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Encyclopedia > Canute the Great
Canute the Great.
King of England, Denmark, Norway and the Swedes
Reign England: 1016 - 1035
Denmark: 1018 - 1035
Norway: 1028 - 1035
Predecessor Edmund Ironside (England)
Harald II (Denmark)
Olaf Haraldsson (Norway}
Successor Harold Harefoot (England)
Harthacanute (Denmark)
Magnus Olafsson (Norway)
Spouse Aelgifu of Northampton
Emma of Normandy
Issue
Sweyn Knutsson
Harold Harefoot
Harthacanute
Gunhilda of Denmark
Father Sweyn Forkbeard
Mother Saum-Aesa, also known as Gunnhilda
Born c.985 - c.995
Denmark
Died November 12, 1035
England (Shaftesbury, Dorset)
Burial Old Minster, Winchester. Bones now in Winchester Cathedral

Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, or Knut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store, Polish: Kanut Wielki) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and Denmark, and Norway, and of some of Sweden[1] (such as the Sigtuna[2] Swedes). His successes as a statesman, politically and militarily, and his status among medieval Europe's magnates, shown by the concessions he won in diplomacy with the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, often lead modern historians to call him the Emperor of the North,[3] although this is an unofficial title. Image File history File links CanuteGreat. ... George Tsul, ruler of Khazaria, is captured by a combined Byzantine-Rus force, which effectively ends Khazarias existence. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... Events November 12 - Dying Emperor Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire marries his daughter Zoe of Byzantium to his chosen heir Romanus Argyrus. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Harold II of Denmark (c. ... Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... A meeting between Magnus and Harthacanute. ... Aelgifu (also called Aelfgifu or Elgifu or Aelfgitha) was the wife of Canute the Great in the 11th century. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Gunhilda of Denmark (c. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... Sigrid the Haughty, Gunhilda, Sigrid Storråda, Świętosława, (967 - 1014). ... Events Barcelona sacked by Al-Mansur Greenland colonized by Icelandic Viking Erik the Red (the date is according to legend but has been established as at least approximately correct – see History of Greenland) Lady Wulfruna founded the town that later became the city of Wolverhampton Births Al-Hakim bi-Amr... Events (Erik Segersäll) is succeeded by (Olof Skötkonung), the first baptized ruler of Sweden. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shaftesbury (disambiguation) Shaftesbury is a town in North Dorset, England, situated on the A30 road near the Wiltshire border 20 miles west of Salisbury. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... The Old Minster was the Anglo-Saxon cathedral for the diocese of Wessex and then Winchester from 660 to 1093. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of (mainly) secondary source documents narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Britain. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Swedish ( ) is a North Germanic language, spoken predominantly in Sweden, parts of Finland, especially along the coast, on the Ã…land islands, by more than nine million people. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sigtuna is a city in central Sweden in the metropolitan area of Stockholm. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Praetorian Guards, Roman Soldiers Military as a noun, in the broad meaning of the word, refers to any number of individuals who are members of an organisation authorised by its society to use force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its independence by repulsing actual or perceived threats. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ...


In a letter written after his defeat of the kings of Norway and Sweden, on a journey to Rome, Canute proclaims himself king of all England and Denmark and the Norwegians and of some of the Swedes.[4] His kingship of England, and the concomitant struggles of the kings of Denmark for dominion within Scandinavia, though, meant Canute held overlordship across other areas of the British Isles too, in line with his Anglo-Saxon predecessors,[5] as well as the leader of the strongest Viking regime in history. Although the extent of this is uncertain, his rule was felt by the Gall Gaidel sea-kingdoms, with the Isles (possibly within Canute's overlordship since his English conquest),[6] in the Sea of the Hebrides, and with Dublin,[7] in the Irish Sea. At the height of his reign, certain Gaelic kingdoms,[8] and the sea-kingdom of the Isle of Man and Galloway,[9] were in clientage with Canute. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ... A nation of Raymond E. Feists Midkemia. ... The Sea of Hebrides is a portion of the North Atlantic Ocean, located off the coast of western Scotland, that contains an archipelago of about 500 islands known as the Hebrides. ... The Kings of Dublin, or Dyflin. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ...

Contents

Birth and kingship

Canute was a son of the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard, and an heir to a line of Scandinavian rulers central to the unification of Denmark,[10] with its origins in the shadowy figure of Harthacnut, founder of the royal house, and the father to Gorm the Old, its official progenitor. His mother's name is unknown, although the Slavic princess, Saum-Aesa, daughter to Mieszko I of Poland (in accord with the Monk of St Omer's, Encomium Emmae[11] and Thietmar of Merseburg's contemporary Chronicon[12]), is a possibility.[13] Some hint at his childhood can be found in the Flateyjarbók, a thirteenth century source, with a statement Canute was taught his soldiery by the chieftain Thorkell the Tall,[14] brother to Sigurd, Jarl of mythical Jomsborg, and the legendary Joms, at their Viking stronghold; now thought to be a Slav (as well as Scandinavian) fortress on the Island of Wollin, off the coast of Pomerania. Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... Most Danes know that the official line of Danish kings begins with Gorm the Old, the father of renowned king Harald Bluetooth, who ruled Denmark in the 950s. ... Gorm the Old (Gorm den Gamle) was King of Denmark in the mid-900s. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... Sigrid the Haughty, Gunhilda, Sigrid Storråda, Świętosława, (967 - 1014). ... Reign c. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Saint-Omer, a town and commune of Artois in northern France, sous-préfecture of the Pas-de-Calais département, 42 miles west-north-west of Lille on the railway to Calais. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Thietmar (Dietmar or Dithmar) of Merseburg (July 25, 975 - December 1, 1018), German chronicler, was a son of Siegfried, count of Walbeck, and was related to the family of the emperor Otto the Great. ... Thietmar (Dietmar or Dithmar) of Merseburg (July 25, 975 - December 1, 1018), German chronicler, was a son of Siegfried, count of Walbeck, and was related to the family of the emperor Otto the Great. ... The Flatey Book, (in Icelandic the Flateyjarbók Flat-island book) is one of the most important medieval Icelandic manuscripts. ... Thorkell the High (Old Norse Þorkell hávi) was a Jomsviking, a son of the Scanian chieftain Strutharald and the brother of Sigvald Jarl. ... Sigvald Jarl was the son of the Scanian jarl Strut-Harald and the brother of Thorkel the High. ... Jarl may refer to: Alternative word for the peerage dignity Earl Japan Amateur Radio League, the Amateur Radio association of Japan Jarl, a Norse title Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army Category: ... Jomsborg was a legendary Viking settlement in Pomerania by the Baltic Sea. ... Jomsvikings fighting in a hail storm at the Battle of Hjörungavágr. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Scandinavian can mean: a resident of, or anything relating to Scandinavia any North Germanic language a chess opening, Scandinavian Defense the aviation corpotation Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wolin or Wollin is an island located in the Baltic Sea located just off the Polish coast. ... Pommern redirects here. ...


Canute's date of birth, like his mother's name, is unknown. Contemporary works such as the Chronicon and the Encomium Emmae, do not mention it. Still, in a Knutsdrapa by the skald Ottar the Black there is a statement that Canute was 'of no great age' when he first went to war.[15] It also mentions a battle identifiable with Forkbeard's invasion of England, and attack on the city of Norwich, in 1003/04, after the St. Brice's Day massacre of Danes by the English, in 1002. If it is the case that Canute was part of this, his birthdate may be near 990, or even 980. If not, and the skald's poetic verse envisages another assault, with Forkbeard's English conquest in 1013/14, it may even suggest a birth date nearer 1000.[16] There is a passage of the Encomiast's (as the author of the Encomium Emmae is known) with a reference to the force Canute lead in his English conquest of 1015/16. Here (see below) it is says all the Vikings were of 'complete manhood' under Canute 'the king'. Thietmar (Dietmar or Dithmar) of Merseburg (July 25, 975 - December 1, 1018), German chronicler, was a son of Siegfried, count of Walbeck, and was related to the family of the emperor Otto the Great. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... For other places with the same name, see Norwich (disambiguation). ... Events Sweyn I of Denmark begins his first invasion of England. ... The St. ... Events November 13 - English king Ethelred gives order to kill all Danes in England, leading to the St. ... Events Danish invasion of England under king Sweyn I. King Ethelred flees to Normandy, and Sweyn becomes king of England. ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ...

Cnut 'Quatrefoil' type penny with the legend CNUT REX ANGLORU (Cnut, King of England)

A description of Canute can be found within the thirteenth century Knýtlinga saga: Knýtlinga saga (the saga of Canutes descendants) is one of the kings sagas. ...

Knutr was exceptionally tall and strong, and the handsomest of men, all except for his nose, that was thin, high-set, and rather hooked. He had a fair complexion none-the-less, and a fine, thick head of hair. His eyes were better than those of other men, both the handsomer and the keener of their sight.

Knytlinga Saga[17][18]

Hardly anything is known for sure of Canute's life until the year he was part of a Scandinavian force under his father, the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard; with his invasion of England in summer 1013. It was the climax to a succession of Viking raids spread over a number of decades. The kingdom fell quickly. In the months after, Forkbeard was in the process of consolidating his kingship, with Canute left in charge of the fleet, and army base, at Gainsborough, a city of the Five Boroughs. These forces were probably short of some of their combatants, likely sent home for winter once their payments had been made, with the use of mercenaries common in Scandinavia. At a turn of fortune, with Sweyn's sudden death, in February 1014, Canute was held to be king [19]. Scandinavian can mean: a resident of, or anything relating to Scandinavia any North Germanic language a chess opening, Scandinavian Defense the aviation corpotation Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sweyn I, or Sweyn Forkbeard, (Danish: Svend Tveskæg, originally Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg, Old Norse: Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Norwegian: Svein Tjugeskjegg), (??? – February 3, 1014), king of Denmark and England, a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute the Great (Cnut I). ... Events Danish invasion of England under king Sweyn I. King Ethelred flees to Normandy, and Sweyn becomes king of England. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Gainsborough is a town within the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. ... The Five Boroughs of New York City The Five Boroughs is a colloquialism often used by residents of New York City to unambiguously refer to the city itself, as opposed to any particular borough or to the greater metropolitan area. ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock...


At the Witan, England's nobility were loath to accept this. There was a vote for the former king,[20] Ethelred the Unready, an Anglo-Saxon of the Wessex royal house, to return from exile with his in-laws in Normandy. It was a move which meant Canute had to abandon England and set sail for Denmark, while the nobility of England, possibly with Normans in their forces, made the kingdom theirs once again. On the beaches of Sandwich the Vikings put to shore to mutilate their hostages, taken from the English as pledges of allegiance given to Canute's father.[21] The Witenagemot (or Witan) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... Ethelred II (c. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Norman conquests in red. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ...


On the death of Sweyn Forkbeard his eldest son, Harald, was to be King of Denmark. Canute, supposedly, made the suggestion they might have a joint kingship, although this found no ground with his brother [22]. Harald is thought to have made an offer to Canute to command the Vikings for another invasion of England, on the condition he did not continue to press his claim.[23] Canute, if we accept this is true, did not, and had his men make the ships ready for another invasion. This one was to be final, and the forces were even greater.[24] Harold II of Denmark (c. ...


Conquest of England

This runestone, U 194, in memory of a Viking known as Alli, says he won Knútr's payment in England.
This runestone, U 194, in memory of a Viking known as Alli, says he won Knútr's payment in England.

In the summer of 1015, Canute's fleet set sail for England with a Danish army of maybe 10,000, in 200 longships.[25] Among the allies of Denmark was Boleslaw the Brave. He was the Duke of Poland, and a relative to the Danish royals. He lent some token Slav troops,[26] likely to have been a pledge made to Canute and Harald when, in the winter, they "went amongst the Wends" to fetch their mother back to the Danish court after she was sent away by their father, who its seems wed another woman, to seal an alliance with the Swedish king.[27] Olof Skötkonung, son of Sigrid the Haughty by her first husband, the Swedish king Eric the Victorious, and an in-law to the royals of Denmark by Sigrid's second husband, Sweyn Forkbeard, was an ally. Eiríkr Hákonarson, was an in-law to Canute and Harald too, and Trondejarl, the Earl of Lade, and the king of Norway under Danish sovereignty. Norway was won by the Danes, with the Swedes in alliance, as well as Norwegians, at the Battle of Svolder, in 999. Erik's brother, Svein Hakonarson, was left to rule Norway when he went to support Canute, although he died at the Battle of Nesjar, in 1016, when Olaf Haraldsson won the kingdom for himself. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 2. ... A rune stone Rune stones are somewhat flat standing stones with runic stone carvings from the Iron Age (Viking Age) and early middle ages found in most parts of Scandinavia. ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ... BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave (or Valiant) (Polish: ; Czech: Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 - June 17, 1025), in the past also known as BolesÅ‚aw I the Great, in Polish: BolesÅ‚aw I Wielki), of the Piast Dynasty — son of Mieszko I and of his first wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa — ruled... ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Vend redirects here. ... Coin minted for Olof Skötkonung in Sigtuna Olof of Sweden or Olof Skötkonung/Skottkonung (the meaning of the cognomen is disputed) was the son of Eric the Victorious and Sigrid the Haughty. ... Sigrid the Haughty, Gunhilda, Sigrid Storråda, Świętosława, (967 - 1014). ... Eric the Victorious (VI), or Erik Segersäll, (985?- 995), was king of the Swedes during the last two decades of the 10th century. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... Erics victory in the battle of Svolder was his most celebrated achievement. ... The Jarls of Lade (Modern Norwegian) or Hlaðir (Old Norse) were a dynasty of Norwegian rulers, influential from the 9th century to the 11th century. ... The Jarls of Lade (Modern Norwegian) or Hlaðir (Old Norse) were a dynasty of Norwegian rulers, influential from the 9th century to the 11th century. ... The naval Battle of Svolder or Swold took place on 9 September 1000 in the western Baltic Sea, between Norway and the other Scandinavians. ... Events Silesia is incorporated into territory ruled by Boleslaus I of Poland Pope Silvester II succeeds Pope Gregory V Sigmundur Brestisson introduces christianity in the Faroe Islands Deaths December 16 - Saint Adelaide of Italy (b. ... The Battle of Nesjar was a sea battle off the coast of Norway in 1016. ... George Tsul, ruler of Khazaria, is captured by a combined Byzantine-Rus force, which effectively ends Khazarias existence. ... Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ...


Thorkell the Tall, a Jomsviking chief who had fought against the Viking invasion of Canute's father, with a pledge of allegiance to the English in 1012,[28] was among Canute's retinue. Some explanation for this shift of allegiance may be found in a stanza of the Jómsvíkinga saga which mentions two attacks against Jomsborg's mercenaries while they were in England. Also, as if to add insult to injury, amongst their casualties was a man known as Henninge, who was a brother to Thorkell the Tall.[29] It is possible this man was Canute's childhood mentor, which may explain his support, as well as his acceptance. It seems Canute and the Jomsviking, ultimately in the service of Jomsborg, were in a very difficult relationship with each other. Thorkell the High (Old Norse Þorkell hávi) was a Jomsviking, a son of the Scanian chieftain Strutharald and the brother of Sigvald Jarl. ... Mael Morda starts a rebellion against Brian Boru in Ireland, which would eventually end in 1014 at the Battle of Clontarf. ... The Jómsvíkinga saga relates of the founding of Jomsborg by Palnatoke, and of the famous Viking brotherhood of the Jomsvikings. ... The Jomsvikings were a company of viking mercenaries of the 900s and 1000s, dedicated to the worship of such deities as Odin and Thor. ... Jomsborg was a legendary Viking settlement in Pomerania by the Baltic Sea. ...


Eadric Streona, a nobleman risen far under his king Ethelred the Unready to be the wealthy Earl of Mercia, perhaps even the richest of the English nobility, also thought it prudent to join in with Canute and the Vikings, along with forty ships, although these were probably of the Danelaw anyway.[30] England's king was under pressure, and the distresses which were a fact of his reign, given his ascension to England's throne by the ruse of assassination, were apparently too much for many of his vassals to take. In spite of his faults, the Mercian Earl was a useful ally, pivotal to any successes either side might expect, and he most definitely knew it. His, though, was a dangerous game to play in an era with such cut and thrust diplomacy. Eadric or Edric Streona (died 1017) was an ealdorman of the Mercians. ... Earl of Mercia was a title in the late Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Danish, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. ... Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... This article is about negotiations. ...


Canute was at the head of an array of Vikings, from all over Scandinavia. Altogether, the invasion force was to be in often close and grisly warfare with the English for the next fourteen months. Practically all of the battles were fought against Ethelred the Unready's son, and the staunchest opponent of Canute, Edmund Ironside. The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Canute, as shown on the coin (see main image) with the legend CNUT REX DÆANOR (Cnut, King of Danes)

In September 1015, Canute was seen off the shore of Sandwich. The fleet went around the coast about Kent and the south of England, on the English Channel, about Cornwall, and the south-west, on the Bristol Channel, up the Avon, to the mouth of the Frome. There, at Bristol, the army disembarked, and ravaged Wessex.[31] Canute's attack had the advantages of surprise and speed, and the Vikings made a base of the English heartland. A passage from the Encomium Emmae paints a picture of the scene which was to confront the English when they had made their landfall: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Satellite view of the Bristol Channel Map of the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel (Welsh: ) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge The River Avon is a river in the south west of England. ... The River Frome is a river in the south west of England. ... This article is about the English city. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ...

There were so many kinds of shields, that you could have believed that troops of all nations were present… Gold shone on the prows, silver also flashed… who could look upon the lions of the foe, terrible with the brightness of gold, who upon the men of metal, who upon the bulls on the ships threatening death, their horns shining with gold, (who?), without feeling any fear for the king of such a force. Moreover, in the whole force there could be found no serf, no freedman, none of ignoble birth, none weak with old age. All were nobles, all vigorous with the strength of complete manhood, fit for all manner of battle, and so swift of foot that they despised the speed of cavalry.

Encomium Emmae[32][33]

Until mid-winter the Vikings stood their ground, with the English king in London. Canute's invaders then went across the Thames, with no pause in bleak weather, through the Mercian lands, northwards, to confront Uhtred, the Earl of Northumbria, and Edmund Ironside, commander of England's army. Canute, like Wessex, the heartland of the Anglo-Saxon regime, found the Northumbrian lands without their main garrisons, as Uhtred was away with the English prince in Mercia, to countermand the lands of Eadric Streona, the Earl of Mercia. Uhtred, with his lands now in the hands of his enemies, thought it wise to sue for peace. He was though executed for breaking oaths of allegiance to Sweyn Forkbeard. Canute now brought over Eiríkr Hákonarson and strategically left the Norwegian in control of Northumbria[34]. With him were probably any mercenaries still in line to fight against the English. Mercia, sometimes spelled Mierce, was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy, in what is now England, in the region of the Midlands, with its heart in the valley of the River Trent and its tributary streams. ... Uchtred (or Uhtred), called the Bold, was the earl of Northumbria from 1006 to 1016, when he was assassinated. ... Earl of Northumbria was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. ... Northumbria is primarily the name of an Anglian or Anglo-Saxon kingdom which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the earldom which succeeded the kingdom. ... Eadric or Edric Streona (died 1017) was an ealdorman of the Mercians. ... Earl of Mercia was a title in the late Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Danish, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. ... Erics victory in the battle of Svolder was his most celebrated achievement. ...


In April 1016, Canute went southward with his army through the western shires to gain as much support from the English as possible, already confident in the eastern Danelaw. The fleet set sail for the Thames to lay London under siege. Edmund Ironside was effectively swept before this movement, which left London as his last stronghold. Ethelred the Unready met his death on April 23, coincidentally, leaving the now beleaguered prince as king. Over the next few months the Vikings made their camps on the city's fringes, and Canute had a canal dug through which to pull the longships and cut off the river on the far side of London. Encirclement was complete by the construction of dikes on the city's northern and southern sides. For information on the fictional Shire of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, see Shire (Middle-earth) A shire is an administrative area of Great Britain. ... Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the summer, Edmund Ironside broke out of London to raise an army, in Wessex, and the Vikings broke off a portion of their siege in pursuit. The English were able to rally at Penselwood, in Somerset; with a hill in Selwood Forest as the likely location of their stand. The battle that was fought there did not leave any clear victor. A subsequent battle at Sherston in Wiltshire was fought over two days and again left neither side victorious. For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... // Penselwood is a village and civil parish in the English county of Somerset. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Selwood Forest is an area of woodland in or around Somerset in southwest England. ... The centre of Sherston and church Sherston is a village in the English county of Wiltshire. ... Not to be confused with Wilshire. ...


Edmund Ironside did eventually break the siege of London. With the invaders in disarray, Canute brought the forces back together, and the besiegers again lay their attentions on the steadfast city. However, with London still held by the English, the Vikings had to make it their priority to search for supplies, nominally amongst their allies in Mercia. At this point Eadric Streona thought it wise to ally himself with his countrymen again. Canute's men were subsequently put under attack in Mercia, and with the Battle of Brentford, Edmund Ironside fought the besiegers off their dikes on the outskirts of London and back to their ships on the Isle of Sheppey, in Kent. The fleet went across the estuary, and the invasion force brought itself together again, in Essex. The Battle of Brentford was fought in 1642 between Royalist and Roundhead forces. ... View towards Minster from Elmley Marshes The Isle of Sheppey is a small (36 square miles, 94 km²) island off the northern coast of Kent, England in the Thames Estuary, some 38 miles (62km) to the east of central London. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ...


In October 1016, at Assandun, on the hill of ash trees, its namesake, the two armies came together for a final confrontation; the Battle of Ashingdon. Canute won this decisively. Eadric Streona betrayed his countrymen, with he and his men retreating in the heat of battle. His army beaten, Edmund Ironside, likely to have been a casualty himself, made his escape; to be caught near the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, where there was likely to have been a final struggle made in an attempt by the English to protect their king. Canute was ultimately able to maneuver negotiations, with a rendezvous on an island in the Severn. Combatants Denmark England Commanders Canute the Great Thorkell the High Eiríkr Hákonarson Edmund Ironside Eadric Streona The Battle of Ashingdon was fought on October 18, 1016, at Assandun, which is now believed to be Ashingdon in SE Essex, England, though the location is still debated. ... The Forest of Dean is a geographical, historical and cultural region in the county of Gloucestershire, England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... The Severn is the name of a river in the United Kingdom. ...


Accepting defeat, the king signed the Treaty of Olney with the Viking, in which all of England except for Wessex was to be the domain of the Danish prince. Its key clause was that by the death of one of the two, the other should be the one and only King of England, his sons being the heirs. It was a move of astute political sense on the part of Canute. After Edmund Ironiside's death on November 30, possibly at the hands of the traitor Eadric Streona's men, yet probably as a result of his wounds after Assandun, Canute was sole ruler. His coronation was at Christmas, with recognition by the nobility in January the next year. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Canute, a Viking, was to be one of England's most successful kings. His statesmanship brought in a prosperous era of stability. The reign of this wealthy nation, and the pedigree of his Danish heritage, meant he was eventually able to maneuver an overlordship within Scandinavia, and substantial parts of the British Isles.[35] For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ...


King of England

In July 1017, Canute married Emma of Normandy, the widow of Ethelred, and daughter of Richard the Fearless, the first Duke of Normandy. This was a move to elevate his line above the heirs of England's overthrown dynasty, as well as to protect himself against his enemies in Normandy, where Emma and Ethelred's sons Edward the Confessor and Alfred Atheling were exiles. His wife held the keys to a secure English court in several ways. Canute put forward their son Harthacanute as his heir; his two sons from his wedding to Aelgifu of Northampton, his handfast wife, were left on the sidelines. He sent Harthacanut to Denmark when he was still a boy, and the heir to the throne was brought up, as Canute was himself, a Viking. Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Richard the Fearless as part of the Six Dukes of Normandy statue in the town square of Falaise. ... Elizabeth II the current Duke of Normandy. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Alfred Atheling or Aetheling was the son of Aethelred II. He was a brother of Edward the Confessor. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Aelgifu (also called Aelfgifu or Elgifu or Aelfgitha) was the wife of Canute the Great in the 11th century. ... Handfasting is an ancient Celtic wedding ritual in which the brides and grooms hands are tied together —hence the phrase tying the knot. It was a part of the normal marriage ceremony in the time of the Roman Empire. ...

The English shires of the 10th century
The English shires of the 10th century

England's division amongst the four great Earldoms was a decree of Canute's kingship. These were Wessex, his personal fief, Mercia, for Eadric, East Anglia, for Thorkel, and Northumbria, for Erik. This was the basis for the system of feudal baronies, which underlay sovereignty of English rulers for centuries, while the formation of the Norman counties - stronger, yet synonymous versions of the Anglo-Saxon shires - came to countermand the political might of the great Earls. Even under Canute these men were a real threat. Edmund Ironside's, as well as Canute's betrayer, Streona, was not Earl of Mercia for long. He was executed in 1017, with a beheading; his body was left on the ground for the crows, and the head was stuck on a pole for all to see. Mercia went to a noble family of Hwicce, probably to Leofwine, and by the 1030s, to his son Leofric, who's wife was one Lady Godiva, a figure of English folklore, renown for her protest against the heavy taxes of her husband. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Originally, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count (in Great Britain, an earl, though the original earldoms covered larger areas) by reason of that office. ... For information on the fictional Shire of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, see Shire (Middle-earth) A shire is an administrative area of Great Britain. ... An Earl as a member of the British peerage ranks below a Marquess and above a Viscount. ... The Hwicce were one of the peoples of Anglo-Saxon Britain. ... Leofwine Earl of Mercia (born abt 950 - died 1028), was also the Earldorman of Hwicce. ... Leofric (born 968, died 31 August or 30 September 1057) was the Earl of Mercia and founded monasteries at Coventry and Much Wenlock. ... For other uses of Godiva, see Godiva (disambiguation). ...


The very last Danegeld ever paid, a sum of 82,500 pounds, went to Canute in 1018. After their staunch resistance, as well as the fact of their mercantile wealth, 10,500 pounds was levied from the citizenry of London alone. Canute felt secure enough to allow his Vikings to return to their lands in Scandinavia with 72,000 pounds in payment for services the same year. He, with his huscarls, and the no doubt grateful earls, were left to control England. The Danegeld was an English tribute raised to pay off Viking raiders (usually led by the Danish king) to save the land from being ravaged by the raiders. ... Housecarls (Danish: Huskarl) were household troops, personal warriors and equivalent to a royal bodyguard to Scandinavian kings. ...


Canute's brother Harald was possibly in England for Canute's coronation, maybe even for the conquest, with his return to Denmark, as its king, at some point thereafter. It is only certain, though, there was an entry of his name in a confraternity with Christ Church, Canterbury,[36] in 1018. This, though, is not conclusive, for the entry may have been made in Harald's absence, by the hand of Canute himself even, which means, while it is usually thought that Harald died in 1018, it is unsure if he was even alive to do this. Entry of his brother's name in the Canterbury codex may have been Canute's attempt to make his vengeance for Harald's murder good with the Church. Of course, this was maybe just a gesture for a soul to be under God's protection. Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ...


Canute mentions troubles in his 1019 letter (to England, from Denmark), written as the King of England and Denmark. These can be seen, with plausibility, to be in connection with the death of Harald. Canute says he dealt with dissenters to ensure Denmark was free to assist England.[37] The wars he fought to secure his kingship were an opportunity for some of his English subjects to prove their worth. Godwin was one notable figure; by the lengths he went to for his king in battle with his enemies, Canute thought it good to award him the earldom of Wessex, and the role of he and his family was prominent in English politics until the Norman Conquest. One of his sons was Harold Godwinson. Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ...


Through his reign, Canute brought together the English and Danish kingdoms, and the people saw a golden age of dominance across Scandinavia, as well as within the British Isles.[38] His mutilation of the hostages at Sandwich is ultimately seen to be uncharacteristic of his rule. He reinstated the Laws of King Edgar to allow for the constitution of a Danelaw, and the activity of Scandinavians at large. He also reinstituted the extant laws with a series of proclamations to assuage common grievances brought to his attention. Two significant ones were: On Inheritance in case of Intestacy, and, On Heriots and Reliefs. He strengthened the currency, initiating a series of coins of equal weight to those being used in Denmark and other parts of Scandinavia. This meant the markets grew, and the economy of England was able to spread itself, as well as widen the scope of goods to be bought and sold. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Intestacy is the condition of the estate of a person who dies owning property greater than the sum of his or her enforceable debts and funeral expenses without having made a valid will or other binding declaration; alternatively where such a will or declaration has been made, but only applies... Heriot was the right of a lord in feudal Europe to seize a serfs best horse and or clothing upon his death. ...


Canute was generally thought to be a wise and successful king of England, although this view may in part be attributable to his good treatment of the Church, keeper of the historic record. Either way, he brought decades of peace and prosperity to England. His numerous campaigns abroad meant the tables of Viking supremacy were stacked in favour of the English, turning the prows of the longships towards Scandinavia. The medieval Church was adept to success, and put itself at the back of any strong and efficient sovereign, if the circumstances were right for it. Thus we hear of him, even today, as a religious man, despite the fact that he was in an effectively sinful relationship, with two wives, and the executions of his fellow Christian political opponents. Canute was ruler across a domain beyond any monarchs of England, until the adventures of the imperial European colonies, and the empire of the English. Look up Imperial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ...


King of Denmark

Upon Sweyn Forkbeard's death, Canute's brother Harald was King of Denmark. It is thought Canute went to Harald to ask for his assistance in the conquest of England, and the division of the Danish kingdom. His plea for division of kingship was denied, though, and the Danish kingdom remained wholly in the hands of his brother, although, Harald lent to Canute the command of the Danes in any attempt he was of a mind to lead on the English throne. Harald probably saw it was out of his hands anyway. It was a vendetta that held his brother, Canute, and the Vikings driven away in spite of their conquest with Forkbeard. They were bound to fight again, on the basis of vengeance for their slight.


It is possible Harald was at the siege of London, and the King of Denmark was content with Canute in control of the army. His name was to enter the fraternity of Christ Church, Canterbury, at some point, in 1018, although it is unsure if it was before or after he was back in Denmark. Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ...


In 1018, Harold II died and Canute went to Denmark to affirm his succession to the Danish crown. With a letter written in 1019 he states his intentions to avert troubles to be done against England. It seems Danes were set against him, while an attack on the Wends of Pomerania, in which Godwin apparently earned the king's trust with a raid he led himself at night, was possibly in relation with this. In 1020 he was back in England, his hold on the Danish throne presumably stable. Ulf Jarl, his brother-in-law, was his appointee as the Earl of Denmark. Canute's son, Harthacanute was left in his care. Harold II of Denmark (c. ... Vend redirects here. ... Pommern redirects here. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Ulf Jarl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ...


When the Swedish king Anund Jakob and the Norwegian king Olaf Haraldsson took advantage of Canute's absence and began to launch attacks against Denmark, Ulf gave the discontent freemen cause to take Harthacanute, still a child, as king. This was a ruse of Ulf's, since the role he had as the caretaker of Harthacanute subsequently made him the ruler of the kingdom. Coin minted for Anund Jakob Anund Jakob (referred to as Emund Kolbränna during his time) was King of Sweden 1022-1050. ... Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ...


When news of these events came to Canute, in 1026, he brought together his forces, and, with Ulf in line again, won Denmark supremacy in Scandinavia, at the Battle of Helgeå. This service, did not, though, earn the usurper the forgiveness of Canute for his coup. At a banquet in Roskilde, the brothers-in-law were sat at a game of chess and an argument arose between them, and the next day, Christmas of 1026, one of Canute's housecarls, with his blessing, killed Ulf Jarl, in the Church of Trinity. Contradictory evidences of Ulf's death gather doubt to these circumstances though. Evidence for the years of Canutes reign in Denmark, with his mainstay in England, is generally scanty. The naval Battle of the HelgeÃ¥ took place in 1026, between Denmark and the other Scandinavians, at the estuary of a river called HelgeÃ¥. Opinions are divided on whether it was the HelgeÃ¥ of Uppland or the HelgeÃ¥ of eastern SkÃ¥ne, but the battle is retold in skaldic poetry... This article is about the town in Denmark. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Housecarls were household troops, personal warriors and equivalent to a royal bodyguard to Scandinavian lords and kings. ...


Journey to Rome

On the death in 1024 of the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry II, the Ottonian dynasty was at an end, and with Conrad II the Salian dynasty was begun. Canute left his affairs in the north, with them in hand, and went to the coronation of the King of the Romans, at Easter 1027, in Rome. On the return journey he sent his letter of 1027, like his letter of 1019, to his subjects in England.[39] It is in this letter he proclaims himself ‘king of all England and Denmark and the Norwegians and of some of the Swedes’.[40] We must assume his enemies in Scandinavia were now at his leisure, if he was able to say this, as well as do the almost customary pilgrimage for rulers of Europe to the heart of Christianity, even if it was one at the invitation of the Holy Roman Empire, rather than divine inspiration. Henry II in an illuminated miniature from an imperial sacramentary. ... Conrad II (c. ... Salian family tree The Salian dynasty was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages of four German Kings (1024-1125), also known as the Frankish dynasty after the familys origin and role as dukes of Franconia. ... King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum) was a title used by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire before their coronation by the Pope, and later also by the heir designate of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


In his letter Canute says he went to Rome to repent for his sins, pray for redemption, and the security of his subjects, as well as negotiate with the Pope for a reduction in the costs of the pallium for English archbishops,[41] and for a resolution to the competition of the archdioceses of Canterbury, and Hamburg-Bremen, for superiority over the Danish dioceses. He also sought to improve the conditions for pilgrims, as well as merchants, on the road to Rome. In his own words: now. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ...

... I spoke with the Emperor himself and the Lord Pope and the princes there about the needs of all people of my entire realm, both English and Danes, that a juster law and securer peace might be granted to them on the road to Rome and that they should not be straitened by so many barriers along the road, and harassed by unjust tolls; and the Emperor agreed and likewise King Robert who governs most of these same toll gates. And all the merchants confirmed by edict that my people, both merchants, and the others who travel to make their devotions, might go to Rome and return without being afflicted by barriers and toll collectors, in firm peace and secure in a just law.

Cnut's letter of 1027[42]

'Robert' in Canute's text is probably a clerical error for Rudolph, the last ruler of an independent Kingdom of Burgundy. Hence, the solemn word of the Pope, the Emperor, and Rudolph, was by the witness of four archbishops, twenty bishops, and 'innumerable multitutes of dukes and nobles'.[43] This suggests it was before the ceremonies were at an end.[44] It is without doubt he threw himself into his role with zest.[45] His image as the just Christian king, statesman and diplomat, and crusader against unjustness, seems to be one with its roots in reality, as well as one he sought to project. Rudolf III of Burgundy, died September 6, 1032, King of Burgundy (993–1032). ... The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy // Kings of the Burgundians The Burgundians had left Bornholm, ca 300, and settled near the Vistula. ...


A good illustration of his status within Europe is the fact Canute, and the King of Burgundy went alongside the emperor in the imperial procession,[46] and stood shoulder to shoulder with him on the same pedestal.[47] Canute and the successor of Charlemagne, in accord with various sources,[48] took one another's company like brothers, for they were of a similar age. Conrad gave his guest the sovereignty to lands in the Mark of Schleswig - the land-bridge between the Scandinavian kingdoms and the continent - as a token of their treaty of friendship.[49] Conflict in this area over past centuries was the cause for the construction of the Danevirke, from Schleswig, on the Schlei, and the eastern Baltic Sea coast, to the marches of west Jutland, on the North Sea coast. The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy // Kings of the Burgundians Gebicca (late 4th century–407) Godemar Giselcar Gundicar (413–436) Aetius moves the Burgundians into Sapaudia (Upper Rhone Basin) Gunderic/Gundioc (436–473) opposed by Chilperic I (443–c. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to a border region, e. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... // For the town in New Zealand, see Dannevirke. ... Schlei near Kappeln The Schlei (German: Schlei, Danish: Slien) is a narrow inlet of the Baltic Sea in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


His visit to Rome was a triumph. In the verse of Sighvat's Knutsdrapa he praises Canute, his king, 'dear to the Emperor, close to Peter'.[50] In the middle-ages, or even today in fact, a king seen to be in favour with God could expect to rule over a happy kingdom.[51] He was surely in a stronger position, not only with the Church, and the people, but with the alliance of his southern rivals he was able to conclude his conflicts with his rivals in the north. His letter not only tells his countrymen of his achievements in Rome, but also of his ambitions within the Scandinavian world at his arrival home:

... I, as I wish to be made known to you, returning by the same route that I took out, am going to Denmark to arrange peace and a firm treaty, in the counsel of all the Danes, with those races and people who would have deprived us of life and rule if they could, but they could not, God destroying their strength. May he preserve us by his bounteous compassion in rule and honour and henceforth scatter and bring to nothing the power and might of all our enemies! And finally, when peace has been arranged with our surrounding peoples and all our kingdom here in the east has been properly ordered and pacified, so that we have no war to fear on any side or the hostility of individuals, I intend to come to England as early this summer as I can to attend to the equipping of a fleet.

Cnut's letter of 1027[52]

Canute was to return to Denmark from Rome, by the road he had set out, make arrangements for some kind of pact with the peoples of Scandinavia - though it is not known precisely what it is that this was, his 1019 letter says he went to Denmark to secure support for his English kingdom, and this was probably the purpose of the endeavours he alludes to through his 1027 letter - and return to England. We can only be sure there were important events on the horizon, and the fleet was probably the one he went to Norway with, to stake his claim on the throne.


King of Norway and part of Sweden

Canute the Great's domains, a northern empire of a Viking king

Earl Eiríkr Hákonarson was ruler of Norway under Canute's father, Forkbeard, and Norwegians under Erik had assisted in the invasion of England in 1015-16. Canute showed his appreciation, awarding Eiríkr the office to the Earldom of Northumbria. Sveinn, Eiríkr's brother, was left in control of Norway, but he was beaten at the Battle of Nesjar, in 1015 or 1016, and Eiríkr's son, Håkon, fled to his father. Olaf Haraldsson, of the line of Fairhair, then became King of Norway, and the Danes lost their control. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (633x609, 83 KB) I doctored the wiki Image:Cnut 1014 1035. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (633x609, 83 KB) I doctored the wiki Image:Cnut 1014 1035. ... Erics victory in the battle of Svolder was his most celebrated achievement. ... Earl of Northumbria was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. ... After the Battle of Svolder, Sveinn ruled the area marked yellow on the map. ... The Battle of Nesjar was a sea battle off the coast of Norway in 1016. ... HÃ¥kon Eiriksson, earl of Lade (Trøndelag). ... Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ...


Thorkell the Tall, said to be a chieftain of the Jomsvikings, was a former associate of the new King Olav of Norway, and the difficulties Canute found in Denmark, as well as with Thurkel, were perhaps related to Norwegian pressure on the Danish lands. Jomsborg, the legendary stronghold of the Jomvikings, was possibly on the south coast of the Baltic Sea, and this may account for the attack on the Wends of Pomerania, if the Joms were on the side of Olaf, as Jomsbourg would then have been at the heart of this territory. King Olof Skötkonung of Sweden was an ally of Canute's, as well as his stepbrother. His death in 1022, though, and the succession of his son, Anund Jacob, meant the Danish domains were now threatened by the Swedes too. Thorkell the High (Old Norse Þorkell hávi) was a Jomsviking, a son of the Scanian chieftain Strutharald and the brother of Sigvald Jarl. ... The Jomsvikings were a company of viking mercenaries of the 900s and 1000s, dedicated to the worship of such deities as Odin and Thor. ... Jomsborg was a legendary Viking settlement in Pomerania by the Baltic Sea. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Coin minted for Olof Skötkonung in Sigtuna Olof of Sweden or Olof Skötkonung/Skottkonung (the meaning of the cognomen is disputed) was the son of Eric the Victorious and Sigrid the Haughty. ... Coin minted for Anund Jakob Anund Jakob (king of Sweden 1022-1050) was born as Jakob but when the Thing was to elect him the co-ruler of Sweden, the people objected to his non-Norwegian kings Olaf II and Magnus I against Denmarks king Canute during the 1020s...


In a battle known as the Holy River, Canute and his navy attacked the Swedes and Norwegians led by the allied kings Olaf Haraldsson and Anund Olafsson in the mouth of the river Helgea. 1026 is the likely date, and the apparent victory left Canute in control of Scandinavia, confident enough with his dominance to make the journey to Rome for the coronation of Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor on March 26, 1027. In his Letter, written in Rome, he considers himself “King of all England and Denmark, and the Norwegians, and some of the Swedes”[53] (victory over Swedes suggests Helgea to be a river near Sigtuna, while Sweden's king appears to have been made a renegade, with a hold on the parts of Sweden which were too remote to threaten Canute, or even for Canute to threaten him). He also stated his intention to return to Denmark, to secure peace between the kingdoms of Scandinavia. Combatants Denmark Sweden and Norway Commanders Canute the Great Anund Jacob and Olaf the Stout The naval Battle of the HelgeÃ¥ took place in 1026, between Denmark and the other Scandinavians, at the estuary of a river called HelgeÃ¥. Opinions are divided on whether it was the HelgeÃ¥ of Uppland... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 26 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor. ... Sigtuna is a city in central Sweden in the metropolitan area of Stockholm. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


In 1028, after his return from Rome, through Denmark, for the arrangement of a peace treaty, Canute set off from England with a fleet of fifty ships,[54] to Norway, and the city of Trondheim. Olaf Haraldsson stood down, unable to put up any fight, as his nobles were against him, with offers of gold from Canute, and the apparent resentment for their king's tendency to flay their wives for sorcery.[55] Canute was crowned king, his was now King of England and Denmark, and Norway (he was not King of Sweden, only some of the Swedes)[56]. He entrusted the Earldom of Lade to the former line of earls, in Håkon Eiriksson, with Earl Eiríkr Hákonarson probably dead at this date.[57] Hakon was possibly the Earl of Northumbria after Erik too.[58] Lade (Norse: Hlaðir) is a location in Trondheim, Norway located north-west of the city centre, north of Lademoen on a peninsula. ...


Hakon, a member of a family with a long tradition of hostility towards the independent Norwegian kings, and a relative of Canute's, was already in lordship over the Isles, with the earldom of Worcester, possibly from 1016-17. The sea-lanes through the Irish Sea and Hebrides, led to Orkney and Norway, and were central to Canute's ambitions for dominance of Scandinavia, as well as the British Isles. Hakon was meant to be Canute's lieutenant of this strategic chain. And the final component was his installation as the king's deputy in Norway, after the expulsion of Olaf Haraldsson in 1028. Hakon, though, died in a shipwreck in the Pentland Firth, between the Orkneys and the Scottish mainland, either late 1029 or early 1030.[59] This article is about the city of Worcester in England. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... The Pentland Firth, which is actually more of a strait than a firth, separates the Orkney Islands from Caithness, which is in the far north of the Highland area of Scotland. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ...


Upon the death of Hakon, Olaf Haraldsson was to return to Norway, with Swedes in his army. He, though, was to meet his death at the hands of his own people, at the Battle of Stiklestad, in 1030. Canute's subsequent attempt to rule Norway without the key support of the Trondejarls, through Aelgifu of Northampton, and his eldest son by her, Sweyn Knutsson, was not a success. It is known as Aelfgifu's Time in Norway, with heavy taxation, a rebellion, and the restoration of the former Norwegian dynasty under the postumously St Olaf's son Magnus the Good. The Battle of Stiklestad (Old Norse Stiklarstaðir) in 1030 is one of the most famous battles in the history of Norway. ... Aelgifu (also called Aelfgifu or Elgifu or Aelfgitha) was the wife of Canute the Great in the 11th century. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Magnus I (1024 - October 25, 1047) was a King of Norway (1035 - 1047) and king of Denmark (1042 - 1047). ...


Overlordship outside his kingdoms

A verse from court poet, Sigvat Thordarson, recounts that famous princes brought their heads to Canute and bought peace. This verse mentions Olaf Haraldsson in the past tense, with his death at the Battle of Stiklestad, in 1030. It was therefore at some point after this, and the subsequent consolidation of Norway, Canute went to Scotland, with an army,[60] and the navy in the Irish Sea,[61] in 1031, to receive, without bloodshed, the submission of three Scottish kings; Maelcolm, Maelbeth, and Iehmarc[62]. One of these kings, Iehmarc, is Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, an Ui Imhair chieftain, and the ruler of a sea-kingdom thought to extend throughout the Irish Sea,[63] with Galloway and the Isle of Man among his domains. In 1036 he was to be king of Dublin.[64] Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ... The Battle of Stiklestad (Old Norse Stiklarstaðir) in 1030 is one of the most famous battles in the history of Norway. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (anglicised Malcolm II) (c. ... For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ... Echmarcach mac Ragnaill was the Gall-Gaidhel King of the Isles, Dublin (1036-1038 & 1046-1052), and much of Galloway. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ...


There is reason to believe Vikings of Ireland, were in relations with Canute already, as they were with Sweyn Forkbeard.[65] A Lausavísa attributable to the skald Ottar the Black, suggests these relations were on the level of overlordship, when he greets the ruler of the Danes, Irish, English and Island-dwellers.[66] It is a possibility, though, while the Island-dwellers were nominally Viking, this was meant to mean the Gall Ghaedil of Ireland, rather than the Gaelic kingdoms too. After Brian Boru's victories over Sigtrygg Silkbeard, and the Battle of Clontarf, in 1014, the Viking kingdoms were want to opt for a commercial life in Ireland, rather than one of conquest.[67] Still, when the misinformation prone Encomiast names among Canute's domains, not only England, Denmark and Norway, but also Scotia and Britannia,[68] there may be just enough evidence to suggest there is no exaggeration, here, of his lordship over the British Isles.[69] Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... In Old Norse poetry and later Icelandic poetry, a lausavísa (pl. ... The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (926 or 941[1]–23 April 1014) (known as Brian Boru in English) was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. ... Sigtrygg Silkbeard Olafsson (known also as Sitric in Irish texts) was the son of King Olaf Cuaran and Gormflaith. ... Combatants Irish of Munster Irish of Leinster and Dublin Vikings Commanders Brian Boru† Máelmorda mac Murchada, Sigtrygg Strength ca. ... Domain has several meanings: some kind of territory, such as (for example) a demesne or a realm synonymous with field, e. ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ...


Relations with the Church

Canute's actions as a Viking conqueror had made him uneasy with the Church. His ruthless treatment of the overthrown dynasty in England, as well as his open relationship with a concubine - Aelgifu of Northampton, his handfast wife, whom he kept as his northern queen when he wed Emma of Normandy, kept in the south, with an estate in Exeter - did not fit with the emergeant ideals of Christendom we now know as romance at court, and chivalry between the nobles. Aelgifu (also called Aelfgifu or Elgifu or Aelfgitha) was the wife of Canute the Great in the 11th century. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... For other uses, see Exeter (disambiguation). ... Romance is a general term that refers to an intimate and often sexual relationship between two people. ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ...

Angels crown Canute as he and Emma present the Winchester Cross to the Church
Angels crown Canute as he and Emma present the Winchester Cross to the Church

It is hard to conclude if Canute's devotion to the Church came out of deep religious devotion, or merely as a means to proliferate his regime's hold on the people. It was probably a bit of a mix, with a respect for the Viking religion, especially in his personal life, as well as the desire for a respectable nationhood. Canute surely saw he was in a potentially useful state of affairs, as far as the Church could be held, with its status as the keeper of the people's health, and the state's general welfare. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 336 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (678 × 1210 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cnut and his wife Queen Emma of Normandy (called by the English Aelfgyfu). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 336 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (678 × 1210 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cnut and his wife Queen Emma of Normandy (called by the English Aelfgyfu). ...


His treatment of the Church could not have been kinder. Canute not only repaired all the churches and monasteries that were victims of the Viking love for plunder, and refilled their coffers, but he also built new churches, and was a patron of monastic communities. This was popular with the ecclesiastical and secular population alike.


Canute’s pilgrimage to Rome in 1027 was another sign of his dedication to the Christian faith. It is still debated whether he went to repent his sins, or to attend Emperor Conrad II’s coronation in order to improve relations between the two powers. While in Rome, Canute obtained the agreement from the Pope to reduce the fees paid by the English archbishops to receive their pallium. He also arranged with other Christian leaders that the English pilgrims should pay reduced or no toll tax on their way, and that they would be safeguarded on their way to Rome. Some evidence exists for a second pilgrimage. This one surely could be seen as an act of devotion, as well as cause for payment of respects to the Pope, after their previous discussions. Events March 26 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor. ... Conrad II (circa 990 - June 4, 1039) was the son of count Henry of Speyer. ...


Emperor of the North

Maybe the best illustration for the use of this title is when, at the coronation of the ruler of Holy Roman Empire, Canute stood beside the emperor, as an equal, and went alongside him in the imperial procession. Canute is also known to have made an effort to emulate the styles of his southern neighbour. A now lost seal of his is thought to have been made alike to ones of the Holy Roman Emperors. It may be it was Canute's intention to rule under simlilar auspices. If his legacy did not end as abrubtly as it did, maybe the Emperors of the North, could be an appropriate reflection of the kind of title such a dynasty may have made for itself. This article is about the authentication means. ...


Succession

A thirteenth century portrait of Canute the Great. It shows him as a king of Christendom, rather than as the Viking he was. The facts of his life, at the end of an era, were forgotten by the Europe of feudalism.
A thirteenth century portrait of Canute the Great. It shows him as a king of Christendom, rather than as the Viking he was. The facts of his life, at the end of an era, were forgotten by the Europe of feudalism.

Canute died in 1035, at Shaftesbury, Dorset. He was buried in the Old Minster in Winchester. After the Norman Conquest the new regime was keen to signal its arrival by an ambitious programme of grandiose cathedrals in England. Winchester Cathedral was built on an old Anglo-Saxon site. Canute's bones, along with Emma of Normandy's and Harthacanute's, were set in a mortuary chest. In the English Civil War, in the 17th century, plundering soldiers scattered the bones in the various chests along with those of other English kings and queens, such as king Edwy and his queen Elgiva, and William Rufus. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Shaftesbury (disambiguation) Shaftesbury is a town in North Dorset, England, situated on the A30 road near the Wiltshire border 20 miles west of Salisbury. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... The Old Minster was the Anglo-Saxon cathedral for the diocese of Wessex and then Winchester from 660 to 1093. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Edwy All-Fair or Eadwig (941? – October 1, 959) was the King of England from 955 until his death. ... Elgiva was the wife of king Edwy of England. ... William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance, or maybe his bloody reign) (c. ...


His daughter was set to marry Conrad II's son Henry III eight months after his death. [70]


On his death Canute was succeeded in Denmark by Harthacanute, reigning as Canute III. Harold Harefoot laid claim to the throne in England until his death in 1040. Harthacanute was to reunite the two crowns of Denmark and England until his death in 1042. Canute's line came to an end, although his legacy did not. The house of Wessex was to reign once more through Edward the Confessor, who Harthacanute had brought out of exile in Normandy and made peace with. It meant the throne was Edward's if he died with no legitimate male heir. Edward was crowned King, and the Norman influence at Court was on the rise: pure Viking and Anglo-Saxon influence in England was past, although it must be remembered that the Normans themselves were of Viking descent. Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ...


Marriages and issue

Aelgifu (also called Aelfgifu or Elgifu or Aelfgitha) was the wife of Canute the Great in the 11th century. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Gunhilda of Denmark (c. ... Bosham quay at sunset Bosham (pronounced Bozzum) is a small, coastal village and civil parish in the Chichester District of West Sussex, England, situated three miles (5km) west of Chichester on an inlet of Chichester Harbour. ... Henry III, from a miniature of 1040. ... Conrad II (circa 990 - June 4, 1039) was the son of count Henry of Speyer. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ...

Family tree

Harald Bluetooth
 
 
Mieszko
 
Dubrawka
 
William
 
Sprota
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sweyn
 
Gunhilda
 
 
 
Gunnora
 
Richard
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aelgifu of Northampton
 
Canute
 
Emma of Normandy
 
Ethelred the Unready
 
Aelflaed, 1st wife
 
 
 
Richard
 
Judith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sweyn Knutsson
 
Harold Harefoot
 
 
Gunhilda of Denmark
 
 
Alfred Aetheling
 
Edmund II
 
Ealdgyth
 
Robert
 
Herleva
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gytha Thorkelsdóttir+
 
Godwin, Earl of Wessex
 
Harthacanute
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Edward
 
Agatha
 
William
 
Matilda
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sweyn
 
Harold II
 
Tostig
 
 
Edith
 
Edward the Confessor
 
Edgar Ætheling
 
 
 
 
 
Cristina
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gyrth, Gunnhilda, Aelfgifu, Leofwine & Wulfnoth
 
 
 
 
 
 
Malcolm
 
Margaret
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other children
 
Edith of Scotland
 
Henry
 

+Said to have been a great-granddaughter of Canute's grandfather Harald Bluetooth, but this was probably a fiction intended to give her a royal bloodline. Harald being baptized by Poppo the monk, probably c. ... Reign c. ... Dubrawka, by Jan Matejko Dubrawka of Bohemia (Czech, Doubravka; Polish, Dobrawa or DÄ…brówka; born circa 925/931, died 977) was the daughter of Duke Boleslav I of Bohemia and of Adiva of England. ... Statue of William Longsword as part of the Six Dukes of Normandy statue in Falaise. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... Sigrid the Haughty, Gunhilda, Sigrid Storråda, Świętosława, (967 - 1014) was the daughter of mythical Burislav (almost certainly Mieszko I of Poland and Dubrawka). ... Gunnora or Gunnor (circa 936 – 1031) was the wife and consort of Richard I of Normandy. ... Richard the Fearless as part of the Six Dukes of Normandy statue in the town square of Falaise. ... Aelgifu (also called Aelfgifu or Elgifu or Aelfgitha) was the wife of Canute the Great in the 11th century. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Known as Richard The Good, (French, Le Bon). He was the son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and the Duchess Gunnor. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Gunhilda of Denmark (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Robert, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... Herleva (c. ... Gyda Torkelsdotter was the daughter of Torkel Styrbjörnsson. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Edward the Exile (1016 – February 1057), son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth, gained the name of Exile from his life spent mostly far from the England of his forefathers. ... Agatha was the wife of Edward the Exile (heir to the throne of England) and mother of Edgar Ætheling, Saint Margaret of Scotland and Cristina of England. ... William I of England (1027[1] – 9 September 1087), also known as William the Conqueror (French: ), was Duke of Normandy from 1035 and King of England from 1066 to his death. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Sweyn Godwinson was an older brother of Harold II of England. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Tostig Godwinson (1026? – September 25, 1066) was an Anglo-Saxon earl of Northumbria and brother of King Harold II of England, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England. ... Edith of Wessex, (c. ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... Cristina, daughter of Edward the Exile and Agatha, was the sister of Edgar Ætheling and Saint Margaret of Scotland, born in the 1040s. ... Gyrth Godwinson was a younger brother of Harold II of England and was killed in the Battle of Hastings. ... Leofwine Godwinson was a younger brother of Harold II of England and was killed in the Battle of Hastings. ... Wulfnoth Godwinson (b. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Saint Margaret (c. ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Harold Bluetooth Gormson (Danish Harald Blåtand, Norwegian Harald Blåtann) (ca 935- November 1, 986), sometimes Harold II, succeeded his father Gorm the Old as king of Denmark in 958 (or 959) and was king of Norway for a few years, probably around 970. ...


Popular culture

Man sanding the street in celebration of May Day 1920.
Man sanding the street in celebration of May Day 1920.
  • There is a peculiar custom of "sanding the streets" in the British town of Knutsford that is generally thought to have made its appearance in Canute's reign and continues to this day. Tradition has it that King Canute threw sand from his shoes into the path of a wedding party upon fording the River Lily. Followers of this custom continue to decorate the streets with coloured sands in patterns and pictures. The custom can be traced to the late 1600s; Queen Victoria, in her journal of 1832 recorded: "we arrived at Knutsford, where we were most civilly received, the streets being sanded in shapes, which is peculiar to this town". Today the custom generally celebrates May Day.
  • Helen Hollick. The Hollow Crown. (August 2004) William Heinemann, Random House. ISBN 0-434-00491-X; Arrow paperback ISBN 0-09-927234-2. This is a historical novel about Queen Emma of Normandy, including her second marriage to Canute.
  • Canute is referenced in the filk music song "Song of the Shield-Wall," by Ladies Malkin Grey and Peregrynne Windrider of the Society for Creative Anachronism, in which "Harald Hadrada" (see Harald III of Norway) is described as invading England "to claim Canute's crown."[71]
  • In modern days, he is perhaps most famous as the subject of a legend concerning an attempt either to turn the tide, or demonstrate the impossibility of doing so, for the benefit of fawning courtiers.
  • The famous legend of Canute commanding the tide is the subject of a song by progressive rock band Genesis. "Can-Utility and the Coastliners" is found on their 1972 studio album "Foxtrot"
  • Canute is depicted on the album cover on Thom Yorke's debut single album "The Eraser". In the picture Canute is commanding the tides but he fails.
  • Canute is played by Sting for the music video for Sting's "If I Ever Lose My Faith in You", showing the king seated on a throne in the seawater and attempting to fight the incoming waves with a sword.
  • Comics creator Eddie Campbell's collection of his first Alec autobiographical comics is titled, The King Canute Crowd.
  • A young Canute appears as a supporting character in the ongoing manga Vinland Saga by Yukimura Makoto. The current storyline is set in the year 1013 and focuses on Sweyn Forkbeard's invasion of England.

Image File history File links Man_Sanding_the_street_in_Knutsfrod_for_May_Day_1920. ... Image File history File links Man_Sanding_the_street_in_Knutsfrod_for_May_Day_1920. ... Custom has a number of meanings: A custom is a common practice among a group of people, especially depending on country, culture, time, and religion. ... , Knutsford is a town and civil parish in the borough of Macclesfield, Cheshire, England, located south-west of Manchester, and west of Wilmslow. ... This article is about the holidays celebrated on May 1. ... “Pegasus Award” redirects here. ... Arms of the Society for Creative Anachronism. ... Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald Hardråde (Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated as stern counsel or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1047[1] until 1066. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... Alec: The King Canute Crowd by Eddie Campbell Eddie Campbell (born August 10, 1955) is a Scottish-born comics artist and cartoonist who now lives in Australia. ... Autobiographical comics (often referred to in the comics field as simply autobio) are autobiography in the form of comic books or comic strips. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ...

See also

Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... The raven banner The raven banner (in Old Norse, Hrafnsmerki; in Old English, Hravenlandeye) was a flag, possibly totemic in nature, flown by various viking chieftains and other Scandinavian rulers during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries CE. The flag, as depicted in Norse artwork, was roughly triangular, with a...

Notes on the text

  1. ^ Lawson, Cnut, pp. 95–98.
  2. ^ Graslund, B.,'Knut den store och sveariket: Slaget vid Helgea i ny belysning', Scandia, vol. 52 (1986), pp. 211–238.
  3. ^ Trow, Cnut, pp. 0-260
  4. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 97.
  5. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, p. 196.
  6. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, pp. 197-198
  7. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, pp. 202 & 206.
  8. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, pp. 197-198 & 202.
  9. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, pp. 197-198 & 202.
  10. ^ Trow, Cnut, pp. 30–31.
  11. ^ Encomiast, Encomium Emmae, ii. 2, pg. 18
  12. ^ Thietmar, Chronicon, vii. 39, pgs. 446-447
  13. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 40.
  14. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 44.
  15. ^ Douglas, English Historical Documents, pp. 335-336
  16. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 160.
  17. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 92.
  18. ^ John, H., The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings, Penguin (1995), p. 122.
  19. ^ Sawyer, History of the Vikings, pp. 171
  20. ^ Sawyer, History of the Vikings, pp. 171
  21. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 27
  22. ^ Sawyer, History of the Vikings, pp. 171
  23. ^ Sawyer, History of the Vikings, pp. 171
  24. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 27
  25. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. ???.
  26. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. ???.
  27. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. ???.
  28. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 27.
  29. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 57.
  30. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 57.
  31. ^ Swanton, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Peterborough (E) text, s.a. 1015, pp. 143–144.
  32. ^ Trow, Cnut, pp. 55–56.
  33. ^ Campbell (tr.), Encomium Reginae, ii 4, p. 21.
  34. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 59.
  35. ^ Forte, Oram & Pedersen, Viking Empires, pp. 198
  36. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 89.
  37. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 90.
  38. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, pp. 198
  39. ^ Lawson, Cnut, pp. 65-66.
  40. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 97.
  41. ^ Lawson, Cnut, pp. 124-125.
  42. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 193.
  43. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 193.
  44. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 193.
  45. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 125
  46. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, pp. 198.
  47. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 189.
  48. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 189.
  49. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 104.
  50. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 191.
  51. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 191.
  52. ^ Trow, Cnut, p. 193.
  53. ^ Lawson, Cnut, pp. 95–98.
  54. ^ Trow, Cnut, p.197.
  55. ^ Adam of Bremen, Gesta Daenorum, ii.61, p. 120.
  56. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. ???.
  57. ^ Lawson, Cnut, pp. ??
  58. ^ Trow, Cnut, pp. 197.
  59. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, pp. 196-197
  60. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, pp.197-198.
  61. ^ Lawson, Cnut. pp. 102.
  62. ^ Trow, Cnut, pp. 197-198.
  63. ^ Forte, et al., Viking Empires, pp. 198.
  64. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 102.
  65. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 103.
  66. ^ Lausavisur, ed. Johson Al, pgs. 269-270
  67. ^ Ranelagh, John O'Beirne (2001). A Short History of Ireland. Cambridge University Press, 31. ISBN 0521469449. 
  68. ^ Encomiast, Encomium Emmae, ii. 19, pg 34
  69. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 103.
  70. ^ Lawson, Cnut, p. 98 & pp. 104-105.
  71. ^ Wychwood Warriors' Wiki, song lyric

References

  • Campbell (ed), Encomium
  • Forte, A. (2005), Viking Empires (1st ed.), Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-82992-5 
  • Lawson, M. K. (2004), Cnut: England's Viking King (2nd ed.), Stroud: Tempus, ISBN 0-7524-2964-7 
  • Sawyer, P. (1997), The Oxford Ils. History of the Vikings (1st ed.), Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-820526-0 
  • Swanton, Michael, ed. (1996), The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-92129-5 
  • Thietmar
  • Trow, M. J. (2005), Cnut: Emperor of the North, Stroud: Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-3387-2 

External links

Canute the Great
Born: c. 995 Died: 1035
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Edmund Ironside
King of England
1016-1035
Succeeded by
Harold Harefoot
Preceded by
Harald II
King of Denmark
1018-1035
Succeeded by
Harthacanute
Preceded by
Olaf the Saint
King of Norway
1028-1035
with Hákon Eiríksson (1028-1029)
Sveinn Alfífuson (1030-1035)
Succeeded by
Magnus the Good
Persondata
NAME Canute the Great
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Canute I; Cnut
SHORT DESCRIPTION English monarch
DATE OF BIRTH circa 995
PLACE OF BIRTH Denmark
DATE OF DEATH 1035
PLACE OF DEATH England
Events (Erik Segersäll) is succeeded by (Olof Skötkonung), the first baptized ruler of Sweden. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... George Tsul, ruler of Khazaria, is captured by a combined Byzantine-Rus force, which effectively ends Khazarias existence. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Harold II of Denmark (c. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – July 29, 1030), king from 1015–1028, (known during his lifetime as the Stout or Thick (Olav Digre) and after his canonization as Saint Olaf), was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvason came to Norway. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... Events November 12 - Dying Emperor Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire marries his daughter Zoe of Byzantium to his chosen heir Romanus Argyrus. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... HÃ¥kon Eiriksson, earl of Lade (Trøndelag). ... 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Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ... King Mengrai (or Mangrai) (1239-1317) was the founder of the Lao kingdom Lannathai. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... Parâkramabâhu I (Sinhala: Maha Parâkramabâhu: Parâkramabâhu the Great; 1123–1186) was a medieval king of Sri Lanka, who ruled from the Polonnaruwa Kingdom from 1153–1186. ... 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Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Alfonso III (c. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Herod the Great. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hesse, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes. ... Stephen III of Moldavia or Stephen III (c. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Joao I KG (Portugues: João, IPA pron. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), was the king of Castile from his fathers death in 1035 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his father-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. ... Hugh the Great (d. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... Louis the Great. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... William V of Aquitaine (969-January 30, 1030), nicknamed the Great, was Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers as William II of Poitiers. ... BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave (or Valiant) (Polish: ; Czech: Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 - June 17, 1025), in the past also known as BolesÅ‚aw I the Great, in Polish: BolesÅ‚aw I Wielki), of the Piast Dynasty — son of Mieszko I and of his first wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa — ruled... Sancho III (c. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Cyrus redirects here. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-DÄ«n Muhammad Akbar), also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Imam-i-Adil, Sultan ul-Islam Kaffatt ul-Anam, Amir ul-Muminin, Khalifat ul-Mutaali Abul-Fath Jalal... Darius I the Great (c. ... Karim Khan Zand, (Persian: کریم خان زند), (c. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coin of Mithridates II from the mint at Seleucia. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... “Kamehameha” redirects here. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... Most Danes know that the official line of Danish kings begins with Gorm the Old, the father of renowned king Harald Bluetooth, who ruled Denmark in the 950s. ... Gorm the Old (Gorm den Gamle) was King of Denmark in the mid-900s. ... Harald being baptized by Poppo the monk, probably c. ... Sweyn I, or Sweyn Forkbeard, (Danish: Svend Tveskæg, originally Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg, Old Norse: Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Norwegian: Svein Tjugeskjegg), (??? – February 3, 1014), king of Denmark and England, a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute the Great (Cnut I). ... Harold II of Denmark (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Magnus I (1024 - October 25, 1047) was a King of Norway (1035 - 1047) and king of Denmark (1042 - 1047). ... Coin struck for Sweyn II of Denmark, ca. ... Harald III (1041 - April 17, 1080) was king of Denmark from 1076 to 1080. ... the death of Canute the Holy, by Christian Albrecht von Benzon Canute IV, (approximately 1043 — 1086), also known as Canute the Saint and Canute the Holy, was King of Denmark from 1080 until 1086. ... Olaf I of Denmark (born circa 1050 - died 1095), known also as Oluf I Hunger, was king of Denmark following his brother Canute IV starting from 1086. ... Eric I of Denmark (c. ... Niels of Denmark (c. ... Erik II Emune (c. ... Erik III HÃ¥konssøn Lam (probably born around 1100-1105 on Funen (Fyn), died August 27, 1146 in Odense) was the king of Denmark from 1137 until he abdicated in 1146. ... Sven III Grathe (11XX - 1157) was the king of Denmark between 1146 and 1157. ... Canute V of Denmark (Knud V Magnusson) 11XX - August 9, 1157, Danish king, co-regent with Sweyn III and Valdemar I between 1146 and 1157. ... Valdemar I the Great (1131-1182) was King of Denmark from 1157 until 1182. ... Canute IV (1163-1202), also called Canute VI because the two prior kings Harthacanute were counted under the name Canute in older Lists of Rulers, was King of Denmark (1182-1202). ... Valdemar II (1170–1241), called Valdemar the Conqueror or Valdemar the Victorious, was the King of Denmark from 1202 until 1241. ... Eric IV (1216-August 9, 1250), also known as Plovpenning, was king of Denmark from 1241 until his death. ... Abel of Denmark (1218 – June 29, 1252) was Duke of Schleswig from 1232 to 1252 and King of Denmark from 1250 until his death in 1252. ... Christopher I (1219-May 29, 1259) was king of Denmark between 1252 and 1259. ... Eric V Klipping (1249-1286) was King of Denmark (1259-1286) and son of Christopher I. Until 1264 he ruled under the auspices of his mother, the competent Queen Dowager Margaret Sambiria. ... Eric VI Menved (1274 - 13 November 1319) was King of Denmark (1286-1319) and a son of Eric V. Born in 1274. ... King Christian II, painting by P. van Coninxloo, 1521. ... Valdemar III of Denmark (Waldemar III) (1314 - 1364) was a king of Denmark from 1326 to 1329 briefly when underage, as well as in 1325-26 and 1330-64 Dke of Schleswig. ... King Christian II, painting by P. van Coninxloo, 1521. ... Valdemar IV of Denmark (Valdemar Atterdag) shown on a fresco in Næstveds Saint Peters Church (Sankt Peders Kirke). ... Olaf IV Haakonsson, (1370 - August 23, 1387), King of Norway and Denmark, son of Haakon VI of Norway and Margaret of Denmark. ... Queen Margaret I for Queens Margaret of Denmark, see Queen Margaret of Denmark, and for a namesake queen consort of Scotland, see Margaret of Denmark Margaret Valdemarsdotter (1353 – October 28, 1412) was Queen of Norway, Regent of Denmark and of Sweden, and founder of the so-called Kalmar Union which... Palatinate-Neumarkt (German: Pfalz-Neumarkt) was a subdivision of the Wittelsbach dynasty of the German Palatinate. ... Eric of Pomerania A caricature of the king, the only contemporary likeness of him in existence Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title) or Eryk Pomorski (Polish title), was adopted by Margaret I... Christopher of Bavaria, known by his Danish and Norwegian title as Christoffer (III) af/av Bayern and by his Swedish title as Kristofer av Bayern (26 February 1418-6 January 1448) was union king of Denmark and Norway (1440-1448), and of Sweden (1441-1448). ... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... Christian I of Denmark (1426 – 1481), Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1448 – 1481), Norway (1450 – 1481) and Sweden (1457 – 1464), under the Kalmar Union. ... John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden John, Johann, Johan II, Danish and Norwegian name Hans (2 February 1455 – 22 July 1513 ), was a Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1481 – 1513), Norway (1483 – 1513) Sweden (1497 – 1501), under the Kalmar Union, and also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Christian II (July 2, 1481 – January 25, 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 – 1523) and Sweden (1520 – 1521), under the Kalmar Union. ... King Frederick I. Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (October 7, 1471 – April 10, 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426-1481) and of Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430-1495). ... Christian III Christian III (August 12, 1503–January 1, 1559), king of Denmark and Norway, was the son of Frederick I of Denmark and his first consort, Anne of Brandenburg. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... The coronation of King Christian IV, painted by Otto Bache, 1887. ... King Frederick III Frederick III (March 28, 1609 – February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ... Christian V (April 14, 1646 in Flensburg - August 25, 1699 in Copenhagen), was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670-1699. ... Frederick IV Frederick IV (October 11, 1671 - October 12, 1730) king of Denmark and Norway from 1699. ... Chistian VI (1699-1746) king of Denmark and Norway from 1730. ... Frederick V, painting by Carl Gustaf Pilo Statue of Frederick V in the center of Amalienborg by Jacques François Joseph Saly Frederick V (March 31, 1723 – January 13, 1766) was king of Denmark and Norway from 1746, son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalen of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. ... King Christian VII Christian VII (January 29, 1749–March 13, 1808), King of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... King Frederick VI. King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway (January 28, 1768 – December 3, 1839), reigned as King of Denmark from 1808 to 1839, and as king of Norway from 1808 to 1814. ... Christian VIII Christian VIII (September 18, 1786–January 20, 1848), king of Denmark 1839-48 and of Norway 1814, the eldest son of the Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, was born in 1786 at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. ... King Frederick VII Frederick VII (October 6, 1808 - November 15, 1863) was the last king of Denmark to rule as an absolute monarch. ... Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (in Danish: Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Lyksborg (or Glücksborg), from Glücksburg in northernmost Germany, is a line of the House of Oldenburg that is descended from King King Christian III of Denmark, to which the royal houses of Denmark, Norway, and the exiled... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Frederik VIII (June 3, 1843 – May 14, 1912), was King of Denmark from 1906–1912. ... Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) (26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. ... Frederick IX of Denmark (Christian Frederik Franz Michael Carl Valdemar Georg) (March 11, 1899 – January 14, 1972) was King of Denmark from April 20, 1947 until his death. ... Margrethe II (Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid) (born 16 April 1940) is the Queen regnant of Denmark. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northumberland. ... Ælle was king of the South Saxons from 477 to perhaps as late as 514, and was named Bretwalda by Bede, who adds that he was overlord of the English south of the Humber river. ... Ceawlin of Wessex (also spelled Ceaulin or Caelin) is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as being king of the West Saxons, or Wessex from 560 to 591, and named by Bede in his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum as the second king to hold imperium over other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. ... Ethelbert (or Æthelbert, or Aethelberht) (means roughly Magnificent Noble) (c. ... Rædwald, son of Tytila, was King of the East Angles from c 600 AD until his death in c 624 AD. From c 616 he became the most powerful of the English rulers south of the River Humber, and by military action installed a Northumbrian ruler acquiescent to his... Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) (c. ... Oswald (c. ... Oswiu (612–February 15, 670), also written as Oswio, Oswy, and Osuiu was an Anglo-Saxon Bretwalda. ... Wulfhere (d. ... For the later earl, see Earl Aethelred of Mercia. ... Ethelbald (or Æthelbald) (died 757) was the King of Mercia in England from 716 until his death. ... This article is about Offa of Mercia. ... Coenwulf (or Cenwulf) (died 821) was King of Mercia from 796 to 821. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Wyvern. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Edward the Elder (Old English: Ä’adweard se Ieldra) (c. ... Ælfweard (died 2 August 924) was the second known son of Edward the Elder. ... Athelstan redirects here. ... Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ... “Eadred” redirects here. ... Edwy All-Fair or Eadwig (941? – October 1, 959) was the King of England from 955 until his death. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... Not to be confused with Edmund the Martyr. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... William I of England (1027[1] – 9 September 1087), also known as William the Conqueror (French: ), was Duke of Normandy from 1035 and King of England from 1066 to his death. ... William II (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Stephen (c. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... This article is about King Richard III of England. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Edward Tudor redirects here. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... Not to be confused with United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse: Haraldr hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald HÃ¥rfagre), (c. ... Eirik Bloodaxe (Old Norse: Eiríkr blóðøx, Norwegian: Eirik Blodøks), (c. ... Haakon I (ca. ... Harald II (-976), surnamed Gråfell (Norwegian) / Graafeld (Danish) / Greyhide (English), was the son of Eric Bloodaxe and a grandson of Harald Finehair. ... Haakon Sigurdsson Jarl (d. ... Olaf Tryggvason (Old Norse: Óláfr Tryggvason, Norwegian: Olav Tryggvason), (960s-September 9? 1000), was King of Norway from 995 to 1000. ... Erics victory in the battle of Svolder was his most celebrated achievement. ... After the Battle of Svolder, Sveinn ruled the area marked yellow on the map. ... HÃ¥kon Eiriksson, earl of Lade (Trøndelag). ... Sweyn I, or Sweyn Forkbeard, (Danish: Svend Tveskæg, originally Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg, Old Norse: Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Norwegian: Svein Tjugeskjegg), (??? – February 3, 1014), king of Denmark and England, a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute the Great (Cnut I). ... Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – July 29, 1030), king from 1015–1028, (known during his lifetime as the Stout or Thick (Olav Digre) and after his canonization as Saint Olaf), was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvason came to Norway. ... HÃ¥kon Eiriksson, earl of Lade (Trøndelag). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Magnus I (1024 - October 25, 1047) was a King of Norway (1035 - 1047) and king of Denmark (1042 - 1047). ... Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald HardrÃ¥de (Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated as stern counsel or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1047[1] until 1066. ... Magnus II king of Norway from 1066 until 1069. ... Olaf III Haraldsson Kyrre (d. ... Haakon Magnusson, king of Norway from 1093 until 1094. ... Magnus Barefoot (1073-1103), son of Olaf Kyrre, was king of Norway from 1093 until 1103 and King of the Isle of Man from 1095-1102. ... Olaf Magnusson (1099-1115) was king of Norway 1103-1115. ... Øystein I (1088?-1123) was king of Norway 1103-1123. ... Sigurd I Magnusson (1089?-1130), nicknamed Sigurd Jorsalfare (Old Norse Sigurðr Jórsalafari, translation: Sigurd the Crusader, literal translation: Sigurd, the one who went to Jerusalem) was king of Norway 1103-1130. ... Magnus the Blind was the son of King Sigurd Jorsalfar of Norway and Borghild Olavsdotter. ... Harald Gylle (1103–1136), king of Norway, was born in Ireland. ... Sigurd II (1133–1155) was the son of Harald Gille, king of Norway and his mistress Tora Guttormsdottir. ... Øystein Haraldson (died 1157), son of king Harald IV of Norway. ... Inge Haraldson, krokrygg the crouchback (1135 - 1161) was the king of Norway between 1136 and 1161. ... Haakon II Sigurdsson (Herdebrei - Eng. ... Magnus Erlingsson (1156-1184) was a king of Norway, from Etne in Hordaland. ... King Sverres trek across the Voss mountains is imagined in this 19th century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. ... Haakon III (HÃ¥kon Sverreson) was a king of Norway from 1202-1204. ... Guttorm Sigurdsson was king of Norway in 1204. ... Inge Baardson (1185 - 1217) was a king of Norway between 1205 and 1217. ... Haakon Haakonsson (1204 – December 15, 1263) (Norwegian HÃ¥kon HÃ¥konsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson), also called Haakon the Old, was king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. ... Magnus Lagabøte (lit. ... Eirik Magnusson, king of Norway from 1280 until 1299. ... Burial site of HÃ¥kon V in Oslo Haakon V Magnusson (1270 - May 8, 1319) was king of Norway from 1299 until 1319. ... House of Bjelbo, also known as House of Bjälbo (Bjälboätten in Swedish) or House of Folkung (Folkungaätten in Swedish), was an Ostrogothian Swedish family that provided for several medieval Swedish bishops, jarls and kings. ... Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, the fourth Magnus to have been proclaimed king of Sweden (1316 – December 1, 1377), King of Sweden, Norway, and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, daughter of Haakon V of Norway. ... Haakon VI Magnusson (appr. ... Olaf IV Haakonsson, (1370 - August 23, 1387), King of Norway and Denmark, son of Haakon VI of Norway and Margaret of Denmark. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Queen Margaret I for Queens Margaret of Denmark, see Queen Margaret of Denmark, and for a namesake queen consort of Scotland, see Margaret of Denmark Margaret Valdemarsdotter (1353 – October 28, 1412) was Queen of Norway, Regent of Denmark and of Sweden, and founder of the so-called Kalmar Union which... Eric of Pomerania A caricature of the king, the only contemporary likeness of him in existence Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title) or Eryk Pomorski (Polish title), was adopted by Margaret I... Christopher of Bavaria, known by his Danish and Norwegian title as Christoffer (III) af/av Bayern and by his Swedish title as Kristofer av Bayern (26 February 1418-6 January 1448) was union king of Denmark and Norway (1440-1448), and of Sweden (1441-1448). ... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... Christian I of Denmark (1426 – 1481), Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1448 – 1481), Norway (1450 – 1481) and Sweden (1457 – 1464), under the Kalmar Union. ... John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden John, Johann, Johan II, Danish and Norwegian name Hans (2 February 1455 – 22 July 1513 ), was a Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1481 – 1513), Norway (1483 – 1513) Sweden (1497 – 1501), under the Kalmar Union, and also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Christian II (July 2, 1481 – January 25, 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 – 1523) and Sweden (1520 – 1521), under the Kalmar Union. ... King Frederick I. Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (October 7, 1471 – April 10, 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426-1481) and of Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430-1495). ... Christian III Christian III (August 12, 1503–January 1, 1559), king of Denmark and Norway, was the son of Frederick I of Denmark and his first consort, Anne of Brandenburg. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... The coronation of King Christian IV, painted by Otto Bache, 1887. ... King Frederick III Frederick III (March 28, 1609 – February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ... Christian V (April 14, 1646 in Flensburg - August 25, 1699 in Copenhagen), was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670-1699. ... Frederick IV Frederick IV (October 11, 1671 - October 12, 1730) king of Denmark and Norway from 1699. ... Chistian VI (1699-1746) king of Denmark and Norway from 1730. ... Frederick V, painting by Carl Gustaf Pilo Statue of Frederick V in the center of Amalienborg by Jacques François Joseph Saly Frederick V (March 31, 1723 – January 13, 1766) was king of Denmark and Norway from 1746, son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalen of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. ... King Christian VII Christian VII (January 29, 1749–March 13, 1808), King of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... King Frederick VI. King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway (January 28, 1768 – December 3, 1839), reigned as King of Denmark from 1808 to 1839, and as king of Norway from 1808 to 1814. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Christian VIII Christian VIII (September 18, 1786–January 20, 1848), king of Denmark 1839-48 and of Norway 1814, the eldest son of the Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, was born in 1786 at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. ... The House of Bernadotte, the current Royal House of the Kingdom of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. ... Charles XIII (Swedish: ) (7 October 1748 - 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway (where he was known as Karl II) from 1814 until his death. ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Karl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... Oscar I, born Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte (July 4, 1799, Paris–July 8, 1859, Stockholm), was King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. ... Karl XV (Karl Ludvig Eugén) (May 3, 1826 – September 18, 1872) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Karl IV) from 1859 until his death. ... King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (January 21, 1829 - December 8, 1907), born Oscar Frederik, ruled Norway from 1872 until 1905 and Sweden from 1872 until his death. ... Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (in Danish: Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Lyksborg (or Glücksborg), from Glücksburg in northernmost Germany, is a line of the House of Oldenburg that is descended from King King Christian III of Denmark, to which the royal houses of Denmark, Norway, and the exiled... Haakon VII (Prince Carl of Denmark, born Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel) (August 3, 1872 – September 21, 1957), was the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the personal union with Sweden. ... His Majesty King Olav V (July 2, 1903 - January 17, 1991) reigned as King of Norway from 1957 to 1991. ... Harald V, KG (born February 21, 1937) is the King of Norway. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

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Wikinfo | Canute the Great (820 words)
Canute's mother was Gunhild (formerly Swiatoslawa, daughter of Mieszko I of Poland).
Canute is generally regarded as a wise and successful king of England, although this view may in part be attributable to his good treatment of the church, which controlled the history writers of the day.
Canute died on November 12, 1035, at Shaftesbury in Dorset, and was buried at Winchester.
Britannia: Monarchs of Britain (249 words)
Canute consolidated his power by eliminating all claimants to the throne from the House of Wessex, through either banishment or execution.
Canute got rid of his mistress and took Æthelred's widow, Emma, to be his lawfully wedded wife.
Canute's reign was a strong and effective one.
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