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Encyclopedia > Canon Law
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Canon law is the term used for the internal ecclesiastical law which governs various churches, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion of churches. The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was initially a rule adopted by a council (From Greek kanon / κανών, for rule, standard, or measure); these canons formed the foundation of canon law. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church... ... Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate the doctrine, religious belief, faith, system, practice and principles of the Church of England and other Anglican churches. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ...

Contents

Canons of the Apostles

The Apostolic Canons[1] or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles[2] is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees (eighty-five in the Eastern, fifty in the Western Church) concerning the government and discipline of the Early Christian Church, incorporated with the Apostolic Constitutions which are part of the Ante-Nicene Fathers collection. This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles[1] is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees (eighty-five in the Eastern, fifty in the Western Church) concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... The Apostolic Constitutions is a late 4th century collection, in 8 books, of independent, though closely related, treatises on Early Christian discipline, worship, and doctrine, intended to serve as a manual of guidance for the clergy, and to some extent for the laity. ... The Ante-Nicene Fathers, subtitled , is a selected set of books containing English translations of the major early Christian writings. ...


Catholic Church

Little known, the Roman Catholic Church has the oldest continuously functioning legal system in the Western World,[1] predating the common and European civil law traditions. What began with rules ("canons") adopted by the Apostles themselves at the Council of Jerusalem in the First Century has blossomed into a highly complex and original legal system encapsulating not just norms of the New Testament, but key elements of the Hebrew (Old Testament), Roman, Visigothic, Saxon, and Celtic legal traditions spanning thousands of years of human experience. Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Book of Acts, Chapter 15 Council of Jerusalem is a title applied in retrospect to an unnamed meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter . ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the European people. ...


In the Catholic Church, positive ecclesiastical laws, based upon either immutable divine and natural law, or changeable circumstantial and merely positive law, derive formal authority and promulgation from the Pope, who as Supreme Pontiff possesses the totality of legislative, executive, and judicial power in his person. As such, the actual subject material of the canons is not just doctrinal or moral in nature, but indeed all-encompassing of the human condition.


In the early Church, the first canons were decreed by Bishops reunited in "Ecumenical" (the Emperor summoning all of the known world's Bishops to attend) or "local" (Bishops of a regional territory) councils. Over time, these canons were concurrently supplemented with decretals of the Bishops of Rome, according to the maxim, "Roma locuta est, causa finita est" ("Rome has spoken, case is closed"), highlighting the supremacy which the Successors of St. Peter claimed from as early as Pope St. Clement I in ca. A.D. 90. The term Early Christianity here refers to Christianity of the period after the Death of Jesus in the early 30s and before the First Council of Nicaea in 325. ... See also General Council (disambiguation). ... Decretals (Epistolae decretales) is the name that is given in Canon Law to those letters of the pope which formulate decisions in ecclesiastical law. ...


Later, they were gathered together into collections, both unofficial and official. The first systematic attempt at a collection was assembled by the Camaldolese monk Gratian in the 11th century, commonly known as the Decretum ("Gratian's Decree"). Pope Gregory IX is credited with promulgating the first official collection of canons called the Decretalia Gregorii Noni or Liber Extra (1234). This was followed by the Liber Sextus (1298) of Boniface VIII, the Clementines (1317) of Clement V, the Extravagantes Joannis XXII and the Extravagantes Communes, all of which followed the same structure as the Liber Extra. All these collections, with the Decretum Gratiani, are together referred to as the Corpus Juris Canonici. Franciscus Gratianus, or Johannes Gratianus, known most often simply as Gratian, was a 12th century canon lawyer from Bologna. ... Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti ( 1143–August 22, 1241), pope from 1227 to 1241, the successor of Honorius III, fully inherited the traditions of Gregory VII and of his uncle Innocent III, and zealously perpetuated their policy of Papal supremacy. ... Boniface VIII, né Benedict Gaetano ( 1235 - October 11, 1303) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. ... Clement V, né Bertrand de Gouth (1264 - April 20, 1314) was pope from 1305 to 1314. ... Corpus Iuris Canonici is the Roman Catholic Churchs revised and authenticated versions of the libri legales. ...


After the completion of the Corpus Juris, subsequent papal legislation was published in periodic volumes called Bullaria.


By 1917 this body of true legislation grew into 10,000 canons. The rationales of many these were extremely difficult to reconcile due to changes of circumstances across history. This difficult situation impelled Pope St. Pius X to order the creation of the first Code of Canon Law, a single volume of clearly stated laws. Under the aegis of the Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, the work of the Code Commission was completed under Benedict XV, who promulgated the Code, effective in 1918. The work having been begun by Pius X, it was sometimes called the "Pio-Benedictine Code" but more often the 1917 Code. In its preparation, centuries of material from all over the globe was examined, scrutinized for authenticity by leading experts, and harmonized as much as possible with opposing canons and even other Codes, from the Codex of Justinian to the Napoleonic Code. ... Pope Benedict XV Benedict XV, né Giacomo della Chiesa (November 21, 1854-January 22, 1922), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1914 to 1922; he succeeded Pope Saint Pius X. He was born in Genoa, Italy, of a noble family. ...


John XXIII initially called for a Synod of the Diocese of Rome, an Ecumenical Council, and an updating to the 1917 Code. After the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican ("Vatican II") closed in 1965, it became apparent that the Code would need re-visioning in light of the Documents and theology of Vatican II. After multiple drafts and many years of discussion, Pope John Paul II promulgated the revised and presently binding Code of Canon Law for the Latin Rite or Western Rite of the Church in 1983. The Code of Canon Law for the Eastern Churches (CCEO) was promulgated in 1990. This is their first single volume compilation. It incorporates differences in the hierarchical, administrative and judicial fora. Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as...


St. Raymond of Penyafort (1175-1275), a Spanish Dominican priest, is the patron saint of canonists, due to his important contributions to the science of Canon Law. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Orthodox Churches

The Orthodox Christian tradition general treats its canons more as guidelines than as laws, adjusting them to cultural and other local circumstances. Some Orthodox canon scholars point out that, had the Ecumenical Councils (which deliberated in Greek) meant for the canons to be used as laws, they would have called them nomoi/νομοι (laws) rather than kanones/κανονες (standards). See also General Council (disambiguation). ...


Greek-speaking Orthodox have collected canons and commentary upon them in a work known as the Pedalion/Πεδαλιον (rudder--so called because it is meant to "steer" the Church). However, this is not a codification, but simply a compilation of one tradition of interpretation of the canons. The Canon Law helped to establish law and order in the Roman Catholic Churches


Anglican Churches

In the Church of England, the ecclesiastical courts that formerly decided many matters such as disputes relating to marriage, divorce, wills, and defamation, still have jurisdiction of certain church-related matters (e.g., discipline of clergy, alteration of church property, and issues related to churchyards). Their separate status dates back to the 12th century when the Normans split them off from the mixed secular/religious county and local courts used by the Saxons. In contrast to the other courts of England the law used in ecclesiastical matters is at least partially a civil law system, not common law, although heavily governed by parliamentary statutes. Since the Reformation, ecclesiastical courts in England have been royal courts. The teaching of canon law at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge was abrogated by Henry VIII; thereafter practitioners in the ecclesiastical courts were trained in civil law, receiving a Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) degree from Oxford, or an LL.D. from Cambridge. Such lawyers (called "doctors" and "civilians") were centred at "Doctors Commons," a few streets south of St Paul's Cathedral in London, where they monopolized probate, matrimonial, and admiralty cases until their jurisdiction was removed to the common law courts in the mid-19th century. (Admiralty law was also based on civil law instead of common law, thus was handled by the civilians too.) Charles I repealed Canon Law in 1638 after uprisings of Covenanters confronting the Bishops of Aberdeen following the convention at Muchalls Castle and other revolts across Scotland earlier that year. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... An ecclesiastical court (also called Court Christian) is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters. ... Norman conquests in red. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... An ecclesiastical court (also called Court Christian) is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters. ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degrees. ... Doctors Commons was a society of lawyers practising civil law in London. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Probate is the legal process of settling the estate of a deceased person; specifically, resolving all claims and distributing the decedents property. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ... Muchalls Castle, Kincardineshire Muchalls Castle stands overlooking the North Sea in the countryside of historic Kincardineshire, Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II...


Other churches in the Anglican Communion around the world (e.g., the Episcopal Church in the United States, and the Anglican Church of Canada) still function under their own private systems of canon law. The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the nations capital is the national cathedral of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. ... Anglican Church of Canada The Anglican Church of Canada (the ACC) is the Canadian branch of the Anglican Communion. ...


See also

Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ... The Canons of Dort is one of the confessional standards of the Netherlands. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles[1] is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees (eighty-five in the Eastern, fifty in the Western Church) concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with... Collections of Ancient Canons contain collected bodies canon law which originated in various different documents, such as papal - and synodal decisons, which can be designaed by the generic term of Canons. ... The Decretum Gratiani is a collection of canon law written around 1140 by Gratian. ... Doctor of Canon Law (Latin: Juris Canonici Doctor; J.C.D.) is the doctoral-level terminal degree in the studies of canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... An ecclesiastical court (also called Court Christian) is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters. ... The Fetha Negest (Laws of the Kings) is a legal code compiled by Coptic Christian ecclesiastics for the use of Ethiopian kings. ... Franciscus Gratianus, or Johannes Gratianus, known most often simply as Gratian, was a 12th century canon lawyer from Bologna. ... Licentiate of Canon Law (J.C.L) is the title of an intermediate graduate degree with canonical effects in the Roman Catholic Church offered by pontifical universities and ecclesiastical faculties of canon law. ... Probatio diabolica is a legal requirement to achieve an impossible proof. ...

References

  1. ^ http://canonlaw.info

Further reading

  • Baker, J.H. (2002) An Introduction to English Legal History, 4th ed. London : Butterworths, ISBN 0-406-93053-8
  • The Episcopal Church (2006) Constitution and Canons, together with the Rules of Order for the Government of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, otherwise known as The Episcopal Church, New York : Church Publishing, Inc.
  • Robinson, O.F.,Fergus, T.D. and Gordon, W.M. (2000) European Legal History, 3rd ed., London : Butterworths, ISBN 0-406-91360-9

External links

Catholic

  • Code of Canon Law (1983) : non-official but approved IntraText edition with concordance in English (only the Latin version is official), hosted by the Vatican
  • Code of Canons of Oriental Churches, IntraText Digital Library
  • Code of Canon Law, IntraText Digital Library, organized in a Table of Contents outline format for easy search: Does not contain 1998 code updates
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Canon Law : outdated, but useful
  • 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica Article

Anglican

  • "Canons of the Church of England"
  • "Canon Law in the Anglican Communion"
  • "Ecclesiastical Law Society"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Canon law (Catholic Church) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (758 words)
Canon law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church.
The degrees of education in canon law are the J.C.B. Juris Canonici Baccalaureatus, Bachelor of Canon Law, normally taken as a graduate degree), J.C.L. Juris Canonici Licentiatus, Licentiate of Canon Law) and the J.C.D. Juris Canonici Doctor, Doctor of Canon Law).
The 1582 Code of Canon Law was actually a compilation of the Decreta, Extra, the Sext, the Clementines and the Extravagantes (that is, a compilation of the decretals of John XXII and Boniface VII through Sixtus IV).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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