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ... Xu You a staff officer under that of Yuan Shao. ... Xu Shu (徐庶) was one of Liu Beis advisors during the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Xun Yu (荀彧) was one of Cao Caos greatest advisors during the Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Dong Zhao (董昭) was a minister that served under that of the late Han Dynasty. ... Mi Heng (彌衡) (?-200 A.D) was a great scholar of the Three Kingdoms period. ... Fei Yi (費禕) (d. ... Jiang Wan (? - 246 AD) was an officer of the Shu Kingdom. ... Jiang Wei (姜維, 202-264), or Jiang Boyue, was amongst some of the greatest generals (chiangchun, or jiangjun) during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ... Páng TÇ’ng (龐統) (178-213AD), courtesy name Shìyuán (士元), was an advisor to Liu Bei during the Later Han period. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms period, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... Gu Yong was born in Wu county of Wu prefecture. ... Lu Su (鲁肃) was an advisor for the kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China, having taken over the position from Zhou Yu. ... Lu Kang (陸抗; 226 – 274) was a son of Lu Xun and the grandson of Sun Ce. ... Lu Xun (Traditional Chinese: 陸遜; Simplified Chinese: 陆逊; Pinyin: Lù Xùn) (183 – 245), originally named Lu Yi (陸議/陆議), was a general of the Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Zhang Zhao (張昭) (156 - 236) was a brilliantly minded civil officer who served under the Sun family at the time of the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Zhou Yu (175 - 210) was a famous militarist and strategist of Eastern Wu of the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... ZhÅ«gé Jǐn (諸葛謹) (174 - 241 AD) was a minister of the Kingdom of Wu of China and older brother of the famous Shu strategist Zhuge Liang. ... This article lacks information on the subject matters importance. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Li Ru (李儒) was the son-in-law of Dong Zhuo. ... Li Su was a famous general of the late Han Dynasty. ... Tian Feng was an advisor of Yuan Shao. ... Dian Wei (? – 197) was a warrior during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Xiahou Dun (? – 220) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Xiahou Yuan (? – 219) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Xu Chu was a warrior living in the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Xu Xu Huang (169 – 227) was a prominent general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao and his successor Cao Pi during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... For the 15th Century fleet Admiral, see Zheng He Zhang He (張郃) (167 – 231) was a distinguished military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Zhang Liao (169 – 222) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Guan Ping (關平, ? – 219) was the first son of the 3rd century Chinese military general Guan Yu and elder brother of Guan Xing. ... Guan Xing was the second son of the 3rd century Chinese military general Guan Yu and the younger brother of Guan Ping. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (é—œ) Guan Yu (關羽) (160-219) was a Chinese military general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Huang Zhong (黄忠; style name: Hansheng 汉升) (? - 220), was born Nanyang (in modern day Henan province). ... Ma Chao (176 - 222) was the eldest son of Ma Teng and a general of the Three Kingdoms Period. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zhāng FÄ“i (張飛, c. ... Zhao Yun (? - 229[1]) was an important military commander during the civil wars of the late Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Gan Ning (甘寧) lived from 175 AD to about 218 AD during the period of Chinese history known as the Three Kingdoms Period. ... Huang Gai (黃蓋) was an officer of the Kingdom of Wu in during Chinas Three Kingdoms period. ... Ling Tong (凌 çµ±), Born in 189 AD at Yuhang, Wujun (Zhe Jiang Province). ... Lü Meng (å‘‚è’™ 178 - 219) was a great general of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Xu Sheng (徐盛) (?-?) was a brave Wu general who participated in several battles for Wu. ... Zhou Tai (周泰), courtesy name Youping, was a tall, powerful man who served the kingdom of Wu in the Three Kingdoms era of China. ... Zhu Ran (182 - 248) was a general in the service of the Sun family, and later of the Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... He Jin (? – 189) was the elder half-brother of Empress He, consort to Emperor Ling of the late Eastern Han Dynasty. ... Hua Xiong (? – 190) was a military commandant under the tyrannical warlord Dong Zhuo during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... An Officer under Yuan Shu, he lead a campaign against the three brothers Liu Bei, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei. ... Wen Chou was a great military general under Yuan Shao nearing the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China. ... Yan Liang (颜良) was a general serving under Yuan Shao during the Eastern Han Dynasty period of ancient China. ... Diao Chan (貂蟬, py: Diāo Chán) was one of the Four Beauties of ancient China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ... Sima Hui (司馬徽) is a character in the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. His taoist name was Water Mirror, Shui-ching, or Shui Jing. ... Lady Sun, or most famously Sun Shangxiang (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) as she is called in Chinese opera and in contemporary culture, lived during the Three Kingdoms era of ancient China. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cao Cao (155 - 220) (489 words)
Cao Cao (155 - 220) was a native of Pei Guoqiao (Hao County of Anhui).
Cao was the prime minister of Han Xian Di, who proclaimed himself the king of Wei.
In the thirteen year of Jiangan during Dong Han Dynasty, Cao Cao united the northern army and was ready to conquer the south.
Cao Cao - Information from Reference.com (4474 words)
Cao Cao was known for his craftiness as a young man. According to the Biography of Cao Man, Cao Cao's uncle often complained to Cao Song regarding Cao Cao's childhood indulgence in hunting and music with Yuan Shao.
In 196, Cao Cao found and convinced Emperor Xian to move the capital to Xuchang as per the suggestion from Xun Yu and other advisors (as Luoyang was ruined by war and Chang'an was not under Cao Cao's military control), and he was proclaimed Chancellor.
Cao Cao judged that the smoke was a trick by the enemy to divert him to the main road, where an ambush must have been laid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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