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Encyclopedia > Cannon
Part of the series on
Cannon
History

Cannon in the Middle Ages
Naval artillery in the Age of Sail
Field artillery in the US Civil War
Look up cannon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (853x395, 146 KB)a typical cannon | picture by Bogdan Giusca: a cannon from some monument of the cannoniers in Bucharest | File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The parts of a cannon described, John Roberts, The Compleat Cannoniere, London 1652. ... Late medieval bronze culverins and demi-cannon. ... Firing of a 18-pounder aboard of French ship During the Age of Sail, when large, sail-powered wooden naval warships dominated the high seas (roughly: 1571-1863), these warships mounted a bewildering variety of different types and sizes of cannons as their main armament. ... M1857 Napoleon at Stones River battlefield cemetery. ...

Operation

Breech-loading
Muzzleloading
List of cannon projectiles
Cannon in a Civil War re-enactment: Large amounts of gunpowder often affected visibility, and gunners hoped for a strong wind. ... Breech from Russian 122 mm M1910 howitzer, modified and combined with 105mm H37 howitzer barrel An interrupted screw style breech plug in the M109 howitzer An animation showing the loading cycle for a large naval breech-loader. ... A US soldier drops a shell into the muzzle of an M224 60-mm mortar. ... A cannon is any large tubular firearm designed to fire a heavy projectile over a long distance. ...

By Country

English cannon
Korean cannon
Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal. ... Korean cannon was first developed by Choe Mu-seon, for exclusive use by the Goryo Army, . Several types were made, and saw successful action during the Mongol invasions of Japan. ...

By Type

Falconet
Saker
Demi-culverin
Culverin
Demi-cannon
Field gun
Howitzer
Mortar
A falconet was a medieval cannon of fairly light construction which fired 1-pound solid round shot projectiles. ... Demi-culverin is a seventeenth century term for a cannon which fired a nine solid pound shot (a culverin fired an eighteen pound shot); also known as a saker. ... A culverin is a cannon that fires an 18-pound solid round shot. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ...

A cannon is a type of artillery, usually large and tubular, that uses gunpowder or other explosive-based propellants to launch a projectile over a distance. Cannon vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed. For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Calibre redirects here. ...


First used in China, cannon were among the earliest forms of gunpowder artillery, and over time replaced siege engines—among other forms of aging weaponry—on the battlefield. The first cannon in Europe were probably used in Iberia, during the wars between the Muslim and Christian Iberian kingdoms, in the 13th century; their use was first documented in the Middle East around this time, as well. English cannon were first used during the Hundred Years' War, at the Battle of Crécy, in 1346. It was during this period, the Middle Ages, that cannon became standardized, and more effective in both the anti-infantry and siege roles. After the Middle Ages, most large cannon were abandoned, in favor of greater numbers of lighter, more maneuverable pieces. In addition, new technologies and tactics were developed, making most defenses obsolete; this led to the construction of star forts, specifically designed to withstand bombardment from artillery. Jiaozi, the worlds first paper-printed currency, an innovation of the Song Dynasty. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... Late medieval bronze culverins and demi-cannon. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal. ... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with... Crécy redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ...


Cannon also transformed naval warfare: the British Royal Navy, in particular, took advantage of their firepower. As rifling became more commonplace, the accuracy of cannon was significantly improved, and they became deadlier than ever, especially to infantry. In World War I, a considerable majority of all deaths were caused by cannon; they were also used widely in World War II. Most modern cannon are similar to those used in the Second World War, except naval guns which are now significantly smaller in caliber. Autocannon in particular have remained nearly identical. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Rifling of a Canon de 75 modèle 1897 A 35 caliber Remington, with a microgroove rifled barrel with a right hand twist. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ...

Contents

Etymology and terminology

Cannon is derived from the Old Italian word cannone, meaning large tube, which came from Latin canna, in turn originating from the kanna,—Greek for cane, or reed—and ultimately deriving from the Akkadian term qanu, meaning tube or reed.[1][2][3] The word has been used to refer to a gun since 1326 in Italy, and 1418 in England. Cannon serves both as the singular and plural of the noun, although the plural cannons is also correct.[1] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ...


Any large, smoothbore, muzzle-loading gun—used before the advent of breech-loading, rifled guns—may be referred to as a cannon, though the term specifically refers to a gun designed to fire a 42-pound (19 kg) shot, as opposed to a demi-cannon,—32 pounds (15 kg)—culverin,—18 pounds (8.2 kg)—or demi-culverin—9 pounds (4.1 kg). Gun specifically refers to a type of cannon that fires projectiles at high velocities, and usually in relatively flat angles;[4] they have been used in warships extensively,[5] and as field artillery, as well.[6] The term cannon also applies to the autocannon, a modern gun with a caliber of 20 mm, or more, with a high rate of fire. Autocannon have been used extensively in fighter aircraft since World War II,[7] and are sometimes used on land vehicles.[8] Smoothbore refers to a firearm which does not have a rifled barrel. ... A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the bullet is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (open end of the gun barrel). ... This article is about the video game. ... A breech-loading weapon, usually a gun or cannon, is one where the bullet or shell is inserted, loaded, into the gun at the rear of the barrel, the breech; the opposite of muzzle-loading. ... Rifling is the means by which a firearm gyroscopically stabilizes a projectile. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... A culverin is a cannon that fires an 18-pound solid round shot. ... Demi-culverin is a seventeenth century term for a cannon which fired a nine solid pound shot (a culverin fired an eighteen pound shot); also known as a saker. ... This article is about the video game. ... Union Army gun squad at drill, c. ... M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ... Calibre redirects here. ... The 20mm caliber is a specific size of cannon or autocannon ammunition, commonly the smallest caliber which is unambiguously a cannon (or more commonly today, autocannon) and not a heavy machine gun. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


History

Main article: History of cannon
For more details on the historical use of gunpowder in general, see History of gunpowder.

The parts of a cannon described, John Roberts, The Compleat Cannoniere, London 1652. ... Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Chinese Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD. Gunpowder was the first and only known chemical explosive until the invention of others—nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, smokeless powder and TNT—in the 19th century. ...

Early history

For more details on development of gunpowder warfare in China, see Technology of the Song Dynasty.
Earliest known representation of a firearm (a fire lance) and a grenade (upper right), Dunhuang, 10th century
Earliest known representation of a firearm (a fire lance) and a grenade (upper right), Dunhuang, 10th century[9]

The earliest known cannon was invented by Ctesibius of Alexandria, in the 3rd century BC. Little is known about this primitive invention—as most of Ctesibius' works were lost—but it was noted by Philo of Byzantium that it operated using compressed air.[10] One of the first cannon used in battle was the fire lance, a gunpowder-filled tube attached to the end of a spear and used as a flamethrower.[11] Shrapnel was sometimes placed in the barrel, so that it would fly out along with the flames.[12] Eventually, the paper and bamboo of which fire lance barrels were originally constructed came to be replaced by metal.[13] The earliest known depiction of a firearm is a sculpture from a cave in Sichuan, dating to the 12th century, that portrays a figure carrying a vase-shaped bombard, firing flames and a cannonball.[13][14] The oldest surviving gun, dated to 1288, has a muzzle bore diameter of 2.5 cm (1 in); the second oldest, dated to 1332, has a muzzle bore diameter of 10.5 cm (4 in).[11] Jiaozi, the worlds first paper-printed currency, an innovation of the Song Dynasty. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 748 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2413 × 1935 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 748 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2413 × 1935 pixel, file size: 1. ... The fire lance (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: huÇ’ qiāng) or fire spear is one of the first gunpowder weapons in the world. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (working 285–222 BC) of Alexandria (Greek Κτησίβιος) was an inventor and mathematician in ancient Greece. ... Philo of Byzantium, a Greek writer on mechanics, (born about 280 BCE) flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century B.C. (according to some, a century earlier). ... The fire lance (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: huÇ’ qiāng) or fire spear is one of the first gunpowder weapons in the world. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Chinese province. ... A bombard, Malbork Castle A bombard is a type of medieval cannon or mortar, used chiefly in sieges for throwing heavy stone balls. ...

Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368)
Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368)

The first documented battlefield use of gunpowder artillery took place on January 28, 1132, when Song General Han Shizhong used huochong to capture a city in Fujian. The first known illustration of a cannon is dated to 1326.[15] In his 1341 poem, The Iron Cannon Affair, one of the first accounts of the use of gunpowder artillery in China, Xian Zhang wrote that a cannonball fired from an eruptor could "pierce the heart or belly when it strikes a man or horse, and can even transfix several persons at once."[16] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Diarmaid Mac Murrough has the abbey of Kildare in Ireland burned and the abbess raped. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Huochong (Traditional Chinese: 火铳) is a tube-like, projection firearm. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Joseph Needham suggests that the proto-shells described in the Huolongjing may be among the first of their kind.[11] The Chinese also mounted over 3,000 cast bronze and iron cannon on the Great Wall of China, to defend themselves from the Mongols. The weapon was later taken up by both the Mongol conquerors and the Koreans. Chinese soldiers fighting under the Mongols appear to have used hand cannon in Manchurian battles during 1288, a date deduced from archaeological findings at battle sites.[17] Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the 1593 Siege of Pyongyang, 40,000 Ming troops deployed a variety of cannon to bombard an equally large Japanese army. Despite both forces having similar numbers, the Japanese were defeated in one day, due to the Ming advantage in firepower. Throughout the Seven Year War in Korea, the Chinese-Korean coalition used artillery widely, in both land and naval battles.[18] Combatants Japanese army Korean army and Ming allies. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Belligerents Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min...


Middle East

See also: Inventions in the Islamic world
A Great Turkish Bombard, a heavy bronze muzzle-loading cannon, similar to those used by the Ottoman Empire in the Siege of Constantinople, AD 1453
A Great Turkish Bombard, a heavy bronze muzzle-loading cannon, similar to those used by the Ottoman Empire in the Siege of Constantinople, AD 1453

Portable hand cannon ("midfa", in Arabic) were first used by the Egyptians to repel the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, and again in 1304.[19][20] The composition of the gunpowder used in these battles was later described in several manuscripts, written in the early 14th century. Four different mixtures were used, the most explosive having a composition (74% saltpeter, 11% sulfur, 15% carbon) almost identical to modern gunpowder (75% saltpeter, 10% sulfur, 15% carbon). These mixtures were more explosive than those used in either China or Europe during this period.[19][20] The Battle of Ain Jalut also saw the use of the earliest known gunpowder cartridges, employed by the Egyptians in their fire lances and hand cannon.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 611 KB) Summary The Great Turkish Bombard is a siege gun dating from soon after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 611 KB) Summary The Great Turkish Bombard is a siege gun dating from soon after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... The Great Turkish Bombard is a siege gun dating from soon after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the bullet is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (open end of the gun barrel). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The fire lance (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: huÇ’ qiāng) or fire spear is one of the first gunpowder weapons in the world. ... Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). ...


The use of cannon as siege machines dates back to Abu Yaqub Yusuf, who employed them at the siege of Sijilmasa, in 1274, according to Ibn Khaldun.[19] Also intended for siege warfare, the first supergun, the Great Turkish Bombard, was used by the troops of Mehmed II to capture Constantinople, in 1453. Urban, a Hungarian cannon engineer, is credited with the invention of this cannon.[21] It had a 762 mm (30 in) bore, and could fire 544 kg (1,200 lb) stones a mile, and the sound of their blast could reportedly be heard from a distance of 10 miles (16 km).[21] The Great Turkish Bombards were cast in bronze and made in two parts: the chase and the breech, which, together, weighed 16 tonnes.[22] The two parts were screwed together using levers to facilitate the work. Another weapon invented in the Middle East, fashioned for killing infantry, was the first known autocannon. It was invented in the 16th century, by Fathullah Shirazi, a Persian-Indian polymath and mechanical engineer, who worked for Akbar the Great in the Mughal Empire. As opposed to the polybolos and repeating crossbows used earlier in Ancient Greece and China, respectively, Shirazi's rapid-firing machine had multiple gun barrels that fired hand cannon.[23] Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... Marinid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, this map its wrong! The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also BenÄ« MerÄ«n, which is the source of the Spanish name). ... Sijilmasa (or Sijilmassa) was a mediaeval trade centre in the western Maghreb. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... A SuperGun (or super gun) is a device used to play arcade games in lieu of requiring a full arcade cabinet. ... The Great Turkish Bombard is a siege gun dating from soon after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Breech from Russian 122 mm M1910 howitzer, modified and combined with 105mm H37 howitzer barrel An interrupted screw style breech plug in the M109 howitzer An animation showing the loading cycle for a large naval breech-loader. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Leonardo da Vinci is regarded in many Western cultures as the archetypal Renaissance Man. A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-DÄ«n Muhammad Akbar), also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Imam-i-Adil, Sultan ul-Islam Kaffatt ul-Anam, Amir ul-Muminin, Khalifat ul-Mutaali Abul-Fath Jalal... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... The polybolos was a repeating ballista invented by Dionysius of Alexandria used in antiquity, capable of firing multiple rounds without reloading like a modern machine gun. ... Chinese repeating crossbow A repeating crossbow or Chu-ko-nu (Chinese: 連弩) is a crossbow where the separate actions of stringing the bow, placing the bolt and firing it can be accomplished with a simple one-handed movement, all the while keeping the crossbow stationary. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Medieval Europe

Earliest picture of a European cannon, "De Nobilitatibus Sapientii Et Prudentiis Regum," Walter de Milemete, 1326
Earliest picture of a European cannon, "De Nobilitatibus Sapientii Et Prudentiis Regum," Walter de Milemete, 1326

In Europe, the first mention of gunpowder's composition in express terms appeared, in Roger Bacon's "De nullitate magiæ" at Oxford, published in 1216.[24] Later, in 1248, his "Opus Maior" describes a recipe for gunpowder and recognized its military use: Late medieval bronze culverins and demi-cannon. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 374 pixelsFull resolution (2722 × 1273 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 374 pixelsFull resolution (2722 × 1273 pixel, file size: 1. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ...

"We can, with saltpeter and other substances, compose artificially a fire that can be launched over long distances ... By only using a very small quantity of this material much light can be created accompanied by a horrible fracas. It is possible with it to destroy a town or an army ... In order to produce this artificial lightning and thunder it is necessary to take saltpeter, sulfur, and Luru Vopo Vir Can Utriet."[25]

The first confirmed use of gunpowder in Europe was the Moorish cannon, first used by the Andalusians in the Iberian Peninsula, at the siege of Seville in 1248, and the siege of Niebla in 1262.[19][26] By this time, hand guns were probably in use, as scopettieri—"gun bearers"—were mentioned in conjunction with crossbowmen, in 1281. In Iberia, the "first artillery-masters on the Peninsula" were enlisted, at around the same time.[27] For other uses, see moor. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Map of Niebla, Huelva Niebla is a town and municipality located in the province of Huelva, Spain. ... This article is about the weapon. ...

Western European handgun, 1380
Western European handgun, 1380

The first metal cannon was the pot-de-fer. Loaded with an arrow-like bolt that was probably wrapped in leather to allow greater thrusting power, it was set off through a touch hole with a heated wire. This weapon, and others similar, were used by both the French and English, during the Hundred Years' War, when cannon saw their first real use on the European battlefield.[26] At first, cannon were still a relatively rare weapon, although the French deployed them against the English in increasing numbers from the 1430s onwards. "Ribaldis," which shot large arrows and simplistic grapeshot, were first mentioned in the English Privy Wardrobe accounts during preparations for the Battle of Crécy, between 1345 and 1346.[28] The Florentine Giovanni Villani recounts their destructiveness, indicating that by the end of the battle, "the whole plain was covered by men struck down by arrows and cannon balls."[28] Similar cannon were also used at the Siege of Calais, in the same year, although it was not until the 1380s that the "ribaudekin" clearly became mounted on wheels.[28] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (2653 × 1147 pixel, file size: 652 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (2653 × 1147 pixel, file size: 652 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Note: a quarrel may also mean an argument or fight. ... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with... Grapeshot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ... Crécy redirects here. ... Giovanni Villani (ca 1275-1348), the Florentine writer of the famous chronicles (the Cronica) is the greatest Italian chronicler of his own times and the cornerstone of the early medieval history of Florence. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Jean de Fosseux Strength 34,000 men: 5,300 knights, 6,600 infantry, 20,000 archers, 2,000 Flemish soldiers 7,000 to 8,000 citizens The Siege of Calais in northern France began in 1346, towards the...


The first cannon appeared in Russia around 1380, though they were used only in sieges, often by the defenders.[29] Around the same period, the Byzantine Empire began to accumulate its own cannon to face the Ottoman threat, starting with medium-sized cannon 3 feet (0.91 m) long and of 10 in caliber.[30] The first definite use of artillery in the region was against the Ottoman siege of Constantinople, in 1396, forcing the Ottomans to withdraw.[30] They acquired their own cannon, and laid siege to the Byzantine capital again, in 1422, using "falcons," which were short but wide cannon. By 1453, the Ottomans used 68 Hungarian-made cannon for the 55-day bombardment of the walls of Constantinople, "hurling the pieces everywhere and killing those who happened to be nearby."[30] The largest of their cannon was the Great Turkish Bombard, which required an operating crew of 200 men[31] and 70 oxen, and 10,000 men to transport it.[30] Gunpowder made the formerly devastating Greek fire obsolete, and with the final fall of Constantinople,—which was protected by what were once the strongest walls in Europe—on May 29, 1453, "it was the end of an era in more ways than one."[32] Byzantine redirects here. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... A falconet was a medieval cannon of fairly light construction which fired 1-pound solid round shot projectiles. ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... The Great Turkish Bombard is a siege gun dating from soon after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ...


Early modern period

The Tsar Cannon, the largest howitzer ever made, cast by Andrey Chokhov
The Tsar Cannon, the largest howitzer ever made, cast by Andrey Chokhov[33]

By the 1500s, cannon were made in a great variety of lengths and bore diameters, but the general rule was that the longer the barrel, the longer the range. Some cannon made during this time had barrels exceeding 10 ft (3.0 m) in length, and could weigh up to 20,000 pounds (9,100 kg). Consequently, large amounts of gunpowder were needed, to allow them to fire stone balls several hundred yards.[34] By mid-century, European monarchs began to classify cannon to reduce the confusion. Henry II of France opted for six sizes of cannon,[35] but others settled for more; the Spanish used twelve sizes, and the English sixteen.[36][37] Better powder had been developed by this time as well. Instead of the finely ground powder used by the first bombards, powder was replaced by a "corned" variety of coarse grains. This coarse powder had pockets of air between grains, allowing fire to travel through and ignite the entire charge quickly and uniformly.[38] A view of the Tsar Pushka, showing its massive bore and cannonballs, and the Lions head cast into the carriage. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... Andrey Chokhov, also spelled Chekhov (Андрей Чохов (Чехов) in Russian) (c. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ...


The end of the Middle Ages saw the construction of larger, more powerful cannon, as well their spread throughout the world. As they were not effective at breaching the newer fortifications resulting from the development of cannon, siege engines—such as siege towers and trebuchets—became less widely used. However, wooden "battery-towers" took on a similar role as siege towers in the gunpowder age—such as that used at siege of Kazan in 1552, which could hold ten large-caliber cannon, in addition to 50 lighter pieces.[39] Another notable effect of cannon on warfare during this period was the change in conventional fortifications. Niccolò Machiavelli wrote, "There is no wall, whatever its thickness that artillery will not destroy in only a few days."[40] Although castles were not immediately made obsolete by cannon, their use and importance on the battlefield rapidly declined.[41] Instead of majestic towers and merlons, the walls of new fortresses were thicker, angulated, and sloped, while towers became lower and stouter; increasing use was also made of earthen, brick, and stone breastworks and redoubts. These new defenses became known as "star forts," after their characteristic shape.[41] A few of these featured cannon batteries, such as the Tudors' Device Forts, in England.[41] Star forts soon replaced castles in Europe, and, eventually, those in the Americas, as well.[42] Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... 19th century French drawing of a medieval belfry. ... For the typeface, see Trebuchet MS. Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France A trebuchet is a siege engine employed in the Middle Ages either to smash masonry walls or to throw projectiles over them. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Combatants Muscovite Russia Qasim Khanate Taw yağı 1 Kazan Khanate Cheremis and Ar warriors Nogay cavalry Commanders Ivan IV of Russia Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky Andrey Kurbsky Shahghali Yadegar Moxammat # Yapancha bak â€  Zaynash morza # Qolsharif â€  Strength 150,000 men, 150 cannons unknown battleship some siege towers 33,000 men2- 50,000... Machiavelli redirects here. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A merlon, in architecture, forms the solid part of an embattled parapet between the embrasures, sometimes pierced by loopholes. ... A Breastwork is a fortification. ... A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... The Device Forts are a series of artillery fortifications built in England by Henry VIII. After his divorce of Catherine of Aragon left England politically isolated, a treaty between France and Spain in 1538 aroused fears of invasion. ...

Fort Bourtange, a star fort, was built with angles and sloped walls specifically to defend against cannon.
Fort Bourtange, a star fort, was built with angles and sloped walls specifically to defend against cannon.

By end of the 15th century, several technological advancements were made, making cannon more mobile. Wheeled gun carriages and trunnions became common, and the invention of the limber further facilitated the transportation of artillery.[43] As a result, field artillery became viable, and began to emerge, often used alongside the larger cannon intended for sieges.[44][43] The better gunpowder, improved, cast-iron projectiles, and the standardization of calibers meant that even relatively light cannon could be deadly.[43] In The Art of War, Niccolò Machiavelli observed that "It is true that the arquebuses and the small artillery do much more harm than the heavy artillery."[40] This was the case at Flodden, in 1513: the English field guns outpaced the Scottish siege artillery, firing twice, or even thrice, as many rounds.[45] Despite the increased maneuverability, however, cannon were still much slower than the rest of the army: a heavy English cannon required 23 horses to transport, while a culverin, nine, yet, even with this many animals transporting them, they still moved at a walking pace. Due to their relatively slow speed, and lack of organization, discipline, and tactics, the combination of pike and shot still dominated the battlefields of Europe.[46] Fortification Bourtange, Groningen province, Netherlands. ... Fortification Bourtange, Groningen province, Netherlands. ... Bourtange is a Dutch star fort and village in the Westerwolde region of the province of Groningen. ... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ... The trunnions are the protrusions from the side of the barrel that rest on the carriage A trunnion is a cylindrical protrusion used as a mounting point. ... Franklin D. Roosevelts funeral procession. ... Union Army gun squad at drill, c. ... The Art of War (Dellarte della guerra), is one of the lesser- read works of Florentine statesman and political philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppō) Example of an arquebus The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; from Dutch haakbus, meaning hook gun[2]) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... Belligerents Kingdom of England Kingdom of Scotland Commanders Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey James IV † Strength 25,000 30,000 5,000 French knights and infantry Casualties and losses 1,500 10,000 - 12,000 (in addition to a large number missing) Western side of the battlefield, looking south-south... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... A culverin is a cannon that fires an 18-pound solid round shot. ... A 16th century pamphlet showing a mixed pike and shot formation. ...


Innovations continued, notably the German invention of the mortar, a thick-walled, short-barreled gun that blasted shot upward at a steep angle. Mortars were useful for sieges, as they could fire over walls and other defenses.[47] This cannon found more use with the Dutch, who learned to shoot bombs filled with powder from them. However, setting the bomb fuse in the mortar was a problem. "Single firing" was the first technique used to set the fuse, where the bomb was placed with the fuse down against the propelling charge. This practice often resulted in the fuse being blown into the bomb, causing it to blow up in front of the mortar. Because of this danger, "double firing" was developed, where the fuse was turned up and the gunner lighted the fuse and the touch hole simultaneously. This, however, required much skill and timing, and was especially dangerous when the gun failed to fire, leaving a lighted bomb in the barrel. Not until 1650 was it accidentally discovered that double-lighting was a superfluous process: the heat of firing was enough to light the fuse.[48] US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ...

The use of gabions with cannon was an important part in the attack and defense of fortifications.

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden emphasized the use of light cannon and mobility in his army, and created new formations and tactics that revolutionized artillery. He discontinued using all 12 pounder—or heavier—cannon as field artillery, preferring, instead, to use cannon that could be manned by only a few men. One gun, called the "leatheren," could be serviced by only two persons, but was abandoned, replaced by 4 pounder and 9 pounder demi-culverins. These could be operated by three men, and pulled by only two horses. Also, Adolphus's army was the first to use a special cartridge that contained both powder and shot, which sped up loading, and therefore increased the rate of fire.[49] Additionally, he pioneered the use of canister shot against infantry, which was essentially a can, filled with musket balls.[50] At the time, for each thousand infantrymen, there was one cannon on the battlefield; Gustavus Adolphus increased the number of cannon in his army so dramatically, that there were six cannon for each one thousand infantry. Each regiment was assigned two pieces, though he often decided to arrange his artillery into batteries, instead. These were to destroy the enemy's infantry, while his cavalry outflanked their heavy guns.[51] Image File history File links Gabions. ... Image File history File links Gabions. ... Historically, Gabions were round cages with open tops and bottoms, made from wicker and filled with earth for use as fortifications. ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... Demi-culverin is a seventeenth century term for a cannon which fired a nine solid pound shot (a culverin fired an eighteen pound shot); also known as a saker. ... Canister shot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... The Battle of Marathon, an example of the double-envelopment, a form of flanking maneuver In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, also called a flank attack, is an attack on the sides (or, less often, the rear [1]) of an opposing force. ...


At the Battle of Breitenfeld, in 1631, Adolphus proved the effectiveness of the changes made to his army, in particular his artillery, by defeating Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly. Although severely outnumbered, the Swedes were able to fire between three and five times as many volleys of artillery without losing ground, due to their infantry's linear formations. Battered by cannon fire, and low on morale, Tilly's men broke rank, and fled.[52] Combatants  Sweden  Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Commanders Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden John George I, Elector of Saxony Robert Munro, 18th Baron of Foulis Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly Strength Sweden 23,500 Saxony 18,000 (deserted during onset of battle) 35,000 Casualties 5,500 dead/wounded 7... Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck Bronze statue of Count Tilly in the Feldherrnhalle in Munich Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (Nivelles,February 1559 - Ingolstadt, April 30, 1632) was a General (Field Marshal) who commanded the Imperial and Holy Roman Empires forces in the Thirty Years War... The Line Formation was a standard tactical formation used throughout history. ...

Remains of a post-medieval cannon battery mounted on a medieval town wall

Around this time also came the idea of aiming the cannon to hit a target. Gunners controlled the range of their cannon by measuring the angle of elevation, using a "gunner's quadrant." Cannon did not have sights, therefore, even with measuring tools, aiming was still largely guesswork.[53] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ... A quadrant is an instrument that is used to measure angles up to 90°. // There are several types of quadrants: Mural quadrants used for measuring the altitudes of astronomical objects. ... Sight of a Sig 550 rifle (muzzle) Sight of a Sig 550 rifle (stock) A sight is an optical device used to assist aim by guiding the eye and aligning it with the weapon or other item to be pointed. ...


In the latter half of the 17th century, the French engineer Vauban introduced a more systematic and scientific approach to attacking gunpowder fortresses, in a time when many field commanders "were notorious dunces in siegecraft."[54] Careful sapping forward, supported by enfilading ricochet fire, was a key feature of this system, and it even allowed Vauban to calculate the length of time a siege would take.[54] He was also a prolific builder of star forts, and did much to popularize the idea of "depth defense" in the face of cannon.[55] These principles were followed into the mid-19th century, when changes in armaments necessitated greater depth defense than Vauban had provided for. It was only in the years prior to World War I that new works began to break radically away from his designs.[56] Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Undermining. ... French frigate Poursuivante firing raking fire in enfilade on a British ship of the line French frigate Aréthuse and English frigate Amélia exchanging defilade fire on the shores of Guinea, the 7th of February 1813 Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a military formation... Alternate meaning: Ricochet (Half-Life) A ricochet is a rebound, bounce or skip off of a surface, particularly in the case of a projectile. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


18th and 19th centuries

See also: Naval artillery in the Age of Sail and Field artillery in the American Civil War
30 pounder long gun at the ready
30 pounder long gun at the ready

The lower tier of 17th-century English ships of the line were usually equipped with demi-cannon, guns that fired a 32 pounds (15 kg) solid shot, and could weigh up to 3,400 pounds (1,500 kg).[57] Demi-cannon were capable of firing these heavy metal balls with such force, that they could penetrate more than a meter of solid oak, from a distance of 90 m (300 ft), and could dismast even the largest ships at close range.[58] Full cannon fired a 42 lb (19 kg) shot, but were discontinued by the 18th century, as they were too unwieldy. By the end of the century, principles long adopted in Europe specified the characteristics of the Royal Navy's cannon, as well as the acceptable defects, and their severity. The United States Navy tested guns by measuring them, firing them two or three times,—termed "proof by powder"—and using pressurized water to detect leaks.[59] Firing of a 18-pounder aboard of French ship During the Age of Sail, when large, sail-powered wooden naval warships dominated the high seas (roughly: 1571-1863), these warships mounted a bewildering variety of different types and sizes of cannons as their main armament. ... M1857 Napoleon at Stones River battlefield cemetery. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... This article is about the video game. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... USN redirects here. ...


The carronade was adopted by the Royal Navy in 1779; the lower muzzle velocity of the round shot when fired from this cannon was intended to create more wooden splinters when hitting the structure of an enemy vessel, as they were believed to be deadly.[60] The carronade was much shorter, and weighed between a third to a quarter less than an equivalent long gun; for example, a 32 pounder carronade weighed less than a ton, compared with a 32 pounder long gun, which weighed over 3 tons. The guns were, therefore, easier to handle, and also required less than half as much gunpowder, allowing fewer men to crew them.[61] Carronades were manufactured in the usual naval gun calibers,[62] but were not counted in a ship of the line's rated number of guns. As a result, the classification of Royal Navy vessels in this period can be misleading, as they often carried more cannon than were listed. 24-pounder carronade (140 mm) 68-pounder British naval carronade The carronade was a short smoothbore, cast iron cannon, developed for the Royal Navy by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland, UK used from the 1770s to the 1860s. ... Different types of cannon balls recovered from the Vasa, sunk in 1628 Round shot is a type of projectile fired from guns or cannons. ... A long gun is a firearm with an extended barrel, usually designed to be fired braced against the shoulder. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Calibre redirects here. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ...


In the 1810s and 1820s, greater emphasis was placed on the accuracy of long-range gunfire, and less on the weight of a broadside. The carronade, although initially very successful and widely adopted, disappeared from the Royal Navy in the 1850s, after the development of steel, jacketed cannon, by William George Armstrong and Joseph Whitworth. Nevertheless, carronades were used in the American Civil War.[63][60] For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (November 26, 1810 - December 27, 1900) was an English industrialist, the effective founder of the Armstrong-Siddeley manufacturing empire. ... Sir Joseph Whitworth Sir Joseph Whitworth, Baronet (December 21, 1803 - January 22, 1887) was an English engineer and entrepreneur. ...

A cannon from the Battle of Chancellorsville

The Great Turkish Bombards of the Siege of Constantinople, after being on display for four centuries, were used to battle a British fleet in 1807, in the Dardanelles Operation. The artillery hit a British ship with two 700 lb (320 kg) cannonballs, killing 60 sailors; in total, the cannon claimed over 100 lives, prompting the British to retreat. In 1867, Sultan Abdul Aziz gifted Queen Victoria the 17-ton "Dardanelles Gun," one of the cannon used at the siege of Constantinople.[31] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,008 × 2,000 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,008 × 2,000 pixels, file size: 3. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville... The Great Turkish Bombard is a siege gun dating from soon after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... The British Royal Navys unsuccessful attempt in February 1807 to impose British demands on the Ottoman Empire. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ...


In contrast to these antiquated weapons, Western cannon during the 19th century became larger, more destructive, more accurate, and could fire at longer range. One example is the American 3 in (76 mm) wrought-iron, muzzle-loading howitzer, used during the American Civil War, which had an effective range of over 1.1 mi (1.8 km). Another is the smoothbore 12 pounder Napoleon, which was renowned for its sturdiness, reliability, firepower, flexibility, relatively light weight, and range of 1,700 m (5,600 ft).[64] 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Smoothbore refers to a firearm which does not have a rifled barrel. ... M1857 Napoleon at Stones River battlefield cemetery. ...


Cannon were crucial in Napoleon Bonaparte's rise to power, and continued to play an important role in his army in later years.[65] During the French Revolution, the unpopularity of the Directory led to riots and rebellions. When over 25,000 of these royalists—led by General Danican—assaulted Paris, Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras was appointed to defend the capital; outnumbered five to one and disorganized, the Republicans were desperate.[66] When Napoleon arrived, he reorganized the defenses, while realizing that without cannon, the city could not be held. He ordered Joachim Murat to bring the guns from the Sablons artillery park; the Major and his cavalry fought their way to the recently captured cannon, and brought them back to Napoleon. When Danican's poorly trained men attacked, on 13 Vendémiaire, 1795October 5, 1795, in the calendar used in France, at the time—Napoleon ordered his cannon to fire grapeshot into the mob,[67] an act that became known as the ""whiff of grapeshot."[68] The slaughter effectively ended the threat to the new government, while, at the same time, made Bonaparte a famous—and popular—public figure.[67][69] Among the first generals to recognize that artillery was not being used to its full potential, Napoleon often massed his cannon into batteries, and introduced several changes into the French artillery, improving it significantly, and making it among the finest in Europe.[70][71] Such tactics were successfully used by the French, for example, at the Battle of Friedland, when sixty-six guns fired a total of 3,000 roundshot, and 500 grapeshot,[70][72] inflicting severe casualties to the Russian forces, whose losses numbered over 20,000 killed and wounded, in total.[73] At the Battle of Waterloo,—Napoleon's final battle—the French army had many more artillery pieces than either the British or Prussians. As the battlefield was muddy, recoil caused cannon to bury themselves into the ground after firing, resulting in slow rates of fire, as more effort was required to move them back into an adequate firing position;[74] also, roundshot did not ricochet with as much force from the wet earth.[75] Despite the drawbacks, sustained artillery fire proved deadly during the engagement, especially during the French cavalry attack.[76] The British infantry, having formed infantry squares, took heavy losses from the French guns, while their own cannon fired at the cuirassiers and lancers, when they fell back to regroup. Eventually, the French ceased their assault, after taking heavy losses from the British cannon and musket fire.[77] Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras (June 30, 1755 - 1829) was a French revolutionary and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795 - 1799. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... The Journée of 13 Vendémaire, Year 4, The St. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Vendémiaire was the first month in the French Republican Calendar. ... Grapeshot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte General Bennigsen Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 8,000 killed and wounded[1] 20,000 killed and wounded[2] The Battle of Friedland, fought on June 14, 1807 about twenty-seven miles (43 km) southeast of the modern Russian... Solid roundshot was the standard projectile of cannons for naval engagements over longer distances untill the invention of fixed rounds. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... An early naval cannon design, allowing the gun to roll backwards a small distance when firing The recoil when firing a gun is the backward momentum of a gun, which is equal to the forward momentum of the bullet or shell, due to conservation of momentum. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... An infantry square is a battle tactic of infantry when faced with cavalry. ... French cuirassier armour, 1854 Cuirassiers were mounted cavalry soldiers equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of the City of PoznaÅ„ in the uniform of the 15th Uhlan Regiment of PoznaÅ„ from 1939 A lancer (uhlan) was a cavalry soldier who fought with a lance. ...

U.S. troops fire during the 1899 Battle of Manila, Philippine-American War
U.S. troops fire during the 1899 Battle of Manila, Philippine-American War

The practice of rifling—casting spiraling lines inside the cannon's barrel—was applied to artillery more frequently by 1855, as it gave cannon gyroscopic stability, which improved their accuracy. One of the earliest rifled cannon was the Armstrong gun,—also invented by William George Armstrong—which boasted significantly improved range, accuracy, and power than earlier weapons. The projectile fired from the Armstrong gun could reportedly pierce through a ship's side, and explode inside the enemy vessel, causing increased damage, and casualties.[78] The British military adopted the Armstrong gun, and was impressed; the Duke of Cambridge even declared that it "could do everything but speak."[79] Despite being significantly more advanced than its predecessors, the Armstrong gun was rejected soon after its integration, in favor of the muzzle-loading pieces that had been in use before.[80] While both types of gun were effective against wooden ships, neither had the capability to pierce the armor of ironclads; due to reports of slight problems with the breeches of the Armstrong gun, and their higher cost, the older muzzle-loaders were selected to remain in service, instead.[81] Realizing that iron was more difficult to pierce with breech-loaded cannon, Armstrong designed rifled muzzle-loading guns,[82] which proved successful; The Times reported: "even the fondest believers in the invulnerability of our present ironclads were obliged to confess that against such artillery, at such ranges, their plates and sides were almost as penetrable as wooden ships."[83] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 376 pixelsFull resolution (2376 × 1118 pixel, file size: 696 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scanned from 1899 book. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 376 pixelsFull resolution (2376 × 1118 pixel, file size: 696 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scanned from 1899 book. ... For the Spanish-American War battle of the same name, see: Battle of Manila (1898) Combatants United States Philippines Commanders Elwell S. Otis Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 12,000 15,000 Casualties 50-60 killed, 225 wounded, 2 artillery pieces captured 2000 killed, wounded, or captured The Battle of Manila was... Belligerents United States Philippine Constabulary Philippine Scouts First Philippine Republic several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar several unofficial leaders post-1902 Strength 126,000 soldiers[1] First Philippine Republic: 80,000 soldiers Casualties and losses ~5,000-7,000[1][2] ~12,000... Rifling of a Canon de 75 modèle 1897 A 35 caliber Remington, with a microgroove rifled barrel with a right hand twist. ... A gyroscope For other uses, see Gyroscope (disambiguation). ... The Armstrong Gun is a type of muzzleloading, rifled cannon manufactured in England during the Crimean War and the American Civil War. ... William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (November 26, 1810 - December 27, 1900) was an English industrialist, the effective founder of the Armstrong-Siddeley manufacturing empire. ... Duke of Cambridge is a title frequently conferred upon junior members of the British royal family. ... Ironclad (and broadside ironclad) redirects here. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...


The superior cannon of the Western world brought them tremendous advantages in warfare. For example, in the Opium War in China, during the 19th century, British battleships bombarded the coastal areas and fortifications from afar, safe from the reach of the Chinese cannon. Similarly, the shortest war in recorded history, the Anglo-Zanzibar War of 1896, was brought to a swift conclusion by shelling from British battleships.[84] The cynical attitude towards recruited infantry in the face of ever more powerful field artillery is the source of the term cannon fodder, first used by François-René de Chateaubriand, in 1814;[85] however, the concept of regarding soldiers as nothing more than "food for powder" was mentioned by William Shakespeare as early as 1598, in Henry IV, Part 1.[86] Occident redirects here. ... There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... Combatants British Empire Zanzibar Strength 900 soldiers of the Zanzibar regular army; a detachment of Royal Marines of unknown strength; HMS Philomel; HMS Thrush; HMS Sparrow; HMS Racoon; HMS St George 2,800; HHS Glasgow Casualties Approximately 100 Approximately 500 killed The Anglo-Zanzibar War was fought between the United... Cannon Fodder is an expression used to denote the treatment of armed forces as a worthless commodity to be expended. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page of the first quarto (1598) Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare. ...


20th and 21st centuries

Cannon in the 20th and 21st centuries are usually divided into sub-categories, and given separate names. Some of the most widely used types of modern cannon are howitzers, mortars, guns, and autocannon, although a few superguns—extremely large, custom-designed cannon—have also been constructed. Nuclear artillery were experimented with, but were abandoned as impractical. Modern artillery is used in a variety of roles, depending on its type. According to NATO, the general role of artillery is to provide fire support, which is defined as "the application of fire, coordinated with the maneuver of forces to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy."[87] 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... This article is about the video game. ... M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ... A SuperGun (or super gun) is a device used to play arcade games in lieu of requiring a full arcade cabinet. ... A nuclear artillery shell is a limited yield nuclear weapon delivered by artillery. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


When referring to cannon, the term gun is often used incorrectly. In military usage, a gun is a cannon with a high muzzle velocity and comparatively flat trajectory,[88] as opposed to other types of artillery, such as howitzers or mortars, which have lower muzzle velocities, and usually fire indirectly.[89][90] Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ...


Artillery

Nine-man crew firing a US M198 howitzer
Nine-man crew firing a US M198 howitzer

By the early 20th century, infantry weapons became more powerful and accurate, forcing most artillery away from the front lines. Despite the change to indirect fire, cannon still proved highly effective during World War I, causing over 75% of casualties.[91] The onset of trench warfare after the first few months of World War I greatly increased the demand for howitzers, as they fired at a steep angle, and were thus better suited than guns at hitting targets in trenches. Furthermore, their shells carried larger amounts of explosives than those of guns, and caused considerably less barrel wear. The German army took advantage of this, beginning the war with many more howitzers than the French.[92] World War I also marked the use of the Paris Gun, the longest-ranged gun ever fired. This 200 mm (8 in) caliber gun was used by the Germans to bombard Paris, and was capable of hitting targets more than 122 km (76 mi) away.[93] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... The M198 Howitzer during the Persian Gulf War The M198 howitzer is a medium-sized, towed artillery piece. ... A personal weapon is a weapon that can be carried and employed by a single person, although their use may be restricted to specialist members of attack or defense teams. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ... The German Paris Gun, also known as Williams Gun, was the largest rail artillery gun of the Great War. ...

The Second World War sparked new developments in cannon technology. Among them were sabot rounds, hollow-charge projectiles, and proximity fuses, all of which were marginally significant.[94] The proximity fuse emerged on the battlefields of Europe in late December 1944.[95] They became known as the American artillery's "Christmas present" for the German army, and were employed primarily in the Battle of the Bulge. Proximity fuses were effective against German personnel in the open, and hence were used to disperse their attacks. Also used to great effect in anti-aircraft projectiles, proximity fuses were used in both the European and Pacific Theaters of Operations, against V-1 flying bombs and kamikaze planes, respectively.[96] Anti-tank guns were also tremendously improved during the war: in 1939, the British used primarily 2 pounder and 6 pounder guns. By the end of the war, 17 pounders had proven much more effective against German tanks, and 32 pounders had entered development.[97][98] Meanwhile, German tanks were continuously upgraded with better main guns, in addition to other improvements. For example, the Panzer III was originally designed with a 37 mm gun, but was mass produced with a 50 mm cannon.[99] To counter the threat of the Russian T-34s, another, more powerful 50 mm gun was introduced,[99] only to give way to a larger 75 mm cannon.[100] Despite the improved guns, production of the Panzer III was ended in 1943, as the tank still could not match the T-34, and was, furthermore, being replaced by the Panzer IV and Panther tanks.[101] In 1944, the 8.8 cm KwK 43,—and its multiple variations—entered service, used by the Wehrmacht, and was adapted to be both a tank's main gun, and the PaK 43 anti-tank gun.[102][103] One of the most powerful guns to see service in World War II, it was capable of destroying any Allied tank at very long ranges.[104][105] Download high resolution version (900x540, 94 KB)8-in howitzers of the 39th Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery conducting a shoot in the Fricourt-Mametz Valley, August 1916, during the Battle of the Somme. ... Download high resolution version (900x540, 94 KB)8-in howitzers of the 39th Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery conducting a shoot in the Fricourt-Mametz Valley, August 1916, during the Battle of the Somme. ... RGA redirects here. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand South Africa Newfoundland India France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Henry Rawlinson Ferdinand Foch Fritz von Below Strength 13 British divisions 6 French divisions 6 divisions Casualties British: 57,470 French: 7,000 8,000 dead or wounded 2,200 prisoners The... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... An APFSDS separating from its spindle sabot Anti-tank round with its sabot A sabot (pronounced say-boh) refers to a device named for a shoe used in a firearm or cannon to fire a projectile, such as a bullet, that is smaller than the bore diameter. ... A proximity fuse (sometimes spelled fuze) is a fuse that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when close enough to the target to destroy it. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... The European Theater of Operations, or ETO, was the term used by the United States in World War II to refer to most United States military activity in Europe north of the Mediterranean coast. ... A map of the Pacific Theater. ... The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... Ordnance QF 2 pounder Type Anti-tank gun Nationality UK Era WW2 Target armoured vehicles History Date of design 1936 Production period 1936 - Number built Service duration 1936-1945 Operators War service WW2 Specifications Carriage Calibre 40 mm Barrel length 50 calibres Weight 130 kg Ammunition AP Shell weight 2... QF 6 pounder anti-tank gun in Batey ha-Osef museum, Israel. ... 17-pounder in Batey ha-Osef museum, Israel. ... A M1 Abrams firing. ... Panzer III is the common name of a medium tank that was developed in the 1930s by Nazi Germany and used extensively in World War II. The official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen III (abbreviated PzKpfw III). ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... Panzer IV is the common name of a medium tank that was developed in the late 1930s by Nazi Germany and used extensively in World War II. The official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen IV (abbreviated PzKpfw IV) and the tank also had the ordnance inventory designation SdKfz 161. ... Tiger II, perhaps the most advanced Panzer Panzer is an abbreviation of Panzerkampfwagen, a German compound noun which translates as Armoured Combat Vehicle. It became synonymous with German tanks during the 1930s, and is usually shortened to become PzKpfw. ... Tiger II preserved at La Gleize, Belgium PaK 43/41 at CFB Borden The KwK 43 L/71 was an 8. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ...

The USS Iowa firing her 16 in (41 cm) guns
The USS Iowa firing her 16 in (41 cm) guns

Despite being designed to fire at trajectories with a steep angle of descent, howitzers can be fired directly, as was done by the 11th Marine Regiment at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, during the Korean War. Two field batteries fired directly upon a battalion of Chinese infantry; the Marines were forced to brace themselves against their howitzers, as they had no time to dig them in. The Chinese infantry took heavy casualties, and were forced to retreat.[106] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,000 × 1,998 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,000 × 1,998 pixels, file size: 1. ... USS Iowa (BB-61), the lead ship of her class of battleship, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy, but second to be commissioned, to be named in honor of the 29th state. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ... The 11th Marine Regiment is an artillery regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. ... Combatants United Nations Great Britain United States Peoples Republic of China Commanders Oliver Smith Song Shi-Lun Strength 30,000 60,000 Casualties 2,500 dead, 192 missing, 5,000 wounded, 7,500 frostbite casualties 25,000 killed, 12,500 wounded, 30,000 frostbite casualties The Battle of Chosin... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ...

A 5 in (130 mm) Mark 45 gun being fired from a Ticonderoga-class cruiser
A 5 in (130 mm) Mark 45 gun being fired from a Ticonderoga-class cruiser

The tendency to create larger caliber cannon during the World Wars has been reversed in more recent years. The United States Army, for example, sought a lighter, more versatile howitzer, to replace their aging pieces. As it could be towed, the M198 was selected to be the successor to the World War II-era cannon used at the time, and entered service in 1979.[107] Still in use today, the M198 is, in turn, being slowly replaced by the M777 Ultralightweight howitzer, which weighs nearly half as much, and can be transported by helicopter—as opposed to the M198, which requires a C-5 or C-17 to airlift.[107][108] Although land-based artillery such as the M198 are powerful, long-ranged, and accurate, naval guns have not been neglected, despite being much smaller than in the past, and, in some cases, having been replaced by cruise missiles.[109] However, the Zumwalt-class destroyer's planned armament includes the Advanced Gun System (AGS), a pair of 155 mm guns, which fire the Long Range Land-Attack Projectile. The warhead, which weighs 24 pounds (11 kg), has a circular error of probability of 50 m (160 ft), and will be mounted on a rocket, to increase the effective range to 100 nmi (190 km)—a longer range than that of the Paris Gun. The AGS's barrels will be water cooled, and will be capable of firing 10 rounds per minute, per gun. The combined firepower from both turrets will give Zumwalt-class destroyers the firepower equivalent to 18 conventional M-198 howitzers.[110][111] The reason for the re-integration of cannon as a main armament in United States Navy ships is because satellite-guided munitions fired from a gun are far less expensive than a cruise missile, and are therefore a better alternative to many combat situations.[109] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixels Full resolution (1400 × 1000 pixel, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixels Full resolution (1400 × 1000 pixel, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From en. ... Ticonderoga class cruiser is a class of warships in the US Navy, first ordered and authorized in FY 1978. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The M198 Howitzer during the Persian Gulf War The M198 howitzer is a medium-sized, towed artillery piece. ... USMC gunners test a new M777 howitzer. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is a military transport aircraft designed to provide strategic heavy airlift over intercontinental distances. ... For the Lockheed aircraft with this designation, see C-17 Super Vega. ... The M198 Howitzer during the Persian Gulf War The M198 howitzer is a medium-sized, towed artillery piece. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... The Zumwalt-class destroyer (also known either as the DD(X) or DDG-1000) is a planned class of United States Navy destroyers, designed as multi-mission ship with a focus on land attack. ... The Zumwalt-class destroyer (also known either as the DD(X) or DDG-1000) is a planned class of United States Navy destroyers, designed as multi-mission ship with a focus on land attack. ... The Long Range Land Attack Projectile (LRLAP) is a developmental program to produce a precision guided 155 mm naval artillery shell for the U.S. Navy. ... In the military science of ballistics, Circular Error Probability or circular error probable (CEP) is a simple measure of a weapon systems precision. ... The M198 Howitzer during the Persian Gulf War The M198 howitzer is a medium-sized, towed artillery piece. ... USN redirects here. ...


Autocannon

An autocannon is a cannon with a larger caliber than a machine gun, but smaller than that of a field gun. Autocannon have mechanisms to automatically load their ammunition, and therefore have a faster rate of fire than artillery, often approaching—and, in the case of Gatling guns, surpassing—that of a machine gun.[112] The traditional minimum bore for autocannon—indeed, for all types of cannon, as autocannon are the lowest-caliber pieces—has remained 20 mm, since World War II. M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ... Calibre redirects here. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... An 1865 Gatling gun. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ...

The GAU-8/A Avenger autocannon, mounted in an A-10 Thunderbolt II
The GAU-8/A Avenger autocannon, mounted in an A-10 Thunderbolt II

Most nations use these rapid-fire cannon on their light vehicles, replacing a more powerful, but heavier, tank gun. A typical autocannon is the 25 mm "Bushmaster" chain gun, mounted on the LAV-25 and M2 Bradley armored vehicles.[8] The GAU-8/A Avenger is a 30 mm, seven-barrel Gatling gun that is mounted on the United States Air Forces A-10 Thunderbolt II. It is the largest (it is the size and weight of a family saloon car (sedan)), heaviest and most powerful aircraft gun in... M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ... The A-10 Thunderbolt II is an American single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. ... A M1 Abrams firing. ... Crewman relinking 25 mm rounds The 25 mm caliber is a standard size of heavy machine gun (specifically autocannon) ammunition for NATO forces. ... M242 redirects here. ... The M242 25mm Chain gun A chain gun is a type of machine gun or autocannon that uses an external source of power, rather than recoil, to cycle the weapon. ... The LAV-25 is armed with the M242 25mm chain gun, and two M240 machine guns A United States Marine Corps LAV-25 LAV-25 is an eight-wheeled armored personnel carrier (APC) used by the United States Marine Corps built by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada, based on the... The M2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and M3 Bradley CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle) are American infantry fighting vehicles manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments, (formerly United Defense, originally FMC). ... An M2 Bradley Infantry fighting vehicle. ...


Autocannon have largely replaced machine guns in aircraft, due to their greater firepower.[7] The first airborne cannon appeared in World War II, but each airplane could carry only one or two, as cannon are heavier than machine guns, the standard armament. They were variously mounted, often in the wings, but also high on the forward fuselage, where they would fire through the propeller, or even through the propeller hub. Due both to the low number of cannon per aircraft, and the lower rate of fire of cannon, machine guns continued to be used widely early in the war, as there was a greater probability of hitting enemy aircraft.[7] However, as cannon were more effective against more heavily armored bomber aircraft, they were eventually integrated into newer fighters, which usually carried between two and four autocannon. The Hispano-Suiza HS.404, Oerlikon 20 mm cannon, MG FF, and their numerous variants became among the most widely used autocannon in the war. Nearly all modern fighter aircraft are armed with an autocannon, and most are derived from their counterparts from the Second World War.[7] The largest, heaviest, and most powerful airborne cannon used by the military of the United States is the GAU-8/A Avenger Gatling-type rotary cannon;[113] it is surpassed only by the specialized artillery pieces carried on the AC-130 gunship.[114] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... The Hispano-Suiza HS.404 20 mm autocannon was one of the most widely used aircraft weapons of the 20th century, used by British, American, French, and many other military services. ... The design of the Oerlikon 20mm cannon, by Reinhold Becker dates back to 1914, and is still in use today, after having been used extensively during the Second World War. ... The MG FF was a drum-fed 20 mm aircraft cannon developed in 1936 by Oerlikon and license-produced in Germany. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States. ... The GAU-8/A Avenger is a 30 mm, seven-barrel Gatling gun that is mounted on the United States Air Forces A-10 Thunderbolt II. It is the largest (it is the size and weight of a family saloon car (sedan)), heaviest and most powerful aircraft gun in... The AC-130 Gunship is an armed variant of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. ...


Although capable of generating a high volume of fire, autocannon are limited by the amount of ammunition that can be carried by the weapons systems mounting them. For this reason, both the 25 mm Bushmaster and the 30 mm RARDEN are deliberately designed with relatively slow rates of fire, to extend the amount of time they can be employed on a battlefield before requiring a resupply of ammunition. The rate of fire of modern autocannon ranges from 90 rounds per minute, to 1,800 rounds per minute. Systems with multiple barrels—Gatling guns—can have rates of fire of several thousand rounds per minute; the fastest of these is the GSh-6-30K, which has a rate of fire of over 6,000 rounds per minute.[112] The RARDEN cannon is a British 30 mm armoured vehicle weapon. ... The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-30 is a Russian 30mm cannon used by Soviet and later CIS military aircraft. ...


Operation

Main article: Cannon operation
Cannon operation as shown in the 1771 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Cannon operation as shown in the 1771 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica

In the 1770s, cannon operation worked as follows: each cannon would be manned by two gunners, six soldiers, and four officers of artillery. The right gunner was to prime the piece and load it with powder, and the left gunner would fetch the powder from the magazine and be ready to fire the cannon at the officer's command. On each side of the cannon, three soldiers stood, to ram and sponge the cannon, and hold the ladle. The second soldier on the left tasked with providing 50 bullets.[115] Cannon in a Civil War re-enactment: Large amounts of gunpowder often affected visibility, and gunners hoped for a strong wind. ... artillery gun crew From http://www. ... artillery gun crew From http://www. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...


Before loading, the cannon would be cleaned with a wet sponge to extinguish any smoldering material from the last shot. Fresh powder could be set off prematurely by lingering ignition sources. The powder was added, followed by wadding of paper or hay, and the ball was placed in and rammed down. After ramming the cannon would be aimed with the elevation set using a quadrant and a plummet. At 45 degrees, the ball had the utmost range: about ten times the gun's level range. Any angle above a horizontal line was called random-shot. Wet sponges were used to cool the pieces every ten or twelve rounds.[115] Wadding is used in guns to seal gas behind a projectile. ...

The parts of a cannon described in John Roberts' The Compleat Cannoniere, London, 1652
The parts of a cannon described in John Roberts' The Compleat Cannoniere, London, 1652

During the Napoleonic Wars, a British gun team consisted of five gunners to aim it, clean the bore with a damp sponge to quench any remaining embers before a fresh charge was introduced, and another to load the gun with a bag of powder and then the projectile. The fourth gunner pressed his thumb on the vent hole, to prevent a draught that might fan a flame. The charge loaded, the fourth would prick the bagged charge through the vent hole, and fill the vent with powder. On command, the fifth gunner would fire the piece with a slowmatch.[116] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 676 pixel, file size: 374 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cannon Cannon operation History of cannon... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 676 pixel, file size: 374 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cannon Cannon operation History of cannon... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...


In music

For musical purposes, cannon are generally only used in grand, theatrical pieces,—often those with a military theme—due to their impracticality. One of the best known examples of such a piece is Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture.[117] The overture is properly performed using an artillery section together with the orchestra, resulting in noise levels requiring musicians to wear ear protection.[118] The cannon fire simulates Russian artillery bombardments of the Battle of Borodino, a critical battle in Napoleon's invasion of Russia, whose defeat the piece celebrates.[118] When the overture was first performed, the cannon were fired by an electric current triggered by the conductor.[119] However, the overture was not recorded with real cannon fire until Mercury Records and conductor Antal Doráti's 1958 recording of the Minnesota Orchestra.[120] Cannon fire is also frequently used annually in presentations of the 1812 on the American Independence Day, a tradition started by Arthur Fiedler of the Boston Pops in 1974.[121][118] “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... The 1812 Overture (full title: Festival Overture The Year 1812 in E flat major, Op. ... Silicone rubber earplugs for protection against water, dust etc. ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mikhail Kutuzov Strength 82,400 infantry 26,700 cavalry 14,900 artillery troops with 587 guns[1] 72,000 infantry 17,300 cavalry 14,500 artillery troops with 637 guns[2] Casualties ~6,600 killed ~21,400 wounded [3] ~43,000... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... Mercury Records is a record label currently headquartered in the UK, and is a subsidiary of Universal Music Group. ... Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... Antal Doráti (April 9, 1906 – November 13, 1988) was a conductor and composer. ... The Minnesota Orchestra is an American orchestra that was founded in 1903 by Emil Oberhoffer as the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra. ... Fourth of July redirects here. ... Arthur Fiedler (December 17, 1894 – July 10, 1979) was the long-time conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, a symphony orchestra that specialized in popular music. ... The Boston Pops Orchestra was founded in 1885 as a subsection of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ...


The hard rock band AC/DC also used cannon in their song "For Those About to Rock (We Salute You)."[122] The album of the same name also featured a cannon on its cover.[123] In live shows, real cannon were used to perform the piece.[122] Hard Rock redirects here. ... This article is about the band. ... For Those About to Rock (We Salute You) is a song by the Australian hard rock band AC/DC. The song was released onto AC/DCs album with the same name in 1981. ... This article is about the album by AC/DC. For the title track, see For Those About to Rock (We Salute You). ...


Restoration

Cannon recovered from the sea are often extensively damaged from exposure to salt water; because of this, electrolytic reduction treatment is required to forestall the process of corrosion.[124] The cannon is then washed in deionized water to remove the electrolyte, and is treated in tannic acid, which prevents further rust and gives the metal a bluish-black color.[125][126] After this process, cannon on display may be protected from oxygen and moisture by a wax sealant. A coat of polyurethane may also be painted over the wax sealant, to prevent the wax-coated cannon from attracting dust in outdoor displays.[126] Extractive metallurgy is the practice of extracting metal from ore, purifying it, and recycling it. ... Purified water can come from any source, including spring water, well water, seawater, or municipal water. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... This is a bottle of tannic acid. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Definition and etymology of "cannon". Webster's Dictionary. Retrieved on 2008-02-23.
  2. ^ Etymology of "Cane". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2008-01-24.
  3. ^ Definition and etymology of "cane". Webster's Dictionary. Retrieved on 2008-02-23.
  4. ^ Definition of "Gun". Merriam-Webster's Dictionary. Retrieved on 2008-03-17.
  5. ^ Hogg, Ian V.; John H. Batchelor (1978). Naval Gun. Blandford Press. ISBN 0713709057. 
  6. ^ Baynes, Thomas S. (1888). The Encyclopaedia Britannica A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, volume 2, p. 667. Retrieved on 2008-03-21. 
  7. ^ a b c d Dr. Carlo Kopp. Aircraft cannon. Strike Publications. Retrieved on 2008-02-27.
  8. ^ a b Army Technology - Bradley M2/M3 - Tracked Armoured Fighting Vehicles. Army Technology.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-16.
  9. ^ Temple, Robert; Needham, Joseph. The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery and Invention. Prion Books, p. 242. ISBN 1-85375-292-4. 
  10. ^ Reymond, Arnold (1963). History of the Sciences in Greco-Roman Antiquity. Biblo & Tannen Publishers, p. 79. ISBN 0819601284. Retrieved on 2008-03-21. 
  11. ^ a b c Needham, Joseph (1987). {{{title}}}. Cambridge University Press, pp. 263–275. ISBN 0521303583. 
  12. ^ Crosby, Alfred W. (2002). Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge University Press, p. 99. ISBN 0521791588. 
  13. ^ a b Chase (2003). Firearms: A Global History to 1700. Cambridge University Press, p. 31–32. ISBN 0521822742. 
  14. ^ Gwei-Djen, Lu; Joseph Needham, Phan Chi-Hsing (July 1988). "The Oldest Representation of a Bombard". Technology and Culture 29 (3): 594–605. Johns Hopkins University Press. doi:10.2307/3105275. 
  15. ^ Harding, David (1990). Weapons: An International Encyclopedia from 5000 B.C. to 2000 A.D.. Diane Publishing Company, p. 111. ISBN 0756784360. 
  16. ^ Norris, John (2003). Early Gunpowder Artillery: 1300–1600. Marlborough: The Crowood Press, p. 11. ISBN 1861266154. 
  17. ^ Pacey, Arnold (1990). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-Year History. MIT Press, p. 47. ISBN 0262660725. 
  18. ^ Archer, Christon I. (2002). World History of Warfare. University of Nebraska Press, p. 211. ISBN 0803244231. Retrieved on 2008-03-21. 
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  24. ^ (1771) "Gunpowder", Encyclopedia Britannica. “frier Bacon, our countryman, mentions the compoſition in expreſs terms, in his treatiſe De nullitate magiæ, publiſhed at Oxford, in the year 1216.” ; Note the Long s.
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  35. ^ The six sizes are, in order from largest to smallest: the cannon, great culverin, bastard culverin, "legitimate" culverin, falcon, and falconet.
  36. ^ They are, from largest to smallest: the cannon royal, cannon, cannon serpentine, bastard cannon, demicannon, pedrero, culverin, basilisk, demiculverin, bastard culverin, saker, minion, falcon, falconet, serpentine, and rabinet.
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  48. ^ Tunis, p. 90.
  49. ^ Manucy, pp. 7–8.
  50. ^ Tunis, p. 96.
  51. ^ Manucy, p. 8.
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  63. ^ Carronade. The Historical Maritime Society. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
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Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bantam Books is a major U.S. publishing house owned by Random House and is part of the Bantam Dell Publishing Group. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is the common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, derived from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is the common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, derived from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is the common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, derived from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Avalanche Press is an American company that publishes board wargames and has published some role-playing game supplements. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... Mechanicsburg is a borough in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, USA, eight miles (13 km) west of Harrisburg. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... 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Cannon
Look up Cannon in
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  • Artillery Tactics and Combat during the Napoleonic Wars
  • Handgonnes and Matchlocks - History of firearms to 1500
  • U.S. Patent 5,236 Patent for a Casting ordnance
  • U.S. Patent 6,612 Cannon patent
  • U.S. Patent 13,851 Muzzle loading ordnance patent
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Cannon - Encyclopedia Article (824 words)
A cannon is a large, smooth-bored, muzzle-loading gun used before the advent of breech-loading, rifled guns firing explosive shellss.
The use of cannon was first recorded in the battles of the early 14th century, for instance, at the siege of Metz in 1324, and by the English against the Scots in 1327.
The military use of cannon declined in the mid-19th century as fabrication technology improved enough to enable the rifling of gun barrels (which in turn required the introduction of breech loading) and the use of the far more destructive explosive shells.
Cannon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1382 words)
Although a variety of such guns are commonly referred to as "cannon", the term specifically refers to a gun designed to fire a 42 lb shot as opposed to a "Demi-cannon" (32 lb), Culverin (18 lb) or Demi-culverin (9 lb).
Typical of the type is the 25 mm 'Bushmaster' cannon mounted on the LAV and Bradley armoured vehicles.
Cannon fire is used annually on the Fourth of July by the Boston Pops during their annual concert on the shores of the Charles River and by the National Symphony Orchestra during their annual concert on the steps of the US Capitol Building.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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