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Encyclopedia > Canopus
Canopus

An image of Canopus by Expedition 6
Observation data
Epoch J2000
Constellation Carina
Right ascension 06h 23m 57.1099s
Declination −52° 41′ 44.378″
Apparent magnitude (V) −0.72
Characteristics
Spectral type F0 Ia
U-B color index 0.04
B-V color index 0.15
Variable type None
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) 20.5 km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: 19.99 mas/yr
Dec.: 23.67 mas/yr
Parallax (π) 10.43 ± 0.53 mas
Distance 310 ± 20 ly
(96 ± 5 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) −5.53
Details
Radius 65 R
Surface gravity (log g) 1.50
Luminosity 13600 L
Temperature 7,500 K
Metallicity 90% Sun
Other designations
Suhel, Suhail, Alpha Carinae, HD 45348, HR 2326, CD−52°914, FK5 245, SAO 234480, HIP 30438, GC 8302
Database references
SIMBAD data

Canopus (α Car / α Carinae / Alpha Carinae) is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina, and the second brightest star in the night-time sky, with a visual magnitude of −0.72, second only to Sirius. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1368 pixel, file size: 1. ... // Crew Kenneth Bowersox (5), Commander - U.S.A. Nikolai Budarin (3), Flight Engineer - Russia Donald Pettit (1), Flight Engineer - U.S.A. (1) number of spaceflights each crew member has completed, including this mission. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Carina (IPA: , Latin: ) is a southern constellation which forms part of the old constellation of Argo Navis. ... Equatorial Coordinates Right ascension (abbrev. ... In astronomy, declination (abbrev. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ... In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature. ... In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature. ... Most stars are of almost constant luminosity. ... Illustration of the use of optical wavelength interferometry to determine precise positions of stars. ... Radial velocity is the velocity of an object in the direction of the line of sight. ... kilometre per second is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), signified by the symbol km/s or km s-1. ... The proper motion of a star is the motion of the position of the star in the sky (the change in direction in which we see it, as opposed to the radial velocity) after eliminating the improper motions of the stars, which affect their measured coordinates but are not real... A milliarcsecond (m, mas) , or a thoundsanth of an arcsecond. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... A milliarcsecond (m, mas) , or a thoundsanth of an arcsecond. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A milliarcsecond (m, mas) , or a thoundsanth of an arcsecond. ... Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are at any given moment in time. ... A light-year or lightyear (symbol: ly) is a unit of measurement of length, specifically the distance light travels in vacuum in one year. ... A parsec is the distance from the Earth to an astronomical object which has a parallax angle of one arcsecond. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us, in the absence of interstellar extinction. ... Circle illustration In classical geometry, a radius (plural: radii) of a circle or sphere is any line segment from its center to its boundary. ... In astronomy, the solar radius is a unit of length used to express the size of stars and larger objects such as galaxies. ... The surface gravity of a Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. ... Luminosity has different meanings in several different fields of science. ... The solar luminosity, , is a unit of luminosity (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to give the luminosities of stars. ... Fig. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... The globular cluster M80. ... A star catalogue, or star catalog, is an astronomical catalog that lists stars. ... The Henry Draper Catalogue is an astronomy catalogue with astrometric and spectroscopic data about more than 225,000 stars. ... In astronomy, many stars are referred to simply by catalogue numbers. ... In astronomy, many stars are referred to simply by catalogue numbers. ... Fifth Fundamental Catalogue is a glossary of positions of stars. ... Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog contain the 258,996 stars. ... The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (Tycho-1) are the primary products of the European Space Agencys astrometric mission, Hipparcos. ... SIMBAD (the Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) is a database of astronomical information about objects within the Milky Way. ... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Carina (IPA: , Latin: ) is a southern constellation which forms part of the old constellation of Argo Navis. ... Bright stars can be bright because they produce more light, because they are closer to us, or both. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other heavenly body is a measure of its apparent brightness; that is, the amount of light received from the object. ... Sirius (α CMa / α Canis Majoris / Alpha Canis Majoris) (IPA: ) is the brightest star in the night-time sky with a visual apparent magnitude of −1. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name "Canopus" has two common derivations, both listed in Richard Hinckley Allen's touchstone of stellar mythology, Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning; which may be a matter of conjecture. One comes from the legend of the Trojan War. As the constellation Carina is part of the now-obsolete, gigantic Argo Navis constellation, which represented the ship used by Jason and the Argonauts, the brightest star in the constellation was given the name of a ship's pilot from another Greek legend — Canopus was the pilot of Menelaus' ship on his quest to retrieve Helen of Troy after she was taken by Paris.[citation needed] Richard Hinckley Allen (1838, Buffalo, New York—1908, Northampton, Massachusetts) was a gifted polymath and amateur naturalist; his wide range of interests caused his friends to nickname him the walking encyclopedia. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... The constellation Argo Navis drawn by Johannes Hevelius in 1690 Argo Navis (or simply Argo) was a large southern constellation representing the Argo, the ship used by Jason and the Argonauts in Greek mythology. ... Jason (Greek: Ιάσων, Etruscan: Easun) is a hero of Greek mythology who led the Argonauts in the search of the Golden Fleece. ... In Greek mythology, Canopus (or Canobus) was the pilot of the ship of King Menelaus of Sparta during the Trojan War. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... Helen. ... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ...


The other etymology of the name is that it comes from the Egyptian Coptic Kahi Nub ("Golden Earth"), which refers to the way it would appear near the horizon in Egypt and be correspondingly reddened by atmospheric extinction from that position.[citation needed] There is also a ruined ancient Egyptian port, Canopus, apparently specifically named for the star, near the mouth of the Nile; its site was the location of the Battle of the Nile. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Canopus (also: Canobus) was an Ancient Egyptian coastal town, located in the Nile Delta. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders Horatio Nelson François-Paul Brueys DAigalliers† Strength 14 ships of the line: * 13 x 74-gun, * 1 x 50-gun, 1 sloop 13 ships of the line: * 1 x 120-gun, * 3 x 80-gun, * 9 x 74gun, 4 frigates, some smaller Casualties 218...


Or it could be that Menelaus's legendary pilot was named after the port, and the port was named "Golden Floor" because of the many valuable cargoes that passed across its quays and the profits made by merchants there.


It is known as 老人星(Lǎorénxīng, the Star of the Old) in Chinese.


Astronomical details

Canopus is a yellowish-white supergiant star. It is located well into the southern hemisphere, at a declination of −52° 42' (2000) and a right ascension of 06h24.0m, and is visible on the southern horizon of US States as far north as Virginia or Kentucky or the African coast of the Mediterranean Sea. From the southern hemisphere below the tropics such as in Australia, South America and South Africa, Canopus and Sirius are both visible high in the sky at once when they reach their highest points in the sky 21 minutes apart. Supergiants are the most massive stars. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... In astronomy, declination (abbrev. ... Equatorial Coordinates Right ascension (abbrev. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Sirius (α CMa / α Canis Majoris / Alpha Canis Majoris) (IPA: ) is the brightest star in the night-time sky with a visual apparent magnitude of −1. ...


Canopus is, according to the Hipparcos satellite, 310 light years (96 parsecs) from our solar system (based on parallax measurement of 10.43 ± 0.53 mas).[1] Before Hipparcos, distance estimates for the star varied very widely, up to as much as 1200 light years or as close as 96 light years; had the former been correct, Canopus would have been one of the most powerful stars in our galaxy. As is, it is still about 20,000 times brighter than the Sun and the most intrinsically bright star within 700 light years or so.[citation needed] It is much more intrinsically luminous than the sole night sky star that appears brighter than it from Earth—Sirius is a mere 22 times more luminous than our sun, and depends on being much closer to us to beat its rival in apparent magnitude. In fact, for a large fraction of stars in the local stellar neighbourhood, Canopus is the "brightest star in the sky".[citation needed] Hipparcos (for High Precision Parallax Collecting Satellite) was an astrometry mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) dedicated to the measurement of stellar parallax and the proper motions of stars. ... A light-year or lightyear (symbol: ly) is a unit of measurement of length, specifically the distance light travels in vacuum in one year. ... A parsec is the distance from the Earth to an astronomical object which has a parallax angle of one arcsecond. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A milliarcsecond (m, mas) , or a thoundsanth of an arcsecond. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Sirius (α CMa / α Canis Majoris / Alpha Canis Majoris) (IPA: ) is the brightest star in the night-time sky with a visual apparent magnitude of −1. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ...


The difficulty in measuring Canopus' distance stemmed from its unusual nature. The usual classification for Canopus is F0 Ia, and F-class bright supergiants are rare and poorly understood; they may be stars in the process of evolving to or away from red giant status. This in turn made it difficult to guess how intrinsically bright it is and so how far away it might be. Direct measurement was the only way to solve the problem, and as it was too far away for earth-based parallax observations to be made, a precise distance had to wait until the Space Age.[citation needed] Supergiants are the most massive stars. ... According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red giant is a large non-main sequence star of stellar classification K or M; so-named because of the reddish appearance of the cooler giant stars. ...


Role in navigation

To anyone living in the northern hemisphere, but far enough south to see the star, it served as a southern pole star. (Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning). This lasted only until magnetic compasses became common, of course. For other uses of the words Pole star and Polestar see Polestar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the navigational tool. ...


In modern times, another navigational use has been found. Due to its brightness and position away from the orbital plane of our solar system (the latter being in contrast to Sirius' position), Canopus is often used by American space probes for navigational purposes, using a special camera known as a "Canopus Star Tracker" in combination with a "Sun Tracker". In the context of spacecraft, attitude control is control of the angular position and rotation of the spacecraft, either relative to the object that it is orbiting, or relative to the celestial sphere. ...


Cultural references

Kalīla o Damna, an influential Pahlavi (Middle Persian) book of animal fables was later known as Anvar-i-Suhaili or The Lights of Canopus. The Panchatantra [1][2][3] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or KalÄ«la o Damna (Persian: ) or Anvar-i-Suhayli [4][5] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian)[6] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[7] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, Arabic كليلة Ùˆ دمنة Kalila wa... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... For other uses of the term, see fable (disambiguation). ...


At the end of the British film Ice Cold in Alex (1958), the principal characters enjoy a cold beer in the Bar Canopus (in Alexandria). Ice-Cold in Alex (1958) is a British film starring John Mills. ... Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ...


In Frank Herbert's Dune universe, the planet Arrakis is the third planet orbiting Canopus. Frank Patrick Herbert (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986) was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful American science fiction author. ... For the Frank Herbert novel, see Dune (novel) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian processes. ... Arrakis, (derived from the Arabic name ar-rāqiṣ, the dancer, originally a star-name for Mu Draconis) later Rakis (known colloquially as Dune) is a fictional desert planet featured in the Dune novels by Frank Herbert, where it is the home of the Fremen (Zensunni wanderers) and later, the...


See also

  • Canopus in fiction

The planetary systems of stars other than the Sun and its Solar System are a staple element in much science fiction. ...

References

  1. ^ HD 45348 -- Star. SIMBAD, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved on 2006-08-05.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Canopus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (750 words)
Canopus (α Car / α Carinae / Alpha Carinae) is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina, and the second brightest star in the sky, with a visual magnitude of −0.62, second only to Sirius.
Canopus is, according to the Hipparcos satellite, 310 light years (96 parsecs) (1.8 quadrillion miles) from our solar system (based on parallax measurement of 10.43 ± 0.53 mas).
The usual classification for Canopus is F0 IA, and F-class bright supergiants are rare and poorly understood; they may be stars in the process of evolving to or away from red giant status.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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